Details

Complex Biological Systems


Complex Biological Systems

Adaptation and Tolerance to Extreme Environments
1. Aufl.

von: Irina R. Fomina, Karl Y. Biel, Vladislav G. Soukhovolsky

188,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 16.10.2018
ISBN/EAN: 9781119510338
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 606

DRM-geschütztes eBook, Sie benötigen z.B. Adobe Digital Editions und eine Adobe ID zum Lesen.

Beschreibungen

Global climate change is one of the most serious and pressing issues facing our planet.  Rather than a “silver bullet” or a single study that solves it, the study of global climate change is like a beach, with each contribution a grain of sand, gathered together as a whole to create a big picture, moving the science forward.  This new groundbreaking study focuses on the adaptation and tolerance of plants and animal life to the harsh conditions brought on by climate change or global warming.  Using the papers collected here, scientists can better understand global climate change, its causes, results, and, ultimately, the future of life on our planet. The first section lays out a methodology and conceptual direction of the work as a whole, covering the modeling, approaches, and the impacts studied throughout the book.  The second section focuses on certain hypotheses laid out by the authors regarding how plants and animal life can adapt and survive in extreme environments.  The third section compiles a series of ecological experiments and their conclusions, and a final section is dedicated to previous scientific breakthroughs in this field and the scientists who made them. Whether for the scientist in the field, the student, or as a reference, this groundbreaking new work is a must-have. Focusing on a small part of the global climate change “beach,” this “grain of sand” is an extremely important contribution to the scientific literature and a step forward in understanding the problems and potentialities of the issue.
Preface xvii Abstract xix Contributing Authors xxi Modeling and Approaches 1 1 Critical Impacts on Complex Biological and Ecological Systems: Basic Principles of Modeling 3Rem G. Khlebopros, Vladislav G. Soukhovolsky 1.1 Complex Ecological Systems: The Principle of Decomposition, Taking into Account the Characteristic Times of Components 5 1.2 Analysis of Critical Impacts on Complex Systems and Extreme Principles of Modeling 12 1.2.1 Meta-Models of Phase Transitions for Describing Critical Events in Complex Systems 13 1.2.2 A Model of Outbreak as Second-Order Phase Transition 14 1.2.3 The Effect of Modifying Factors on the Development of an Outbreak 21 1.2.4 The Impact of Chemical Compounds on Biological Objects 23 References 26 2 Criticality Concept and Some Principles for Sustainability in Closed Biological Systems and Biospheres 29Nicholas P. Yensen, Karl Y. Biel 2.1 Introduction 31 2.2 History of Manmade Closed Ecosystems 32 2.3 Classification of Closed Biological Systems 33 2.3.1 Terminology 33 2.3.2 Micro Systems 35 2.3.3 Macro Systems 37 2.3.4 The Term Biosphere 39 2.3.5 Noosphere 40 2.4 The Concept of Criticality 40 2.4.1 The Volume-Criticality Principle 42 2.5 Microbiospheres: Descriptions and Discussion 44 2.5.1 The Ecosphere, a Synthetic Microbiosphere 44 2.6 Bioboxes 45 2.7 Experimental vs. Mathematical Models 45 2.7.1 Retrograde Phylogenetic Extinction 46 2.8 Humanospheres: Examples and Discussion 46 2.8.1 Biotubes 47 2.8.2 Shepelev, BIOS 1, 2, and 3 49 2.8.3 Biosphere 2 Laboratory 51 2.8.4 Closed System Missions 52 2.8.5 Open System Missions 53 2.8.6 The End of Biosphere 2 Laboratory or a New Era for Biosphere 2 Laboratory? 54 2.9 The Earth (Biosphere 1) Description and Discussion 55 2.9.1 Earth, a Sample Size of One 55 2.9.2 Biosphere 1 Properties 55 2.10 Oxygen Flux in Closed Systems 59 2.11 The Future of Closed System Work: Concepts and Strategies 61 2.11.1 Education, Research and Consortium Concepts 61 2.11.2 Ecosystems for Space 62 2.11.3 Closed System Challenges 63 2.12 General Conclusions 63 Abbreviations 64 Literature Cited and Used 64 Appendix I. A Description of Biosphere 2 Laboratory 70 3 Accelerated Method for Measuring and Predicting Plants’ Stress Tolerance 73Karl Y. Biel, John N. Nishio 3.1 Introduction 75 3.2 Background 75 3.2.1 Interaction between Anabolism and Catabolism 76 3.2.2 Cooperation between Photosynthesis and Respiration under Stress 78 3.3 How Is Stress Tolerance Measured? 79 3.3.1 Testing Possible Artifacts of the Stress Test 81 3.3.2 Effect of Temperature and Chemical Additions on the Oxygen Evolution Stress Assay 84 3.4 Practical Applications 88 3.4.1 Whole Leaf Physiological Responses 90 3.4.2 Effect of Dark and Sodium Nitrate on the Photosynthetic Stress Resistance Index and Photosynthesis in Leaf Slices under Anoxic Conditions 97 3.4.3 Post-Illumination Respiration 98 3.5 Discussion 98 3.6 Perspectives for Application of Method 107 Acknowledgments 109 Abbreviations 110 References 110 Appendix I. Additional Materials and Methods 117 Appendix II. Preliminary Analysis of the Utility of a Novel Stress Resistance Assay on Three Garst Lines of Zea mays, a C4 Plant 118 Results 119 General Conclusion 122 Suggestions 122 Hypotheses 123 4 The Hypotheses of Halosynthesis, Photoprotection, Soil Remediation via Salt-Conduction, and Potential Medical Benefits 125Karl Y. Biel, Nicholas P. Yensen 4.1 Introduction 127 4.2 The Haloconductor Theory 128 4.2.1 The Remediation of Saline Soils 128 4.2.2 New Approach for Soil Remediation via Salt Conducting Plants 130 4.2.3 Advantages of Conductor Plants for Soil Remediation 133 4.2.4 Productivity Considerations 134 4.2.5 Intriguing Productivity Curves in a Clonal Conductor Plant 136 4.3 The Halosynthesis Hypothesis 138 4.3.1 Concept Description and Terminology 139 4.3.2 Hydraulic Considerations and Salt Gradient from Soil to Shoot Surface 140 4.3.3 Salt Glands and Evapotranspirational Halosynthesis 143 4.3.4 The Photoelectric Effect 144 4.3.5 Epidermal Electro-Halosynthesis 144 4.3.6 Salt-Gland Electro-Halosynthesis 144 4.4 Physico- and Bio-Chemical Protection Synergisms 148 4.4.1 Biochemical Protection against Oxygen Radicals 151 4.5 A Case Study, Distichlis 153 4.5.1 Ecophysiology 153 4.5.2 Taxonomy and Geographic Distribution 153 4.5.3 Root-Soil Restructuring Capacity 154 4.5.4 Salt Tolerance 155 4.5.5 Photosynthesis 155 4.5.6 Ammonia Nutrition as a Protector against Salinity 157 4.5.7 Soil Salt Removal and Benefits to Changes in Soil Properties 158 4.6 Potential Medical Benefit of Photo-Halosynthesis 159 4.7 Predictions and Potential Tests of Hypotheses 163 4.7.1 Salt Conduction 163 4.7.2 Halodispersion 165 4.7.3 Metabolism 166 4.7.4 Protection 166 4.7.5 Halosynthesis 166 4.8 General Conclusions 167 Acknowledgments 167 References 167 5 Protective Role of Silicon in Living Organisms 175Vladimir V. Matichenkov, Irina R. Fomina, Karl Y. Biel 5.1 Introduction 176 5.1.1 Agriculture 176 5.1.2 Medicine 177 5.1.3 Microorganisms and Plants 177 5.2 Forms of Silicon 179 5.3 Silicon Cycle in Soil–Plant System 182 5.4 Silicon and Flora 183 5.4.1 Localization of Silicon in Plants 184 5.4.2 Forms of Silicon in Plants 187 5.4.3 Silicon and Water Storage in Plants 188 5.5 Silicon and Plants’ Resistance to Extreme Environments 189 5.6 Silicon as Matrix for Organic Compounds Synthesis 191 5.6.1 Hypothesis on Silicon Participation in Protection of Living Organisms under Stress Conditions 192 5.6.1.1 Premises of Hypothesis 192 5.6.1.2 Hypothesis 195 5.7 New Technologies 197 5.8 General Conclusion 198 Acknowledgments 199 References 199 6 Methanol as Example of Volatile Mediators Providing Plants’ Stress Tolerance 209Karl Y. Biel, Irina R. Fomina 6.1 Introduction 211 6.2 Methanol Application for the Regulation of Productivity 212 6.3 Emission of Methanol from Plants 213 6.3.1 Factors Affecting the Methanol Emission 214 6.3.2 Methanol Sources in Plants 216 6.3.3 Pectin Methylesterases 216 6.3.4 Utilization of Methanol by Plants 218 6.3.5 Ethanol-Water-Soluble Fraction in Different Parts of Plants 219 6.3.6 Ethanol-Water-Insoluble Fractions in Plants 222 6.3.7 DNA Methylation in Plants 223 6.4 Hypothesis of Methanol Influence on Different Levels of Cell Metabolism in C3 Plants 226 6.5 Conclusion 231 Acknowledgments 231 Abbreviations 232 References 232 Experiments 249 7 Patterns of Carbon Metabolism within Leaves 251Karl Y. Biel, Irina R. Fomina, Galina N. Nazarova, Vladislav G. Soukhovolsky, Rem G. Khlebopros, John N. Nishio 7.1 Introduction 253 7.2 Interactions among Light, Leaf Anatomy, the Metabolic Activity, and Environmental Stress Tolerance across Leaves 253 7.2.1 Anatomy and Pattern of Enzymes within the Leaf of Spinacia oleracea 255 7.2.1.1 Leaf Anatomy 255 7.2.1.2 What Are the Roles of the Different Cells? 259 7.2.2 Enzyme Activity 263 7.2.2.1 How Does Inverting the Leaves Alter the Distribution of Enzyme Activity within Spinacia oleracea Leaf? 263 7.2.2.2 Summary of Enzyme Activity across Leaves 267 7.2.2.3 Functional Significance to Profiles of Enzyme Activity across Spinacia oleracea Leaves 268 7.2.3 CO2/O2 Gas Exchange 271 7.2.3.1 CO2 Gas Exchange 271 7.2.3.2 HCO3 – -Dependent Oxygen Evolution 274 7.2.4 Enzyme Activity, Carbon Metabolism, and Stress Tolerance across Spinacia oleracea Leaves 276 7.2.5 Light Regulation of Photosynthetic Enzyme Activity across Leaves 281 7.3 Model of Optimal Photosynthesis within a Mesophytic Leaf 282 7.4 General Conclusion 287 Acknowledgments 288 References 288 8 4-Hydroxyphenethyl Alcohol and Dihydroquercetin Increase Adaptive Potential of Barley Plants under Soil Flooding Conditions 301Tamara I. Balakhnina 8.1 Introduction 302 8.1.1 Effect of Soil Flooding on Plants 302 8.2 Effect of 4-Hydroxyphenethyl Alcohol on Growth and Adaptive Potential of Barley Plants at Optimal Soil Watering and Flooding 304 8.2.1 Plant Reactions 304 8.2.1.1 Seed Germination 304 8.2.1.2 Plant Growth 305 8.2.1.3 Lipid Peroxidation Intensity 308 8.2.1.4 Guaiacol Peroxidase Activity 309 8.2.1.5 Discussion 311 8.3 Dihydroquercetin Protects Barley Seeds against Mold and Increases Seedling Adaptive Potential Under Soil Flooding 313 8.3.1 Plant Reactions 313 8.3.1.1 Seed Germination 313 8.3.1.2 Growth Parameters 313 8.3.1.3 Intensity of Lipid Peroxidation 316 8.3.1.4 Activity of Ascorbate Peroxidase 318 8.3.1.5 Discussion 320 Acknowledgments 322 Abbreviations 322 References 323 9 Cooperation of Photosynthetic and Nitrogen Metabolisms 329Anatoly A. Ivanov, Anatoly A. Kosobryukhov 9.1 Introduction 331 9.2 Carbon Uptake and Rubisco 332 9.2.1 Dependence of Carbon Assimilation on Nitrogen Supply 334 9.3 Alternative Electron Acceptors in Photosynthesis 336 9.4 Nitrogen Metabolism 337 9.4.1 Primary Assimilation of Inorganic Nitrogen 337 9.4.1.1 Nitrate Reductase 339 9.4.1.2 Ferredoxin-Dependent Nitrite Reductase 342 9.4.1.3 Glutamine Synthetase/Glutamate Synthase (GS/GOGAT) Cycle 343 9.4.1.4 Glutamate Dehydrogenase 346 9.4.2 Relationship of Photorespiration and Nitrogen Metabolism 346 9.5 Relationship of Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism in Stress Conditions 349 9.5.1 High CO2 Concentration in the Atmosphere 349 9.5.1.1 Plants’ Growth 349 9.5.1.2 Rubisco Content 350 9.5.1.3 Photosynthetic Acclimation 351 9.5.1.4 Photosynthesis and Nitrogen Content 353 9.5.1.5 Metabolic Changes 355 9.5.2 Low CO2 Concentration in the Atmosphere 360 9.5.3 Water Stress 368 9.5.3.1 Osmotic Homeostasis 368 9.5.3.2 Variability of Plant Response to Drought 369 9.5.3.3 Reactive Oxygen Species 370 9.5.3.4 Metabolic Changes 371 9.5.3.5 Stomata Conductivity and Rubisco Activity 371 9.5.3.6 Enzymes of Nitrogen Metabolism 373 9.5.3.7 Sucrose-Phosphate Synthase 375 9.5.3.8 Increased Plant Resistance to Drought by Nitrogen Supply 376 9.5.4 Salt Stress 377 9.5.4.1 Assimilation of Nitrogen in Salinity Conditions 378 9.5.4.2 Isocitrate Dehydrogenase and Fd-GOGAT 379 9.5.4.3 Proline Accumulation 380 9.5.4.4 Photosynthesis, Photorespiration and Reactive Oxygen Species 380 9.6 Conclusion 381 Abbreviations 382 References 382 10 Physiological Parameters of Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus in the Barents Sea during a Tidal Cycle 439Inna V. Ryzhik, Anatoly A. Kosobryukhov, Evgeniya F. Markovskaya, Mikhail V. Makarov 10.1 Introduction 441 10.2 Materials and Methods 442 10.3 Results 444 10.3.1 Water Content in Algal Thalli 444 10.3.2 The Rate of Photosynthesis 445 10.3.3 Photosynthetic Pigments: Content and Proportion 445 10.3.4 Dependence of the Photosynthetic Rate on the Water Content in the Thallus 446 10.3.5 Potential Rate of Photosynthesis of Fucus vesiculosus 446 10.3.6 Lipid Peroxidation and Catalase Activities in Fucus vesiculosus 448 10.4 Discussion 449 Abbreviations 455 References 455 History and Biography – Tribute 46111 Benson’s Protocol 463Arthur M. Nonomura, Karl Y. Biel, Irina R. Fomina, Wai-Ki “Frankie” Lam, Daniel P. Brummel, Allison Lauria, Michael S. McBride 11.1 Introduction 465 11.2 Benson–Bassham–Calvin and Lectin Cycles 468 11.3 Types of Photosynthetic Carbon Metabolism in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes 471 11.4 Regulation of Photosynthates 471 11.5 The Origin and Development of the Carbon Reactions of Photosynthesis 472 11.6 The Next Steps 473 11.6.1 Materials and Methods 474 11.6.2 Results 480 11.6.3 Conclusion 498 11.7 Felicitation 499 References 502 12 Recollection of Yuri S. Karpilov’s Scientific and Social Life 509Karl Y. Biel, Irina R. Fomina 12.1 Introduction 510 12.2 Some Contradictory Discoveries 510 12.3 Official Statement of a Young Scientist in the USSR and His Deed 511 12.4 From the Memories, by Karl Biel 515 12.5 Australian Scientist Professor Barry Osmond Visited Karpilov’s Laboratory in 1971 525 12.6 Moving from Tiraspol to Pushchino, Moscow Region, to the Institute of Photosynthesis of the USSR Academy of Sciences 527 12.7 International Botanical Congress… 530 12.8 And after That, Soon… Unexpected Tragedy 530 12.9 Short Biography of Yuri S. Karpilov 533 Acknowledgments 534 Abbreviations 534 References 534 13 Dr. Nicholas Yensen’s Curriculum Vitae 543Karl Y. Biel, Irina R. Fomina 13.1 Introduction 544 13.2 Biographical Note about Dr. Nicholas Patrick Yensen 545 13.2.1 Education 545 13.2.2 Teaching Experience 545 13.2.3 Founder and Leader of Scientific Organizations 546 13.2.4 Member of Board of Directors, Consultant, and Chairman 546 13.2.5 Languages 547 13.2.6 Oratorical Talent 547 13.2.7 Dr. Yensen’s International Teamwork, Expeditions and Visitations 547 13.2.8 Distinctions 549 13.2.9 Articles, Videos and Documentaries about Dr. Yensen’s Work 549 13.2.10 Skill and Avocation 550 13.3 Conclusion 550 13.4 Addendum 552 Acknowledgements 552 Publications (selected) 553 14 Rem Khlebopros: Life in Science 557Vladislav G. Soukhovolsky, Irina R. Fomina 14.1 Introduction 558 14.2 Life in Science 559 14.3 Selected Scientific Publications and Speeches by Rem G. Khlebopros 566 14.3.1 Video-Interviews about Ecology in Krasnoyarsk 566 14.3.2 Books 566 14.3.3 Articles 567 Acknowledgments 571 Index 573
Irina R. Fomina, PhD, is a Leading Researcher of Ecology and Physiology with the Russian Academy of Sciences, an assistant professor at the Lomonosov Moscow State University, and Vice President of Education at Biosphere Systems International Foundation in Tucson, Arizona. Dr. Fomina has done extensive research in the field of plants??? tolerance to global climate change and has published a monograph and dozens of articles and chapters in peer-reviewed journals and books. Karl Y. Biel, PhD, Dr. Sci., Professor, is a Leading Researcher of Ecology and Physiology with the Russian Academy of Sciences and President of Education at Biosphere Systems International Foundation in Tucson, Arizone. Professor Biel has over 20 years of experience in the USA conducting research at UCLA, the University of Wyoming, and Columbia University. He has participated in many international terrestrial, aquatic and marine expeditions, and, during his scientific career, he has published several books and over 300 articles in peer-reviewed journals. Vladislav G. Soukhovolsky, PhD, Dr. Sci., Professor, is a Leading Researcher at the Russian Academy of Sciences and a professor in the Department of Ecology at the Siberian Federal University in Russia. Dr. Soukhovolsky is an editorial board member of the journals, Lesovedenye (Russian Forest Science) and Conifers of Boreal Zone. During his scientific career he published more than 20 books and over 400 articles in peer-reviewed journals.
Written and edited by some of the most well-respected authors in the area of the adaptation of plants and animals to climate change, this groundbreaking new work is an extremely important scientific contribution to the study of global warming. Global climate change is one of the most serious and pressing issues facing our planet. Rather than a "silver bullet" or a single study that solves it, the study of global climate change is like a beach, with each contribution a grain of sand, gathered together as a whole to create a big picture, moving the science forward. This new groundbreaking study focuses on the adaptation and tolerance of plants and animal life to the harsh conditions brought on by climate change or global warming. Using the papers collected here, scientists can better understand global climate change, its causes, results, and, ultimately, the future of life on our planet. The first section lays out a methodology and conceptual direction of the work as a whole, covering the modeling, approaches, and the impacts studied throughout the book. The second section focuses on certain hypotheses laid out by the authors regarding how plants and animal life can adapt and survive in extreme environments. The third section compiles a series of ecological experiments and their conclusions, and a final section is dedicated to previous scientific breakthroughs in this field and the scientists who made them. Whether for the scientist in the field, the student, or as a reference, this groundbreaking new work is a must-have. Focusing on a small part of the global climate change "beach," this "grain of sand" is an extremely important contribution to the scientific literature and a step forward in understanding the problems and potentialities of the issue. This breakthrough new volume: Introduces a novel and unique approach for understanding critical problems of closed and semi-closed biological systems Explores adaptation to normal and extreme conditions by plants and the role of photosynthesis and other physiological processes in the activities of the plant itself, in communities, through ecosystems and in agriculture Contains a special section on previous scientific breakthroughs and their impact on the scientific community Provides cutting-edge research not available anywhere else in book format

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