Details

Carbon Nanofibers


Carbon Nanofibers

Fundamentals and Applications
Advances in Nanotechnology and Applications 1. Aufl.

von: Madhuri Sharon, Maheshwar Sharon

197,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 09.02.2021
ISBN/EAN: 9781119769125
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 448

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Beschreibungen

<p>This book covers the fundamentals and applications of Carbon Nanofiber (CNF). In the first section, the initial chapter on the fundamentals of CNF is by Professor Maheshwar Sharon, the recognized “Father of Carbon Nanotechnology in India”, which powerfully provides a succinct overview of CNFs. This is followed by a chapter on biogenics that have produced unique morphologies of CNF that makes them suitable to various applications. This is followed by a chapter that mainly focuses on nanocomposites, especially those involving nanocomposites of CNF. The role of nanocatalysts and composites in promoting and enhancing the synthesis and application of CNF is then covered, followed by an important chapter on the characterization of CNF.</p> <p>The second section of the book encompasses the various applications of CNF, such as its use as a possible superconductor to adsorb and store hydrogen, and as a microwave absorber. The application of CNF for environmental concerns is also detailed by assessing its usefulness in dye and heavy metal removal from polluted water. The applications that are addressed include lithium-ion battery, solar cell, antenna, cosmetics, usefulness in regenerative medicine, as well as various aspects of agrotechnology.</p>
<p>Foreword xix</p> <p>Preface xxi</p> <p><b>1 An Introduction to Carbon Nanofiber 1<br /></b><i>Maheshwar Sharon</i></p> <p>1.1 Introduction 1</p> <p>1.1.1 History of Carbon Fiber 2</p> <p>1.1.2 What is a Carbon Fiber? 3</p> <p>1.1.3 Structures of Carbon Fibers 5</p> <p>1.1.4 Synthesis of Carbon Fibers 6</p> <p>1.1.4.1 Carbon Fibers from PAN 6</p> <p>1.1.5 Properties of Carbon Fibers 6</p> <p>1.2 Properties of Carbon Nanofiber and How It Differs from Carbon Nanotube 7</p> <p>1.2.1 History of CNF 8</p> <p>1.2.2 Role of Surface States in Controlling the Properties of CNFs 9</p> <p>1.3 Synthesis of Carbon Nanofiber (CNF) 11</p> <p>1.3.1 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Method 11</p> <p>1.3.2 Precursors for CNF 12</p> <p>1.3.3 Use of Catalyst in the Synthesis of CNF 12</p> <p>1.3.4 Selection of Variable Parameters for Growth of CNF 13</p> <p>1.3.5 Epitaxial Growth of Aligned CNF 14</p> <p>1.3.6 Mechanism of CNF Synthesis 14</p> <p>1.4 Properties of CNF and Its Composites 15</p> <p>1.5 Applications of CNF 15</p> <p>1.6 Health Hazards of CNF 18</p> <p>1.7 Summary 19</p> <p>References 19</p> <p><b>2 Biogenic Carbon Nanofibers 21<br /></b><i>Madhuri Sharon</i></p> <p>2.1 Introduction 21</p> <p>2.2 Plants as Source of Precursor for CNF Synthesis 22</p> <p>2.2.1 Plant Parts 26</p> <p>2.2.1.1 Fibrous Plant Material Used for Synthesizing CNF 26</p> <p>2.2.1.2 Characterization of CNF Obtained by Pyrolysis of Plant Seeds 29</p> <p>2.2.2 Plant Metabolites 34</p> <p>2.2.2.1 Characterization of CNF Obtained by Pyrolysis of Plant Metabolites 36</p> <p>2.3 CNF Derived from Parts of Different Plants and Their Applications 37</p> <p>2.3.1 Hydrogen Storage in CNF 37</p> <p>2.3.2 Removal of Heavy Metals by CNF 38</p> <p>2.3.3 Microwave Absorption Capacity of CNF 39</p> <p>2.3.4 CNF as Electrocatalysts for Microbial Energy Harvesting 40</p> <p>2.3.5 CNF as Regenerative Medicine 40</p> <p>2.3.6 CNF as Deodorizer 41</p> <p>2.3.7 CNF Composites for Strong and Lightweight Material 41</p> <p>2.3.8 Biogenic CNF as Supercapacitor 42</p> <p>2.3.9 Plant-Derived CNM for Use in Coatings 43</p> <p>2.4 Comparative Structure of Chemically and Biogenically Synthesized CNF 43</p> <p>2.4.1 CNF Synthesized from Chemical Precursors 43</p> <p>2.4.2 CNF Synthesized from Plant Parts or Plant Metabolites as Precursors 44</p> <p>2.5 Concluding Remarks 45</p> <p>References 45</p> <p><b>3 Role of Nanocatalysts in Synthesis of Carbon Nanofiber 49<br /></b><i>Suman Tripathi</i></p> <p>3.1 Introduction 49</p> <p>3.2 Nanocatalysts 50</p> <p>3.2.1 Concept of Nanocatalysis 51</p> <p>3.2.2 Metallic Nanoparticles (NP) as Catalyst 52</p> <p>3.2.3 Types of Nanometals as Catalyst 53</p> <p>3.2.3.1 Nanometal Colloids as Catalysts 54</p> <p>3.2.3.2 Nanoclusters as Catalysts 54</p> <p>3.2.3.3 Nanoparticles as Catalysts 54</p> <p>3.2.3.4 Nanopowder as Catalysts 54</p> <p>3.3 Methods for the Preparation of Nanoparticles 54</p> <p>3.3.1 Hydrothermal Method of Metal Nanoparticles 55</p> <p>3.3.2 Microwave-Irradiated Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles 55</p> <p>3.3.3 Dendrimer-Assisted Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles 55</p> <p>3.3.4 Reverse Micelle Method of Metal Nanoparticles 56</p> <p>3.3.5 Co-Precipitation Method of Metal Nanoparticles 57</p> <p>3.3.6 Biogenic Synthesis (Green Synthesis) Method of Metal Nanoparticles 58</p> <p>3.4 Role of Nanocatalyst in the Production of CNF 60</p> <p>3.5 Different Types of CNF 61</p> <p>3.6 Synthesis of Carbon Nanofiber (CNF) Using Nanocatalysts 64</p> <p>3.6.1 Laser Ablation Method 65</p> <p>3.6.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) 65</p> <p>3.6.3 Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis (SHS) or Combustion Synthesis (CS) 67</p> <p>3.6.4 Floating Catalyst Method 68</p> <p>3.6.5 Electrospinning Method 68</p> <p>3.6.5.1 Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) 70</p> <p>3.6.5.2 Pitch 70</p> <p>3.6.5.3 Cellulose 70</p> <p>3.7 Summary 71</p> <p>References 71</p> <p><b>4 Carbon Nanofiber and Polymer Conjugate 75<br /></b><i>Anuradha Pandey Dubey</i></p> <p>4.1 Introduction 75</p> <p>4.2 What is a Composite? 76</p> <p>4.3 Polymers Used for Conjugating CNF 79</p> <p>4.3.1 Starch 79</p> <p>4.3.2 Cellulose 81</p> <p>4.3.3 Collagen 81</p> <p>4.3.4 Chitosan 82</p> <p>4.3.5 Gelatin 83</p> <p>4.3.6 Fibrin 83</p> <p>4.3.7 Alginate 84</p> <p>4.3.8 Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) 84</p> <p>4.3.9 Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG) 84</p> <p>4.3.10 Poly Caprolactone (PCL) 85</p> <p>4.3.11 Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA) 85</p> <p>4.3.12 Poly Glycerol Sebacate (PGS) 86</p> <p>4.4 Approaches Involved in Synthesizing Polymer/CNF Nanocomposites 86</p> <p>4.5 Various CNF Composites 87</p> <p>4.5.1 CNF/Epoxy Composites 88</p> <p>4.5.2 CNF/Phenolic Resin Composites 89</p> <p>4.5.3 CNF/Polyaniline (PANI) Composites 89</p> <p>4.5.4 CNF/Poly (Ether Ether Ketone) Nanocomposite 90</p> <p>4.5.5 CNF/Biopolymers Nanocomposites 90</p> <p>4.5.6 CNT/CNF-Epoxy Nanocomposites 91</p> <p>4.6 Possible Futuristic Applications of CNF/Polymer Composites 91</p> <p>4.6.1 Sensors 92</p> <p>4.6.2 Batteries 93</p> <p>4.6.3 Food Packaging 94</p> <p>4.7 Summary 95</p> <p>References 95</p> <p><b>5 Characterization of Carbon Nanofiber 99<br /></b><i>Sundeep Deulkar</i></p> <p>5.1 Introduction 99</p> <p>5.2 Microscopic Characterization Techniques 99</p> <p>5.2.1 Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) 100</p> <p>5.2.2 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) 103</p> <p>5.2.3 Electron Microscopy for Morphology and Surface Characterization 104</p> <p>5.2.3.1 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) 104</p> <p>5.2.3.2 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) 108</p> <p>5.3 Spectroscopic Characterization 112</p> <p>5.3.1 Raman Spectroscopic Studies of Carbon Nanofibers 113</p> <p>5.4 Spectroscopic Analysis of CNF by XRD 117</p> <p>5.5 Measurement of Mechanical Properties of CNF 122</p> <p>5.5.1 Tensile Strength Testing/Tension Testing 122</p> <p>5.5.2 Young’s Modulus 123</p> <p>5.6 Optical Property Analysis of CNF 127</p> <p>5.6.1 Ellipsometric Method for CNF and MCNF 128</p> <p>5.6.2 UV-Vis-NIR Spectrophotometric Method for ACNF Analysis 129</p> <p>5.6.3 Measuring Optical Band Gap 131</p> <p>5.7 Thermal Properties and Thermal Effect Analysis 132</p> <p>5.7.1 Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) 132</p> <p>5.7.2 Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) 134</p> <p>5.7.3 Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) 135</p> <p>5.7.4 Thermal Conductivity 135</p> <p>5.8 Specific Surface Area (SSA) Determination of CNF 139</p> <p>5.8.1 Methylene Blue (MB) Test 140</p> <p>5.8.2 Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) Specific Surface Areas 142</p> <p>5.9 Characterization of Electrical Properties 145</p> <p>5.9.1 Two-Probe and Four-Probe Methods for Resistivity Measurement 148</p> <p>5.9.2 Four-Probe Methods for Resistivity Measurement 149</p> <p>5.9.3 Tunneling Atomic Force Microscopy (TUNA) Analysis 150</p> <p>5.9.4 Hall Effect Measurement 152</p> <p>References 154</p> <p><b>6 Carbon Nanofiber – A Potential Superconductor 159<br /></b><i>Harish K. Dubey</i></p> <p>6.1 Introduction 159</p> <p>6.2 Superconductors 161</p> <p>6.2.1 Theory of Superconductors 161</p> <p>6.2.2 Measurement Technique of Superconductivity 163</p> <p>6.2.3 Types of Superconductors 163</p> <p>6.3 History of Existing Superconductors 165</p> <p>6.4 Superconductivity in Organic Materials 168</p> <p>6.5 Can Carbon Nanofiber Also Be a Possible Superconductor? 169</p> <p>6.6 Summary 173</p> <p>References 173</p> <p><b>7 Carbon Nanofiber for Hydrogen Storage 175<br /></b><i>Bholanath Mukherjee</i></p> <p>7.1 Introduction 175</p> <p>7.2 Hydrogen – Its Advantages and Disadvantages as Source of Energy 176</p> <p>7.2.1 Advantages 177</p> <p>7.2.2 Disadvantages 177</p> <p>7.3 Methods of Hydrogen Storage 178</p> <p>7.3.1 Storage of Liquid Hydrogen 178</p> <p>7.3.2 Storage of Gaseous Hydrogen 178</p> <p>7.3.2.1 In Metal Hydride Storage Tanks 178</p> <p>7.3.2.2 Storage of Compressed Hydrogen in High-Pressure Tank 179</p> <p>7.3.2.3 Hydrogen Storage in Glass Microspheres 179</p> <p>7.3.2.4 Storage in Array of Glass Micro Tubules/Capillaries 180</p> <p>7.3.2.5 Storage of Hydrogen in Chemicals 180</p> <p>7.3.2.6 Storage of Hydrogen in Metal Amidoboranes 180</p> <p>7.3.2.7 Storage of Hydrogen in Metal Organic Framework System 181</p> <p>7.4 Different Forms of Carbon and Nanocarbon for Storage of Hydrogen 181</p> <p>7.4.1 Activated Carbon 182</p> <p>7.4.2 Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) 184</p> <p>7.4.3 Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) 187</p> <p>7.4.4 Metal-Doped Carbon Nanotubes 188</p> <p>7.4.5 Graphene and the Like 189</p> <p>7.5 Carbon Fibers for Storage of Hydrogen 191</p> <p>7.6 Pyrolyzed Natural Fibers from Plant/Animals to Store Hydrogen 192</p> <p>7.6.1 Carbonization/Pyrolysis 192</p> <p>7.7 Summary 201</p> <p>References 201</p> <p><b>8 Carbon Nanofiber for Microwave Absorption 211<br /></b><i>Dattatray E. Kshirsagar</i></p> <p>8.1 The Need to Develop a Microwave Absorber 211</p> <p>8.2 Types of Microwave Absorbers 212</p> <p>8.2.1 Resonant Absorber 213</p> <p>8.2.2 Broadband Absorbers 215</p> <p>8.2.3 Magnetic Absorbers 217</p> <p>8.2.4 Dielectric Absorber 218</p> <p>8.2.5 Metal Absorber 220</p> <p>8.3 Considerations for Nano Absorbers 221</p> <p>8.3.1 Nanoferrite Absorber 222</p> <p>8.3.1.1 Limitations of Ferrites 222</p> <p>8.4 The Radars 223</p> <p>8.4.1 Detection and Ranging 223</p> <p>8.4.2 Multi-Band 3D Radar 223</p> <p>8.4.3 Quantum Radar 224</p> <p>8.4.4 LIDAR (Light Imaging Detection & Ranging) 225</p> <p>8.5 Role of CNF in Microwave Absorption 226</p> <p>8.6 Need for Fabricating a CNF and Polymer Composite 228</p> <p>8.7 Summary 230</p> <p>References 232</p> <p><b>9 Carbon Nanofiber for Removal of Dye from Aqueous Medium 235<br /></b><i>Sanjukta Bhowmik</i></p> <p>9.1 Introduction 235</p> <p>9.2 Morphology of Biogenic and Chemically Synthesized CNFs from Different Precursors 236</p> <p>9.2.1 Chemical Vapor Deposition Method (CVD) 237</p> <p>9.2.2 Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) 240</p> <p>9.2.3 Electrospinning of Polymer Fibers 241</p> <p>9.3 Novel Dye Removal Properties of CNF 243</p> <p>9.4 Absorption of Different Dyes 245</p> <p>9.5 Summary 248</p> <p>References 249</p> <p><b>10 Carbon Nanofiber to Remove Heavy Metals from Aqueous Medium 251<br /></b><i>Jayashri Shukla</i></p> <p>10.1 Introduction 251</p> <p>10.1.1 What Are Heavy Metals? 251</p> <p>10.1.2 List of Heavy Metals 252</p> <p>10.1.3 Sources of Heavy Metals 252</p> <p>10.2 Are Heavy Metals Essential for Living Beings? 253</p> <p>10.2.1 Damaging Effect of Heavy Metals on Biosystem 253</p> <p>10.2.1.1 Arsenic 254</p> <p>10.2.1.2 Cadmium 254</p> <p>10.2.1.3 Chromium 255</p> <p>10.2.1.4 Lead 256</p> <p>10.2.1.5 Mercury 256</p> <p>10.2.2 Heavy Metal and Soil Toxicity 257</p> <p>10.2.3 Heavy Metal and Plant Toxicity 258</p> <p>10.2.4 Toxic Effects of Heavy Metals on Aquatic Environment 258</p> <p>10.3 Methods Used for Removal of Heavy Metals 258</p> <p>10.3.1 Adsorption 259</p> <p>10.3.1.1 Adsorption on New Adsorbents 259</p> <p>10.3.1.2 Adsorption on Modified Natural Materials 259</p> <p>10.3.1.3 Adsorption on Industrial By-Products 260</p> <p>10.3.1.4 Adsorption on Modified Agricultural and Biological Wastes (Biosorption) 263</p> <p>10.3.1.5 Adsorption on Modified Biopolymers and Hydrogels 263</p> <p>10.3.2 Membrane Separation/Filtration 265</p> <p>10.3.3 Electrodialysis and Photocatalysis 269</p> <p>10.3.4 Chemical Oxidation and Advanced Oxidation 269</p> <p>10.3.5 Chemical Precipitation 269</p> <p>10.3.6 Chemical Coagulation 270</p> <p>10.3.7 Chemical Stabilization 271</p> <p>10.3.8 Ion Exchange 271</p> <p>10.3.9 Waste LCD Panel Glass 271</p> <p>10.3.10 Electrolytic Recovery or Electrowinning 272</p> <p>10.3.11 Electrodialysis 272</p> <p>10.3.12 Photocatalysis 272</p> <p>10.4 Evaluation of Heavy Metals Removal Processes 274</p> <p>10.5 Role of CNF in Removing Heavy Metals 275</p> <p>10.5.1 Suitability of Chemically Synthesized CNF for Heavy Metal Removal 277</p> <p>10.5.2 Suitability of Biogenic CNF 277</p> <p>10.6 CNF to Remove Heavy Metals 279</p> <p>10.7 Summary 284</p> <p>References 284</p> <p><b>11 Carbon Nanofiber as Electrode in Li-Ion Battery 291<br /></b><i>Manisha Khemani</i></p> <p>11.1 Introduction 291</p> <p>11.1.1 Why Lithium? 292</p> <p>11.2 Types of Lithium-Ion Batteries 294</p> <p>11.2.1 Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide Battery 294</p> <p>11.2.2 Lithium Cobalt Oxide Battery 294</p> <p>11.2.3 Lithium Manganese Oxide Battery 294</p> <p>11.2.4 Lithium-Titanate Battery 295</p> <p>11.2.5 Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery 295</p> <p>11.3 Theory of Generation of Power in Lithium Battery 295</p> <p>11.3.1 Positive Electrode or Cathode 295</p> <p>11.3.2 Negative Electrode Anode 296</p> <p>11.3.3 Electrolyte 296</p> <p>11.4 Role of Carbon, Lithium and Cobalt in Li-Battery 297</p> <p>11.4.1 Advantages of LIB 300</p> <p>11.4.2 Disadvantages of LIB 302</p> <p>11.5 Role of CNF in Lithium Battery and Possibility of Increasing Its Efficiency 303</p> <p>11.6 Recent Advances in Lithium Battery Utilizing Carbon Nanomaterial and CNF 305</p> <p>11.6.1 Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) 306</p> <p>11.6.2 Walnut Shell 306</p> <p>11.6.3 FeOx-CNT/CNF Composite 306</p> <p>11.6.4 Carbon Nanobeads (CNB) from Camphor 306</p> <p>11.6.5 Tea Leaves 307</p> <p>11.6.6 Various Carbon Materials 308</p> <p>11.7 Summary 309</p> <p>References 309</p> <p><b>12 Carbon Nanofiber and Photovoltaic Solar Cell 313<br /></b><i>Kailash Jagdeo and Maheshwar Sharon</i></p> <p>12.1 Introduction 313</p> <p>12.2 Formation of a Semiconducting Material 314</p> <p>12.2.1 Introduction to P-N Junction 316</p> <p>12.3 Semiconductors for Solar Cell 320</p> <p>12.4 Attempts Made in Making Carbon-Based Solar Cell 320</p> <p>12.5 Is CNF a Suitable Material for Solar Cell? 321</p> <p>12.6 Summary 327</p> <p>References 327</p> <p><b>13 Application of Carbon Nanofiber in Antenna 331<br /></b><i>Mahesh Partapure</i></p> <p>13.1 Introduction 331</p> <p>13.2 Radiation Types and Characteristics of Antenna 333</p> <p>13.2.1 Radiation Density 334</p> <p>13.2.2 Radiation Pattern 334</p> <p>13.2.3 Directivity 335</p> <p>13.2.4 Gain 335</p> <p>13.2.5 Effective Area 336</p> <p>13.2.6 Input Impedance 336</p> <p>13.2.7 Impedance Matching 336</p> <p>13.2.8 Return Loss and Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) 336</p> <p>13.3 Carbon Nanomaterial 337</p> <p>13.4 Application of Carbon Nanofibers in Antenna 338</p> <p>13.5 Summary 339</p> <p>References 340</p> <p><b>14 Carbon Nanofiber in Cosmetics 341<br /></b><i>Archana Singh</i></p> <p>14.1 Introduction 341</p> <p>14.2 What is a Nanocosmetic 342</p> <p>14.3 Cosmetics with Nanoparticles in Today’s Market 342</p> <p>14.4 Nanoparticles Used in Cosmetics 344</p> <p>14.4.1 Titanium Dioxide (TiO<sub>2</sub>) 344</p> <p>14.4.2 Zinc Oxide (ZnO) 346</p> <p>14.4.3 Gold Nanoparticles 348</p> <p>14.4.4 Silver Nanoparticles 349</p> <p>14.4.5 Selenium Nanoparticles 350</p> <p>14.5 Nano-Compositions Used for Loading and Delivery of Nanoparticle 351</p> <p>14.5.1 Nanoliposomes 352</p> <p>14.5.2 Solid Liquid Nanoparticles (SLN) 353</p> <p>14.5.3 Cubosomes 354</p> <p>14.5.4 Dendrimers 355</p> <p>14.5.5 Nanocrystals 356</p> <p>14.6 Cosmetics Containing Carbon Nanomaterials 357</p> <p>14.6.1 Nanoforms of Carbon for Cosmetics Used in Ancient India that Still Prevail Today: Herbal Kajal/Kohl 357</p> <p>14.6.2 Carbon-Based Cosmetics 358</p> <p>14.6.3 Contemporary Cosmetics Using Carbon 358</p> <p>14.7 Can Activated Carbon, Carbon Black and Carbon Nanotubes Be Replaced with CNF for Use in Cosmetics? 359</p> <p>14.8 Summary 361</p> <p>References 362</p> <p><b>15 Carbon Nanofiber in Regenerative Medicine 365<br /></b><i>Pramod Desai</i></p> <p>15.1 Introduction 365</p> <p>15.1.1 Tissue Engineering – Concept in a Nutshell 365</p> <p>15.1.2 Why Carbon Nanotubes Are Versatile Scaffolds 367</p> <p>15.2 Cell Tracking and Labeling 368</p> <p>15.2.1 Optical Labeling 368</p> <p>15.2.2 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Contrast Agent 369</p> <p>15.2.3 Radio Labeling 370</p> <p>15.3 Sensing Cellular Behavior 371</p> <p>15.4 Augmenting Cellular Behavior 372</p> <p>15.5 Carbon Nanotubes as Structural Support for Tissue Engineering 374</p> <p>15.6 Cytotoxicity of Carbon Nanofiber (CNF) 375</p> <p>15.7 Biocompatibility of Carbon Nanofibers 377</p> <p>15.7.1 CNTs with Neuronal Cells 378</p> <p>15.7.2 CNTs with Osteoblast Cell 379</p> <p>15.7.3 CNTs with Antibody Interactions 380</p> <p>15.7.4 Ion Channel Interactions with CNTs 380</p> <p>15.8 Dispersion of Carbon Nanofibers 380</p> <p>15.8.1 Sonication 380</p> <p>15.8.2 Stabilization with Surfactant 381</p> <p>15.8.3 Covalent Functionalization 381</p> <p>15.9 Summary 381</p> <p>References 382</p> <p><b>16 Carbon Nanofibers and Agro-Technology 389<br /></b><i>Manisha Sharan and Madhuri Sharon</i></p> <p>16.1 Introduction 389</p> <p>16.1.1 The Importance of Nanoscale 390</p> <p>16.1.2 Carbon Nanomaterials 390</p> <p>16.2 Carbon Nanofibers 391</p> <p>16.3 Carbon Nanofiber and Agriculture 391</p> <p>16.3.1 CNF for Plant Growth and Crop Yield 393</p> <p>16.3.1.1 Seed Germination 394</p> <p>16.3.1.2 CNF as Fertilizer 395</p> <p>16.3.1.3 CNF as Plant Growth Stimulator 396</p> <p>16.3.2 CNF for Plant Protection 396</p> <p>16.3.2.1 CNF as Antimicrobial and Antifungal for Surface Coating 396</p> <p>16.3.2.2 CNF as Support for Pesticides, Herbicides and Insecticides 398</p> <p>16.3.3 CNF for Soil Improvement 398</p> <p>16.3.4 CNF for Controlled Environment Agriculture 398</p> <p>16.3.5 CNF for Precision Farming 399</p> <p>16.3.5.1 CNF and Nanosensors for Diagnostics in Agriculture 400</p> <p>16.4 Summary 401</p> <p>References 401</p> <p>Index 407</p>
<p><b>Madhuri Sharon</b>, (Retd. Director at Reliance Industries), PhD from Leicester University UK, postdoctoral research from Bolton Institute of Technology U.K., is currently the Director of NSN Research Centre for Nanotechnology & Bionanotechnology and Managing Director of Monad Nanotech as well as Adjunct-Professor University of Mumbai & Professor-Emeritus JJT University, India. She has published more than 130 papers, 4 books and 11 patents. Her research focuses on the synthesis, biosynthesis and application of various nanomaterials (graphene oxide, carbon dots, carbon nanomaterials and nanometals) in drug-delivery. <p><b>Maheshwar Sharon</b>, (Retd. Professor IIT Bombay) PhD from Leicester University, U.K, and postdoctoral research from Bolton Institute of Technology, U.K., is Director of NSN Research Centre for Nanotechnology & Bionanotechnology and Technical Director of Monad Nanotech as well as Adjunct-Professor at the University of Mumbai, India. His specializations are electrochemistry (photoelectrochemistry & battery), solid state chemistry (diffusion & electrical properties), superconductivity, carbon (fullerenes, nanocarbon, low band gap semiconductor, etc.) and energy: photovoltaic wet & dry solar cells. For his contribution to carbon he was awarded the ‘Bangur Award’. He has five patents, five books and 173 publications to his credit.
<p><b>A comprehensive book providing detailed information on the structure, properties, characterization, synthesis, and various applications of carbon nanofibers.</b> <p>This book covers the fundamentals and applications of Carbon Nanofiber (CNF). In the first section, the initial chapter on the fundamentals of CNF is by Professor Maheshwar Sharon, the recognized “Father of Carbon Nanotechnology in India”, which powerfully provides a succinct overview of CNFs. This is followed by a chapter on biogenics that have produced unique morphologies of CNF that makes them suitable to various applications. This is followed by a chapter that mainly focuses on nanocomposites, especially those involving nanocomposites of CNF. The role of nanocatalysts and composites in promoting and enhancing the synthesis and application of CNF is then covered, followed by an important chapter on the characterization of CNF. <p>The second section of the book encompasses the various applications of CNF, such as its use as a possible superconductor to adsorb and store hydrogen, and as a microwave absorber. The application of CNF for environmental concerns is also detailed by assessing its usefulness in dye and heavy metal removal from polluted water. The applications that are addressed include lithium-ion battery, solar cell, antenna, cosmetics, usefulness in regenerative medicine, as well as various aspects of agrotechnology. <p><b>Audience</b> <p>The book will be useful to scientists, researchers, industrialists, engineers and graduate students working in materials science, advanced materials and nanotechnology, as well polymer scientists.

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