Building Physics -- Heat, Air and MoistureFundamentals and Engineering Methods with Examples and Exercises
|Verlag:||Ernst & Sohn|
Bad experiences with construction quality, the energy crises of 1973 and 1979, complaints about 'sick buildings', thermal, acoustical, visual and olfactory discomfort, the move towards more sustainability, have all accelerated the development of a field, which until 35 years ago was hardly more than an academic exercise: building physics. Through the application of existing physical knowledge and the combination with information coming from other disciplines, the field helps to understand the physical performance of building parts, buildings and the built environment, and translates it into correct design and construction. This book is the result of thirty years teaching, research and consultancy activity of the author. The book discusses the theory behind the heat and mass transport in and through building components. Steady and non steady state heat conduction, heat convection and thermal radiation are discussed in depth, followed by typical building-related thermal concepts such as reference temperatures, surface film coefficients, the thermal transmissivity, the solar transmissivity, thermal bridging and the periodic thermal properties. Water vapour and water vapour flow and moisture flow in and through building materials and building components is analyzed in depth, mixed up with several engineering concepts which allow a first order analysis of phenomena such as the vapour balance, the mold, mildew and dust mites risk, surface condensation, sorption, capillary suction, rain absorption and drying. In a last section, heat and mass transfer are combined into one overall model staying closest to the real hygrothermal response of building components, as observed in field experiments. The book combines the theory of heat and mass transfer with typical building engineering applications. The line from theory to application is dressed in a correct and clear way. In the theory, oversimplification is avoided. This book is the result of thirty years teaching, research and consultancy activity of the author.
Preface. 0 Introduction. 0.1 Subject of the Book. 0.2 Building Physics. 0.2.1 Definition. 0.2.2 Criteria. 0.2.2.1 Comfort. 0.2.2.2 Health. 0.2.2.3 Architectural and Material Facts. 0.2.2.4 Economy. 0.2.2.5 Environment. 0.3 Importance of Building Physics. 0.4 History of Building Physics. 0.5 References. 0.6 Units and Symbols. 1 Heat Transfer. 1.1 Overview. 1.2 Conduction. 1.2.1 Conservation of Energy. 1.2.2 Fourier’s Laws. 220.127.116.11 First Law. 18.104.22.168 Second Law. 1.2.3 Steady State. 22.214.171.124 What Is It? 126.96.36.199 One Dimension: Flat Walls. 188.8.131.52 Two Dimensions: Cylinder Symmetry. 184.108.40.206 Two and Three Dimensions: Thermal Bridges. 1.2.4 Transient Regime. 220.127.116.11 What is Transient? 18.104.22.168 Flat Walls, Periodic Boundary Conditions. 22.214.171.124 Flat Walls, Transient Boundary Conditions. 126.96.36.199 Two and Three Dimensions. 1.3 Convection. 1.3.1 Overview. 188.8.131.52 Heat Transfer at a Surface. 184.108.40.206 Convection. 1.3.2 Convection Typology. 220.127.116.11 Driving Forces. 18.104.22.168 Type of flow. 1.3.3 Calculating the Convective Surface Film Coefficient. 22.214.171.124 Analytically. 126.96.36.199 Numerically. 188.8.131.52 Dimensional Analysis. 1.3.4 Values for the Convective Surface Film Coefficient. 184.108.40.206 Walls. 220.127.116.11 Cavities. 18.104.22.168 Pipes. 1.4 Radiation. 1.4.1 Overview. 22.214.171.124 Thermal Radiation. 126.96.36.199 Quantities. 188.8.131.52 Reflection, Absorption and Transmission. 184.108.40.206 Radiant Surfaces. 1.4.2 Black Bodies. 220.127.116.11 Characteristics. 18.104.22.168 Radiation Exchange Between Two Black Bodies: The Angle Factor. 22.214.171.124 Properties of Angle Factors. 126.96.36.199 Calculating Angle Factors. 1.4.3 Grey Bodies. 188.8.131.52 Characteristics. 184.108.40.206 Radiation Exchange Between Grey Bodies. 1.4.4 Colored Bodies. 1.4.5 Practical Formulae. 1.5 Applications. 1.5.1 Surface Film Coefficients and Reference Temperatures. 220.127.116.11 Overview. 18.104.22.168 Inside Environment. 22.214.171.124 Outside Environment. 1.5.2 Steady-state, One-dimension: Flat Walls. 126.96.36.199 Thermal Transmittance and Interface Temperatures. 188.8.131.52 Thermal Resistance of a Non-ventilated Infinite Cavity. 184.108.40.206 Solar Transmittance. 1.5.3 Steady State, Cylindrical Coordinates: Pipes. 1.5.4 Steady-state, Two and Three Dimensions: Thermal Bridges. 220.127.116.11 Calculation by the Control Volume Method (CVM). 18.104.22.168 Thermal Bridges in Practice. 1.5.5 Transient, Periodic: Flat Walls. 1.5.6 Heat Balances. 1.6 Problems. 1.7 References. 2 Mass Transfer. 2.1 In General. 2.1.1 Quantities and Definitions. 2.1.2 Saturation Degree Scale. 2.1.3 Air and Moisture Transfer. 2.1.4 Moisture Sources. 2.1.5 Air, Moisture and Durability. 2.1.6 Linkages between Mass-and Energy Transfer. 2.1.7 Conservation of Mass. 2.2 Air Transfer. 2.2.1 In General. 2.2.2 Air Pressure Differences. 22.214.171.124 Wind. 126.96.36.199 Stack Effects. 188.8.131.52 Fans. 2.2.3 Air Permeances. 2.2.4 Air Transfer in Open-porous Materials. 184.108.40.206 Conservation of Mass. 220.127.116.11 Flow Equation. 18.104.22.168 Air Pressures. 22.214.171.124 One Dimension: Flat Walls. 126.96.36.199 Two- and Three-dimensions. 2.2.5 Air Flow Through Permeable Layers, Apertures, Joints, Leaks and Cavities. 188.8.131.52 Flow Equations. 184.108.40.206 Conservation of Mass, Equivalent Hydraulic Circuit. 2.2.6 Combined Heat- and Air Transfer. 220.127.116.11 Open-porous Materials. 18.104.22.168 Air Permeable Layers, Joints, Leaks and Cavities. 2.3 Vapour Transfer. 2.3.1 Water Vapour in the Air. 22.214.171.124 Overview. 126.96.36.199 Quantities. 188.8.131.52 Maximum Vapour Pressure and Relative Humidity. 184.108.40.206 Changes of State in Humid Air. 220.127.116.11 Enthalpy of Moist Air. 18.104.22.168 Characterizing Moist Air. 22.214.171.124 Applications. 2.3.2 Water Vapour in Open-porous Materials. 126.96.36.199 Overview. 188.8.131.52 Sorption Isotherm and Specific Moisture Ratio. 184.108.40.206 The Physics Behind. 220.127.116.11 Impact of Salts. 18.104.22.168 Consequences. 2.3.3 Vapour Transfer in the Air. 2.3.4 Vapour Transfer in Materials and Construction Parts. 22.214.171.124 Flow Equation. 126.96.36.199 Conservation of Mass. 188.8.131.52 Vapour Transfer by ‘Equivalent’ Diffusion. 184.108.40.206 Vapour Transfer by (Equivalent) Diffusion and Convection. 2.3.5 Surface Film Coeffi cients for Diffusion. 2.3.6 Some Applications. 220.127.116.11 Diffusion Resistance of a Cavity. 18.104.22.168 Cavity Ventilation. 22.214.171.124 Water Vapour Balance in a Room in Case of Surface Condensation and Drying. 2.4 Moisture Transfer. 2.4.1 Overview. 2.4.2 Moisture Transfer in a Pore. 126.96.36.199 Capillarity. 188.8.131.52 Water Transfer. 184.108.40.206 Vapour Transfer. 220.127.116.11 Moisture Transfer. 2.4.3 Moisture Transfer in Materials and Construction Parts. 18.104.22.168 Transfer Equations. 22.214.171.124 Conservation of Mass. 126.96.36.199 Starting, Boundary and Contact Conditions. 188.8.131.52 Remark. 2.4.4 Simplified Moisture Transfer Model. 184.108.40.206 Assumptions. 220.127.116.11 Applications. 2.5 Problems. 2.6 References. 3 Combined Heat, Air and Moisture Transfer. 3.1 Overview. 3.2 Assumptions. 3.3 Solution. 3.4 Conservation Laws. 3.4.1 Conservation of Mass. 3.4.2 Conservation of Energy. 3.5 Flow Equations. 3.5.1 Heat. 3.5.2 Mass, Air. 18.104.22.168 Open Porous Materials. 22.214.171.124 Air Permeable Layers, Apertures, Joints, Cracks, Leaks and Cavities. 3.5.3 Mass, Moisture. 126.96.36.199 Water Vapour. 188.8.131.52 Water. 3.6 Equations of State. 3.6.1 Enthalpy/Temperature and Water Vapour Saturation Pressure/Temperature. 3.6.2 Relative Humidity/Moisture Content. 3.6.3 Suction/Moisture Content. 3.7 Starting, Boundary and Contact Conditions. 3.7.1 Starting Conditions. 3.7.2 Boundary Conditions. 3.7.3 Contact Conditions. 3.8 Two Examples of Simplified Models. 3.8.1 Heat, Air and Moisture Transfer in Non-Hygroscopic, Non-Capillary Materials. 3.8.2 Heat, Air and Moisture Transfer in Hygroscopic Materials at Low Moisture Content. 3.9 References. 4 Postscript.
Das Buch Building Physics von Hugo Hens ist ein englischsprachiges Fachbuch, das sich mit den Themen Wärme, Luft und Feuchtigkeit befasst. Die Tatsache, dass der Autor Professor an einer europäischen Universität ist (K.U. Leuven), kommt dem Lesen des englischsprachen Textes sehr entgegen. Die Kapitel sind -wenn auch sehr wissenschaftlich -dennoch gut verständlich. Damit bieten sie eine gute Grundlage, insbesondere für Studenten, die englischen Fachbegriffe zu den genannten Themen aufzunehmen. Der Spagat zwischen wissenschaftlichen Grundlagen und der Erläuterung bauphysikalischer Praxisprobleme gelingt dem Autor gut. Für eine Neuauflage wäre zur Vervollständigung des Gebietes der Bauphysik eine Ergänzung der bau- und raumakustischen Themen wünschenswert. Dr. Normen Langner, Bauhaus Universität Weimar ---------------------------------------------------------
HUGO HENS is professor at the University of Louvain (K.U. Leuven), Belgium. After four years of activity as a structural engineer and site supervisor, he returned to the university to receive a PhD in Building Physics. He taught Building Physics from 1975 to 2003 and Performance Based Building Design from 1970 to 2005 and still teaches Building Services. Hens is the author of several text books in Dutch on Building Physics, Performance Based Building Design and Building Services. He has authored and coauthored over 150 articles and conference papers, written hundreds of reports on building damage cases and their solution, introduced upgraded, research-based concepts for highly insulated roof and wall construction and directed several programs on building-energy related topics.
Bad experiences with construction quality, the energy crises of 1973 and 1979, complaints about ‘sick buildings,’ thermal, acoustical, visual and olfactory discomfort, the move towards more sustainability, have all accelerated the development of a field, which until 35 years ago was hardly more than an academic exercise: Building Physics. Through the application of existing physical knowledge and the combination with information coming from other disciplines, the field helps to understand the physical performance of building parts, buildings and the built environment, and translates it into correct design and construction. Theoretical building physics focuses on heat and mass transfer, sound and light. This volume considers air and moisture as mass flows and heat.
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