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Characterization of Solid Materials and Heterogeneous Catalysts


Characterization of Solid Materials and Heterogeneous Catalysts

From Structure to Surface Reactivity
1. Aufl.

von: Michel Che, Jacques C. Vedrine

395,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-VCH
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 16.04.2012
ISBN/EAN: 9783527645336
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 1284

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Beschreibungen

This two-volume book provides an overview of physical techniques used to characterize the structure of solid materials, on the one hand,<br> and to investigate the reactivity of their surface, on the other. Therefore this book is a must-have for anyone working in fields related to surface<br> reactivity. Among the latter, and because of its most important industrial impact, catalysis has been used as the directing thread of the book.<br> After the preface and a general introduction to physical techniques by M. Che and J.C. Vedrine, two overviews on physical techniques are<br> presented by G. Ertl and Sir J.M. Thomas for investigating model catalysts and porous catalysts, respectively.<br> The book is organized into four parts: Molecular/Local Spectroscopies, Macroscopic Techniques, Characterization of the Fluid Phase (Gas and/<br> or Liquid), and Advanced Characterization. Each chapter focuses upon the following important themes: overview of the technique, most important parameters to interpret the experimental data, practical details, applications of the technique, particularly during chemical processes,<br> with its advantages and disadvantages, conclusions.<br>
PREFACE <br> GENERAL INTRODUCTION <br> OVERVIEW ON PHYSICAL TECHNIQUES FOR INVESTIGATING MODEL SOLID CATALYSTS <br> OVERVIEW ON PHYSICAL TECHNIQUES FOR INVESTIGATING POROUS CATALYSTS LV<br> <br> VOLUME 1<br> PART ONE MOLECULAR/LOCAL SPECTROSCOPIES <br> INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY <br> Introduction <br> Principles of IR Spectroscopy and Basic Knowledge for Its Use <br> Experimental Considerations <br> Use of IR Spectroscopy to Characterize Solids <br> Application to Surface Reactivity: Operando Spectroscopy <br> Conclusion <br> <br> RAMAN AND UV-RAMAN SPECTROSCOPIES <br> Introduction <br> Characterization of Active Sites and Phase Structure of Metal Oxides <br> Characterization of Surface Metal Oxide Species on Supported Metal Oxides <br> Electron-Phonon Coupling in Nanostructured Materials <br> Characterization of sp2 Carbon Materials <br> Characterization of Transition Metal-Containing Microporous and Mesoporous Materials <br> Synthesis Mechanisms of Molecular Sieves <br> Conclusions <br> <br> ELECTRONIC SPECTROSCOPY: ULTRA VIOLET-VISIBLE AND NEAR IR SPECTROSCOPIES <br> Introduction and Overview <br> UV-vis-NIR Spectra <br> Experimental Considerations <br> Formation and Alteration of Solids <br> Surface Reactivity and Catalysis <br> Conclusions <br> <br> PHOTOLUMINESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY <br> Introduction <br> Basic Principles of Photoluminescence <br> General Aspects of Photoluminescence Measurements Characterization of Catalysts by Photoluminescence and Time-Resolved Photoluminescence Spectroscopy <br> Investigations of the Dynamics of Photocatalysis by Time-Resolved Photoluminescence Spectroscopy <br> Conclusion <br> <br> NEUTRON SCATTERING <br> Introduction <br> Introduction to the Theory<br> Experimental <br> Structure <br> Dynamics<br> Conclusion <br> <br> SUM FREQUENCY GENERATION AND INFRARED REFLECTION ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY <br> Introduction <br> Theoretical Background of SFG <br> Spectrometer Setup <br> Case Studies <br> Conclusion <br> <br> INFRA RED REFLECTION ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY AND POLARISATION MODULATION-IRRAS <br> Introduction <br> Principle of IRAS <br> Principle of PM-IRAS <br> Applications of IRAS and PM-IRAS <br> Conclusion <br> <br> NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY <br> Introduction and Historical Perspective <br> Theory <br> Popular NMR Techniques for Studying Solids <br> Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysts <br> Porosity, Adsorption, and Transport Processes <br> "In Situ" NMR <br> Towards "Operando" Studies <br> Conclusion and Outlook <br> <br> ELECTRON PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY <br> Introduction <br> Principles of EPR <br> Electron-Nucleus Hyperfine Interaction <br> Experimental Background <br> Anisotropy of Magnetic Interactions in EPR: the g, A, and D Tensors <br> EPR Spectra and the Solid State: Single Crystal Versus Powders <br> Guidelines to Interpretation of EPR Spectra <br> Computer Simulation of Powder Spectra <br> Molecular Interpretation of Parameters <br> Quantum Chemical Calculations of Magnetic Parameters <br> Advanced EPR Techniques <br> Characteristics of EPR Techniques in Application to Catalysis and Surfaces <br> Interfacial and Surface Charge-Transfer Processes <br> In Situ and Operando EPR Techniques <br> Conclusions and Prospects <br> <br> MOSSBAUER SPECTROSCOPY <br> Introduction <br> The Mossbauer Effect <br> Radiation Source <br> Mossbauer Absorbers <br> Hyperfine Interactions <br> Experimental Setups <br> Evaluation of Experimental Data <br> Theoretical Calculation of Mossbauer Parameters <br> Common Mossbauer-Active Transitions <br> Survey of Applications of the Mossbauer Effect in the Study of Catalytic Materials <br> Conclusion <br> <br> LOW ENERGY ION SCATTERING AND SECONDARY ION MASS SPECTROMETRY <br> Introduction <br> Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry <br> Low-Energy Ion Scattering (Ion Scattering Spectroscopy) <br> Single-Crystal and Polycrystalline Metal Surfaces <br> Amorphous Metallic Alloys <br> From Model to Real Catalysts <br> Conclusion <br> <br> <br> X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY <br> Introduction <br> History of X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy <br> Principle of X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy: XANES, EXAFS <br> Experimentation and Data Processing <br> Application to Oxide Materials <br> Applications to the Study of Sulfide Catalysts <br> Application to Metal Catalysts <br> Conclusion and Perspectives <br> <br> AUGER ELECTRON, X RAY AND UV PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPIES <br> Introduction <br> Sources of Analytical Information <br> Instrumentation<br> Case Studies <br> Outlook <br> <br> SINGLE MOLECULE SPECTROSCOPY <br> Introduction <br> Description of the Method <br> Experimental Considerations and Constraints <br> Mesoporous Silica Materials <br> Selected Studies <br> Conclusion <br> <br> <br> VOLUME 2<br> PART TWO MACROSCOPIC TECHNIQUES <br> <br> X-RAY DIFFRACTION AND SMALL ANGLE X-RAY SCATTERING <br> Introduction <br> Theoretical Background of X-Ray Diffraction <br> Experimental Aspects <br> Application to Phase Identification <br> Application to Phase Characterization: Ideal Structure <br> Application for Phase Characterization: Real Structure <br> X-Ray Diffraction of Catalysts in a Reactive Atmosphere<br> Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) <br> Conclusion <br> <br> TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY <br> History and Overview <br> Introduction <br> Specimen Preparation and Experimental Considerations <br> Examples of General Characterization Studies <br> Examples of Reactivity and Catalysis Studies<br> Recent Developments and Future Prospects <br> <br> SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY AND SPECTROSCOPY <br> Introduction <br> Scanning Tunneling Microscopy <br> Atomic Force Microscopy <br> Conclusion <br> <br> THERMAL METHODS<br> Main Thermal Methods <br> Acidity/Basicity <br> Redox Properties of Solids <br> Conclusion <br> <br> SURFACE AREA/POROSITY, ADSORPTION, DIFFUSION <br> Introduction <br> Gas Adsorption for the Characterization of Surface Area and Porosity <br> Diffusion in Porous Solids <br> Conclusion <br> <br> PART THREE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE FLUID PHASE (GAS AND/OR LIQUID) <br> <br> MASS SPECTROMETRY <br> Linked Atom Theory and the Mass Spectrometry Stories: the Premises of Modern Mass Spectrometry Technology Basics of Mass Spectrometry <br> Direct Surface Analysis: ImagingMass Spectrometry for Biologists <br> From Collision Activation to Ion?Surface Chemical Reactions for New Preparative Mass Spectrometry <br> Petroleomics: Role of Ultra-High Resolution and Data Treatment <br> Conclusion <br> <br> CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHODS <br> Introduction <br> Analysis at Different Scales <br> GC _ GC: a Revolutionary Analytical Technique for Detailed Molecular Analysis <br> Towards Molecular Analysis Systems Highly Coupled Around GC _ GC <br> Conclusion <br> <br> TRANSIENT TECHNIQUES: TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTS AND STEADY STATE ISOTOPIC TRANSIENT KINETIC ANALYSIS <br> Scope <br> Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP) <br> Steady-State Isotopic Transient Kinetic Analysis (SSITKA) <br> Conclusion <br> <br> PART FOUR ADVANCED CHARACTERIZATION <br> <br> TECHNIQUES COUPLING FOR CATALYST CHARACTERISATION <br> Introduction <br> Basic Tenets Behind Technique Combining <br> Illustrations of Setups Combining Multiple In Situ Techniques <br> Conclusion<br> <br> QUANTUM CHEMISTRY METHODS <br> Introduction and Historical Perspective <br> Building Models of Heterogeneous Catalysts <br> Electronic Structure Calculations <br> Application of Total Energy Calculations to the Structure of Catalytic Surfaces Under the Conditions of Catalysis <br> Conclusions and Outlook <br>
Michel Che studied chemistry and, after recruitment by CNRS, obtained his Doctorat es Sciences (University of Lyon, F) in 1968. He worked as post-doc at Princeton University (USA) (1969-1971) and then as frequent visiting scientist at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment,<br> Harwell (UK) (1972-1982). He became Professor at the University Pierre & Marie Curie, Paris in 1975 and Boris Imelik Chair Professor of Institut Universitaire de France in 1995. His research concerns spectroscopy, surface reactivity and heterogeneous catalysis. He was President-Founder of the European Federation of Catalysis Societies (starting the biennial Europacat congresses) and later of the International Association of Catalysis Societies. His scientific and educational work earned him several international awards, lectureships and honorary doctorates.<br> <br> Jacques C. Vedrine studied chemistry and, after recruitment by CNRS, obtained his Doctorat es Sciences (University of Lyon, F) in 1968. He worked as post-doc in USA at Varian Associates, Palo-Alto (1969-70) and at Princeton University (1970-71). He was deputy director of<br> the Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse, CNRS in Lyon (1988-1998) and Chair Professor at Liverpool University, UK (1998-2003). He is one of the Editors of Appl. Catal. A: General. His research field covers physical techniques of catalyst characterization and heterogeneous catalysis for acid- and selective oxidation-type reactions on zeolites and mixed metal oxides. He was President of the European Federation of Catalysis Societies and of the Acid-Base World Organization. His scientific and educational work earned him several awards, and an honorary doctorate.<br>
This two-volume book provides an overview of physical techniques used to characterize the structure of solid materials, on the one hand,<br> and to investigate the reactivity of their surface, on the other. Therefore this book is a must-have for anyone working in fields related to surface<br> reactivity. Among the latter, and because of its most important industrial impact, catalysis has been used as the directing thread of the book.<br> After the preface and a general introduction to physical techniques by M. Che and J.C. Vedrine, two overviews on physical techniques are<br> presented by G. Ertl and Sir J.M. Thomas for investigating model catalysts and porous catalysts, respectively.<br> The book is organized into four parts: Molecular/Local Spectroscopies, Macroscopic Techniques, Characterization of the Fluid Phase (Gas and/<br> or Liquid), and Advanced Characterization. Each chapter focuses upon the following important themes: overview of the technique, most important parameters to interpret the experimental data, practical details, applications of the technique, particularly during chemical processes,<br> with its advantages and disadvantages, conclusions.

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