Composites Materials for Food Packaging

Composites Materials for Food Packaging

Insight to Modern Food Science 1. Aufl.

von: Giuseppe Cirillo, Marek A. Kozlowski, Umile Gianfranco Spizzirri

173,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Scrivener
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 04.05.2018
ISBN/EAN: 9781119160212
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 462

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The book is intended as an overview on the recent and more relevant developments in the application of composite materials for food packaging applications, emphasizing the scientific outcome arising from the physico-chemical properties of such engineered materials with the needs of food quality and safety. Consumers are increasingly conscious of the strong relationship between food quality and health, and thus the request of packaging materials allowing the quality and safety of foods to be highly preserved. As a result, scientists from both academia and industry work to increase the quality of the food storage, with this book meant as a link between scientific and industrial research, showing how the development in composite materials can impact the field. In the book, the inorganic materials employed for the preparation of composite material is extensively analyzed in terms of physico-chemical properties, environmental and reusability concerns, as well as food interaction features, highlighting the importance and the potential limitations of each approach.
Preface xv 1 Montmorillonite Composite Materials and Food Packaging 1Aris E. Giannakas and Areti A. Leontiou 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Polymer/MMT-Based Packaging Materials 6 1.2.1 Polyethylene(PE)/MMT-Based Packaging Materials 8 1.2.2 Polystyrene(PS)/MMT-Based Packaging Materials 11 1.2.3 Polypropylene (PP)/MMT-Based Composites for Food Packaging 13 1.2.4 Poly(ethylene)terephthalate(PET)/MMT-Based Packaging Materials 16 1.3 Biopolymers and Protein/MMT-Based Packaging Materials 18 1.3.1 Starch/MMT-Based Packaging Materials 19 1.3.2 Cellulose/MMT-Based Packaging Materials 25 1.3.3 Chitosan/MMT Composite Materials 29 1.3.4 PLA/MMT-Based Packaging Materials 34 1.3.5 Protein /MMT-Based Packaging Materials 37 1.4 Ag+-Cu2+-Zn2+/MMT-Based Composites Packaging Materials 39 1.4.1 Ag+/MMT-Based Packaging Materials 40 1.4.2 Cu2+/MMT-Based Packaging Materials 42 1.4.3 Fe2+/MMT-Based Composites 44 1.5 Metal Oxide/MMT-Based Packaging Materials 45 1.6 Natural Antioxidants/MMT Composite Materials for Food Packaging 49 1.7 Enzyme/MMT-Based Composites Packaging Materials 56 1.8 Conclusion 60 References 61 2 Halloysite Containing Composites for Food Packaging Applications 73Raluca Nicoleta Darie –Ni?? and Cornelia Vasile 2.1 Halloysite 74 2.1.1 Molecular and Crystalline Structure 74 2.1.2 Properties 77 2.1.3 Surface Modification of HAL 78 Modification of the External Surface 79 Modification by Click Chemistry 80 2.2 Nanocomposites Containing HAL 80 2.2.1 HAL Containing Non-Degradable Synthetic Polymeric Nanocomposites for Food Packaging Applications 81 Processing Strategies 81 Polyolefins/HNTs Nanocomposites 83 Polystyrene/HNTs Nanocomposites 94 Polyamide/HNTs Nanocomposites 95 PET/HNTs Nanocomposites 97 Elastomers(Rubbers)/HNTs Nanocomposites 97 Epoxy/HNTs Nanocomposites 98 2.2.2 HAL-Containing Degradable Polymeric Bionanocomposites for Food Packaging 98 Preparation of HNT-Containing Degradable Nanocomposites 99 Properties of HNT-Containing Degradable Nanocomposites 101 Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVOH)/HNT 101 Polyalkanoates/HNT Nanocomposites 106 PLA/Halloysite Biocomposites 106 Polysaccharide-HNT Composites 107 Lignocellulose/Wood Fibers/HAL Clay Composites 109 Polysaccharides/HAL Clay Composites 110 Proteins/HNT Biocomposites 111 Natural Rubber/HNTs Composites 111 2.3 Conclusion 112 References 112 3 Silver Composite Materials and Food Packaging 123Amalia I. Cano, Amparo Chiralt and Chelo González-Martínez 3.1 Silver and Silver Compounds as Active Agents 124 3.1.1 History and Background 124 3.1.2 Chemical Species of Silver 125 3.1.3 Silver in Polymeric Matrices for Food Packaging Purposes 130 Different Methodologies to Incorporate Silver and Silver Species into Packaging Materials 130 Functional Characterization of Silver-Enriched Packaging Materials 131 3.1.4 Current Legislation Applied to Silver Composite Materials Used for Food Packaging 144 3.2 Conclusions 144 References 145 4 Zinc Composite Materials and Food Packaging 153R. Venkatesan, T. Thendral Thiyagu and N. Rajeswari 4.1 Introduction 153 4.2 Food Packaging 154 4.3 Polymers in Food Packaging 154 4.4 Nanotechnology 156 4.5 Nano-Fillers 156 4.6 Classification of Nano-fillers 157 4.7 ZnO Nanoparticles 157 4.7.1 Advantages of ZnO Nanoparticles 157 4.7.2 Limitations of ZnO Nanoparticles 158 4.8 Composites 159 4.8.1 Classification of Composites 159 Metal Matrix Composites 159 Ceramic Matrix Composites 159 Polymer Matrix Composites 159 4.8.2 Components of Composites 159 Matrix 159 Fillers 160 Nanocomposites 160 4.8.3 Preparation of Nanocomposites 161 Solution Casting 161 In Situ Polymerization 162 Melt Extrusion 162 4.8.4 Properties of Nanocomposites 163 Mechanical Properties 163 Thermal Properties 163 Barrier Properties 163 Antimicrobial Properties 164 4.8.5 Applications of Nanocomposites 164 4.8.6 ZnO-Based Composites in Food Packaging 164 Preparation of ZnO Composites 166 Morphology of the ZnO Composites 167 Mechanical Properties of ZnO Composites 167 Barrier Properties of ZnO Composites 169 4.9 Conclusions 171 References 172 5 Silicium-Based Nanocomposite Materials for Food Packaging Applications 175Tanja Radusin, Ivan Risti?, Branka Pili?, Donatella Duraccio and Aleksandra Novakovi? 5.1 Introduction 176 5.2 Nanosilica/Polymer Composites 178 5.2.1 Composite Preparation 179 Blending 179 Sol–Gel Process 181 In Situ Polymerization 181 5.3 Characterization of Polymer/Nancomposites 181 5.3.1 Morphology 182 5.3.2 Physical–Chemical Properties 184 Thermal Properties 184 Mechanical Properties 186 Crystallization of Polymer/Silica Nanocomposites 187 5.3.3 Barrier Properties 195 5.3.4 Optical Properties 196 5.3.5 Antimicrobial Properties 196 5.4 Conclusion 198 References 198 6 Nanoiron-Based Composite Oxygen Scavengers for Food Packaging 209Zenon Foltynowicz 6.1 Introduction 210 6.1.1 The Effect of Oxygen on Packed Products 210 6.1.2 The Need of Oxygen Scavengers 211 6.2 Characteristics of Oxygen Scavengers 212 6.2.1 Types and Classification of Oxygen Absorbers 212 6.2.2 Iron-Based Oxygen Scavengers 213 6.2.3 The Factors Influences the Efficiency of Iron-Based Oxygen Scavengers 214 6.3 Nanomaterials and Nanoiron 216 6.3.1 Nanomaterials Property 216 6.3.2 Nanoiron Property 216 6.3.3 Nanoiron Preparation 217 6.4 Nanoiron-Based Composite Oxygen Scavengers 219 6.4.1 Why Nanoiron? 219 6.4.2 Nanoiron with Specific Properties 221 6.4.3 Composite Oxygen Scavengers Based on Nanoiron 223 6.4.4 Safety of the Use of Composite Oxygen Scavengers Based on Nanoiron 226 References 227 7 Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) Composite Materials and Food Packaging 235Dan Xu 7.1 Introductions on Carbon Nanotubes 236 7.2 Polymer/CNTs Composite Materials 236 7.2.1 Modification of CNTs 237 7.2.2 Fabrication Method 238 7.2.3 Properties 238 7.3 Safety Issues of CNTs and Polymer/CNTs Composites 243 7.3.1 Toxicity of CNTs 243 7.3.2 Migration of CNTs from Polymer/CNTs Composites 243 7.4 Outlook 244 References 244 8 Polymer/Graphene Nanocomposites for Food Packaging 251Steven Merritt, Chaoying Wan, Barbara Shollock, Samson Patole and David M. Haddleton 8.1 Polymers for Food Packaging 251 8.2 Polymers for Steel Can Packaging 252 8.3 Water Permeation and Anticorrosion of Polymer Coatings 253 8.4 Polymer–Food Interactions 255 8.5 Polymer/Clay Nanocomposites 255 8.6 Polymer/Graphene Nanocomposites 257 8.6.1 Graphene and its Derivatives for Food Packaging 257 8.6.2 Biodegradable Polymer/Graphene Nanocomposites 259 8.6.3 Synthetic Polymer/Graphene Nanocomposites 262 8.7 Summary and Outlook 263 References 264 9 Biodegradability and Compostability of Food Nanopackaging Materials 269Tomy J. Gutiérrez 9.1 Introduction 269 9.2 Biodegradability and Compostability 270 9.3 Biodegradability and Compostability of Food Nanopackaging Materials 274 9.3.1 Biodegradability and Compostability of Food Nanopackaging Made from Biopolymers 276 9.3.2 Biodegradability and Compostability of Food Nanopackaging Made from Nanoclays 277 9.3.3 Biodegradability and Compostability of Food Nanopackaging Made from Bionanocomposites 279 Biodegradability and Compostability of Food Nanopackaging Made from Bionanocomposites – Biopolymers/Nanoclays 281 Biodegradability and Compostability of Food Nanopackaging Made from Bionanocomposites – Biopolymer/Nanocellulosic Materials 287 9.4 Conclusion 288 Conflicts of Interest 290 Acknowledgments 290 References 290 10 Nanocellulose in Food Packaging 297Paula Criado, Farah M. J. Hossain, Stéphane Salmieri and Monique Lacroix 10.1 Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Biopolymeric Films/Coatings Containing Cellulose Nanostructures 298 10.1.1 Biopolymeric Films Containing CNCs 298 10.1.2 Bioactive Films Containing CNFs 305 10.1.3 Nanostructured Bio-Based Bacterial Cellulose (BC)-Containing Films 306 10.2 Physicochemical Properties of Bio-Nanocomposites Materials Reinforced with CNC 307 10.3 Enhancement of the Mechanical Properties of Polymers with CNC 308 10.4 Enhancement of the Barrier Properties of Polymers with CNC 309 10.5 Research Works on CNC as Biodegradable Reinforcement and Barrier Component 310 10.5.1 Grafting of Cellulose Nanocrystals for Food Packaging 312 10.5.2 TEMPO-Mediated Oxidation of Nanocellulose 312 10.5.3 Functionalization of Nanocellulose via TEMPO-Mediated Oxidation 313 10.5.4 Cationization of Nanocellulose with Antimicrobial Purposes 314 10.5.5 Esterification 316 10.5.6 Non-Covalent Surface Chemical Modification 317 10.5.7 Polymerization of Bioactive Compounds onto Nanocellulose Surface 318 10.6 Conclusion 319 References 320 11 Nanocellulose in Combination with Inorganic/Organic Biocides for Food Film Packaging Applications –Safety Issues Review 331Kelsey L O’Donnell, Gloria S. Oporto and Noelle Comolli 11.1 Introduction 332 11.1.1 Typical Polymers and Processes Used to Prepare Flexible Films in the Packaging Industry 332 11.1.2 Current Organic and Inorganic Antimicrobial Materials (Biocides) Used in Packaging and Correlating Processing Conditions 334 11.1.3 Release of Active Components (Biocides) From Packaging Films – Tentative Mechanisms 336 11.2 Nanocellulose in Flexible Film Food Packaging 336 11.2.1 Current Forms of Cellulose Used in Packaging 336 11.2.2 Nanocellulose in Flexible Film Food Packaging 337 11.2.3 Nanocellulose in Combination with Organic and Inorganic Antimicrobial Materials 339 11.2.4 Nanocelulose in Combination with Copper and Benzalkounium Chloride – West Virginia University (WVU) Preliminary Results 341 Nanocellulose - Copper/Zinc: Synergistic Effect (Preliminary Experiments) 342 Nanocellulose - Benzalkonium Chloride (BZK) (Preliminary Experiments) 342 11.3 Health and Environmental Toxicity Evaluations of Active Antimicrobial Packaging 343 11.3.1 General Toxic Evaluations on Packaging Materials (In Vivo, In Vitro Testing) – the United States 344 11.3.2 General Toxic Evaluations on Packaging Materials (In Vivo, In Vitro Testing) – Europe 345 11.3.3 Specific Toxic Evaluation on Cellulosic and Nanocellulosic Materials 348 References 350 12 Composite Materials Based on PLA and its Applications in Food Packaging 355Jesús R. Rodríguez-Núñez, Tomás J. Madera-Santana, Heidy Burrola-Núñez and Efrén G. Martínez-Encinas 12.1 Introduction 356 12.2 Synthesis of Polylactic Acid 356 12.3 Reinforcing Agents 359 12.3.1 Natural Fibers and Fillers 360 12.3.2 Synthetic Fibers and Fillers 366 12.4 Surface Modification of Fibers and Fillers 366 12.4.1 Physical Methods (Corona, Plasma, Irradiation Treatments) 367 12.4.2 Chemical Methods (Alkaline, Acetylation, Maleation, Silane, Enzymatic Treatment) 368 12.5 Nanostructures in the PLA Matrix 370 12.6 Processing Techniques 371 12.6.1 Processing Technologies of PLA Composites 372 Compression Molding 372 Extrusion 374 Injection Molding 375 Extrusion or Injection Blow Molding 377 Calendering, Cast Film, and Sheet 378 Thermoforming 379 Foaming PLA 379 12.7 Properties Related to Packaging Applications 381 12.7.1 Physical Properties 382 12.7.2 Mechanical Properties 384 12.7.3 Thermal Properties 385 12.7.4 Functional Properties 387 12.8 Recyclability of PLA 388 12.9 Biodegradation of PLA 389 12.10 Future Tendencies 390 References 391 13 Nanomaterial Migration from Composites into Food Matrices 401Victor Gomes Lauriano Souza, Regiane Ribeiro-Santos, Patricia Freitas Rodrigues, Caio Gomide Otoni, Maria Paula Duarte, Isabel M. Coelhoso and Ana Luisa Fernando 13.1 Introduction 402 13.2 Nanotechnology in the Food Industry 403 13.2.1 Nanoparticle Characterization Techniques 403 13.2.2 Nanoparticle Characterization in Food Matrices 406 13.2.3 Nanomaterial Migration from Composites into Food Matrices: Case Studies 407 13.3 Nanoparticle Toxicology 413 13.3.1 Toxicological Tests 415 13.3.2 Toxicological Studies of ENMs Used in the Food Packaging Industry 417 13.3.3 Ecotoxicology of ENMs 419 13.4 Migration Assays and Current Legislation 420 13.4.1 Food Contact Nanomaterials 424 13.5 Conclusion 426 Acknowledgments 427 References 427 Index 437
Giuseppe Cirillo received his PhD in 2008 from the University of Calabria Italy where he is currently in a post-doctoral position. His research interests are in the development of functional polymers with tailored biological activity (antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, chelating), the design of smart hydrogels for drug delivery, the study of the activity of innovative functional foods and nutraceuticals, and the synthesis and functionalization of carbon nanotubes-based devices for biomedical applications. He is the author and co-author of more than 100 publications, including four edited books with Wiley-Scrivener. Marek A. Kozlowski has 47 years' experience in polymer chemistry and technology and is Professor Emeritus from Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland. He is the author of 360 papers and patents, holder of several national and international prizes and honours and is a member of IUPAC WP 4.1. His research interests include polymer blends and composites of pre-designed properties, in particular the interrelations between structure, processing and properties of multiphase systems. He is an Expert of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization and evaluator of proposals submitted to the European Community R&D Programs. Umile Gianfranco Spizzirri obtained his PhD in 2005 from the University of Calabria. He is currently a member of the Technical Staff at the Department of Pharmacy, Nutrition and Health Science of the same university. His research activities are mainly related to the polymer chemistry and technology for the preparation of stimuli-responsive drug delivery system, functional polymers for food industry, and new analytical methodologies for the food quality and safety assessment. He is the author and co-author of more than 100 publications, including three edited books with Wiley-Scrivener.
The novel insights, as well as the main drawbacks of each engineered composites material is extensively evaluated taking into account the strong relationship between packaging materials, environmental and reusability concerns, food quality, and nutritional value. Composites, by matching the properties of different components, allow the development of innovative and performing strategies for intelligent food packaging, thus overcoming the limitations of using only a single material. The book starts with the description of montmorillonite and halloysite composites, subsequently moving to metal-based materials with special emphasis on silver, zinc, silicium and iron. After the discussion about how the biological influences of such materials can affect the performance of packaging, the investigation of superior properties of sp2 carbon nanostructures is reported. Here, carbon nanotubes and graphene are described as starting points for the preparation of highly engineered composites able to promote the enhancement of shelf-life by virtue of their mechanical and electrical features. Finally, in the effort to find innovative composites, the applicability of biodegradable materials from both natural (e.g. cellulose) and synthetic (e.g. polylactic acid – PLA) origins, with the aim to prove that polymer-based materials can overcome some key limitations such as environmental impact and waste disposal. Audience The book will interest researchers in academia and industry in food science/safety, pharmaceutical and biomedical fields, materials science, especially those specializing in composites and biomaterials, polymer science, plastics engineering and nanotechnology.

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