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Chemistry of Environmental Systems


Chemistry of Environmental Systems

Fundamental Principles and Analytical Methods
1. Aufl.

von: Jeffrey S. Gaffney, Nancy A. Marley

81,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 12.09.2019
ISBN/EAN: 9781119313588
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 576

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Beschreibungen

A modern guide to environmental chemistry Chemistry of Environmental Systems: Fundamental Principles and Analytical Methods offers a comprehensive and authoritative review of modern environmental chemistry, discussing the chemistry and interconnections between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere. Written by internationally recognized experts, the textbook explores the chemistries of the natural environmental systems and demonstrates how these chemical processes change when anthropogenic emissions are introduced into the whole earth system.  This important text: Combines the key areas of environmental chemistry needed to understand the sources, fates, and impacts of contaminants in the environment  Describes a range of environmental analytical methodologies  Explores the basic environmental effects of energy sources, including nuclear energy  Encourages a proactive approach to environmental chemistry, with a focus on preventing future environmental problems  Includes study questions at the end of each chapter Written for students of environmental chemistry, environmental science, environmental engineering, geoscience, earth and atmospheric sciences, Chemistry of Environmental Systems: Fundamental Principles and Analytical Methods covers the key aspects and mechanisms of currently identified environmental issues, which can be used to address both current and future environmental problems.
About the Authors xiii Preface xv Acknowledgments xix Supplementary Material xxi 1 Introduction to Environmental Chemistry 1 1.1 What is Environmental Chemistry? 1 1.2 Anthropogenic Pollution 2 1.3 A Planet at Risk 4 1.4 Energy, Water, and Population Connections 6 1.5 The Need to Understand Environmental Problems 10 1.6 Atmosphere–Hydrosphere–Geosphere–Biosphere Linkages 13 References 16 Study Problems 16 2 Atmospheric Composition and Basic Physics 19 2.1 Evolution of the Atmosphere 19 2.2 Structure and Composition of the Modern Atmosphere 22 2.3 Atmospheric Circulation 27 2.4 Energy Balance 34 2.4.1 Milankovitch Cycles 35 2.4.2 Planetary Albedo 38 2.4.3 Greenhouse Gases 40 2.4.4 Aerosols 43 2.5 Global Climate Models 44 References 47 Study Problems 48 3 The Fundamentals of Photochemistry 51 3.1 Light and Photochemistry 51 3.2 The Laws of Photochemistry 57 3.3 Thermochemical and Photochemical Processes 59 3.3.1 Activation Energy 60 3.3.2 Kinetics 62 3.4 Photochemical Deactivation Processes 69 References 72 Further Reading 72 Study Problems 72 4 Chemistry of the Stratosphere 75 4.1 Structure and Composition of the Stratosphere 75 4.2 The Ozone Layer 78 4.3 Ozone Formation in the Stratosphere 80 4.3.1 The Chapman Cycle 80 4.3.2 Term Symbols 81 4.3.3 The HOx and NOx Cycles 83 4.4 Ozone Depletion 85 4.4.1 Chlorofluorocarbons 85 4.4.2 The “Ozone Hole” 88 4.4.3 Altitude Dependence 90 4.4.4 Ozone-Depleting Substances 93 4.5 Summary 95 References 98 Further Reading 99 Study Problems 99 5 Chemistry of the Troposphere 103 5.1 Structure and Composition of the Troposphere 103 5.2 History of Smog 105 5.3 The Clean Air Act 110 5.3.1 Criteria Pollutants 110 5.3.2 Non-Criteria Pollutants 112 5.4 Formation of Ozone in the Troposphere 113 5.4.1 The Photostationary State 113 5.4.2 The Hydroxyl Radical 114 5.4.3 Hydroxyl Radical Abstraction Reactions 115 5.4.4 Hydroxyl Radical Addition Reactions 118 5.5 Nitrate Radical and Ozone 121 5.6 The Peroxyacyl Nitrates 122 5.7 Troposphere–Biosphere Interactions 124 References 127 Further Reading 128 Study Problems 128 6 Aerosols and Cloud Chemistry 133 6.1 Aerosol Size Distributions 133 6.2 Aerosol Sources and Sinks 136 6.2.1 Primary Aerosol Emissions 138 6.2.2 Secondary Aerosol Formation 140 6.2.3 Wet Deposition and Henry’s Law 143 6.2.4 Dry Deposition 145 6.3 Aerosol Lifetimes 148 6.4 Determination of Aerosol Sources 151 6.5 Aerosol Health Effects 156 6.6 Aerosol Visibility and Climate Effects 158 6.7 Aqueous Chemistry 164 References 165 Further Reading 166 Study Problems 166 7 Analytical Methods for Air Analysis 171 7.1 Sampling Methods 172 7.2 Gas Species Measurement Methods 175 7.2.1 The Oxidants: Ozone, Hydroxyl Radical, Peroxyacyl Nitrates, Peroxides, and Peracids 175 7.2.2 The Oxides: Nitric Oxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, Nitric Acid, Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, Sulfur Dioxide, and Nitrous Oxide 186 7.2.2.1 Nitric Oxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Nitric Acid 186 7.2.2.2 Nitric Acid, Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, Sulfur Dioxide, and Nitrous Oxide 188 7.2.3 The Organics: Volatile Organic Hydrocarbons, Aldehydes, Ketones, and Halogenated Hydrocarbons 191 7.3 Aerosols 195 7.3.1 Sample Collection 195 7.3.2 Aerosol Composition 196 7.4 Aerosol Optical Properties 199 7.5 Method Selection 201 7.6 The Importance of Baseline Measurements 204 References 207 Further Reading 207 Study Problems 208 8 Chemistry of Surface and Ground Waters 213 8.1 The Unique Properties of Water 214 8.2 The Hydrological Cycle 216 8.3 Ocean Currents and Circulation 220 8.4 The Structure of Natural Aquatic Systems 224 8.4.1 The Oceans 224 8.4.2 Freshwater Systems 225 8.5 The Composition of Natural Aquatic Systems 228 8.5.1 Dissolved Oxygen 229 8.5.2 Nitrogen and Phosphorus 230 8.5.3 Sulfur 232 8.5.4 Carbon 233 8.6 Water Pollution 238 8.6.1 Point Sources 239 8.6.2 Nonpoint Sources 243 8.7 Contaminant Transformation 246 8.8 Contaminant Transport 252 References 257 Further Reading 258 Study Problems 258 9 Analytical Methods for Water Analysis 263 9.1 Sampling Methods 263 9.2 Dissolved Species 266 9.2.1 Electrochemical Methods 267 9.2.2 Spectroscopic Methods 272 9.2.3 Chromatographic Methods 286 9.2.4 Titration Methods 291 9.2.5 Radiochemical Methods 292 9.3 Particulates and Colloids 293 9.4 Contaminant Issues 297 References 299 Study Problems 300 10 Fossil and Biomass Fuels 305 10.1 Combustion Chemistry 305 10.2 Formation and Recovery of Fossil Fuels 308 10.2.1 The Formation of Fossil Fuels 309 10.2.2 Coal Mining 313 10.2.3 Oil and Gas Recovery 315 10.3 Fossil Fuel Use 319 10.4 Biomass Fuels 323 10.4.1 Biomass Fuel Production 324 10.4.2 Biomass Fuel Use 326 10.5 Impacts on Water Quality 330 10.5.1 Fossil Fuels 330 10.5.2 Biomass Fuels 335 10.6 Impacts on Air Quality 338 10.6.1 Fossil Fuels 338 10.6.2 Biomass Fuels 345 10.7 Gasoline Additives: Lessons Learned 347 References 349 Study Problems 350 11 Climate Change 355 11.1 Prehistoric Climates 358 11.2 Causes of Climate Change 360 11.2.1 Global Warming Potentials 362 11.2.2 Greenhouse Gas Sources and Sinks 363 11.2.3 Radiative Forcing 367 11.3 Climate Models 368 11.4 Predictions of Future Climate Change 370 11.5 Impacts from the Predicted Temperature Rise 373 11.6 Climate Effects on Air Quality and Health 377 11.7 Mitigation and Adaption Strategies 379 References 386 Study Problems 386 12 Nuclear Energy 391 12.1 Radioactivity 391 12.2 Radioactive Emissions and Decay Kinetics 394 12.3 Sources of Radioisotopes 399 12.4 Nuclear Fission 401 12.5 Nuclear Weapons Testing and Fallout 403 12.6 Nuclear Power 407 12.6.1 Harnessing Nuclear Energy 407 12.6.2 Uranium Production 410 12.6.3 Nuclear Plant Designs 412 12.6.4 Nuclear Waste 414 12.7 Radioisotopes in the Environment 417 12.8 Radiation Exposure 421 12.9 Applications of Radioisotopes 424 References 428 Study Problems 429 13 Future Energy Sources and Sustainability 433 13.1 The Need for Non-Fossil Energy Sources 434 13.2 Alternative Energy Sources 437 13.2.1 Wind Power 438 13.2.2 Hydropower 442 13.2.3 Geothermal Energy 444 13.2.4 Solar Power 445 13.2.5 Biomass 449 13.2.6 Hydrogen 450 13.3 Sustainability 452 13.4 Long-Term Planning 455 References 460 Study Problems 461 Appendix A Answers to Study Problems 465 Appendix B List of U.S. EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants – Air Toxics 503 Appendix C Henry’s Law Constants (Hx) for Selected Inorganic and Organic Compounds 509 Appendix D Organic Water Pollutants, their Chemical Structures, Sources, and Concentration Limits in U.S. Drinking Water 519 Appendix E Chemicals Used in the Hydraulic Fracturing of Oil Shales for Natural Gas Extraction 527 Glossary 529 Index 541
JEFFREY S. GAFFNEY, PHD, is Emeritus Chair and Professor of Chemistry at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Arkansas, USA. Before retiring after 10 years at UALR, he was a senior chemist at three of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Labs (Argonne, Brookhaven, and Los Alamos) for 31 years, and was the Lead Scientist for the DOE Atmospheric Science Program's Megacity Aerosol Experiment – Mexico City. He served as Chief Scientist and Mentor of the DOE Global Change Education Program. He is internationally known for his work in air and water chemistry and global change research. NANCY A. MARLEY, PHD, is a retired Chemist from Argonne National Laboratory and past Research Associate Professor, Graduate Institute of Technology at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock. She was a Head Mentor for the DOE Global Change Education Program and held positions as a Senior Chemist at the Florida State Department of Environmental Regulation and the Florida State Childhood Lead Poisoning Program.
Chemistry of Environmental Systems: Fundamental Principles and Analytical Methods offers a comprehensive and authoritative review of modern environmental chemistry, discussing the chemistry and interconnections between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere. Written by internationally recognized experts, this textbook explores the chemistries of the natural environmental systems and demonstrates how these chemical processes change when anthropogenic emissions are introduced into the whole earth system. This important text: Combines the key areas of environmental chemistry needed to understand the sources, fates, and impacts of contaminants in the environment Describes a range of environmental analytical methodologies Explores the basic environmental effects of energy sources, including nuclear energy Encourages a proactive approach to environmental chemistry, with a focus on preventing future environmental problems Includes study questions at the end of each chapter Written for students of environmental chemistry, environmental science, environmental engineering, geoscience, earth and atmospheric sciences, Chemistry of Environmental Systems: Fundamental Principles and Analytical Methods covers the key aspects and mechanisms of currently identified environmental issues, which can be used to address both current and future environmental problems.

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