Details

Building Electro-Optical Systems


Building Electro-Optical Systems

Making It All Work
Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics 3. Aufl.

von: Philip C. D. Hobbs

107,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 05.01.2022
ISBN/EAN: 9781119439066
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 832

DRM-geschütztes eBook, Sie benötigen z.B. Adobe Digital Editions und eine Adobe ID zum Lesen.

Beschreibungen

<b>Building Electro-Optical Systems</b> <p>In the newly revised third edition of <i>Building Electro-Optical Systems: Making It All Work</i>, renowned Dr. Philip C. D. Hobbs delivers a birds-eye view of all the topics you’ll need to understand for successful optical instrument design and construction. The author draws on his own work as an applied physicist and consultant with over a decade of experience in designing and constructing electro-optical systems from beginning to end. <p>The book’s topics are chosen to allow readers in a variety of disciplines and fields to quickly and confidently decide whether a given device or technique is appropriate for their needs. Using accessible prose and intuitive organization, <i>Building Electro-Optical Systems</i> remains one of the most practical and solution-oriented resources available to graduate students and professionals. <p>The newest edition includes comprehensive revisions that reflect progress in the field of electro-optical instrument design and construction since the second edition was published. It also offers approximately 350 illustrations for visually oriented learners. Readers will also enjoy: <ul><li>A thorough introduction to basic optical calculations, including wave propagation, detection, coherent detection, and interferometers</li> <li>Practical discussions of sources and illuminators, including radiometry, continuum sources, incoherent line sources, lasers, laser noise, and diode laser coherence control</li> <li>Explorations of optical detection, including photodetection in semiconductors and signal-to-noise ratios</li> <li>Full treatments of lenses, prisms, and mirrors, as well as coatings, filters, and surface finishes, and polarization</li></ul> <p>Perfect for graduate students in physics, electrical engineering, optics, and optical engineering, <i>Building Electro-Optical Systems</i> is also an ideal resource for professional designers working in optics, electro-optics, analog electronics, and photonics.
<p>Preface xxxix</p> <p>Acknowledgments xliii</p> <p><b>1 Basic Optical Calculations </b><b>1</b></p> <p>1.1 Introduction 1</p> <p>1.2 Wave Propagation 2</p> <p>1.3 Calculating Wave Propagation in Real Life 7</p> <p>1.4 Detection 26</p> <p>1.5 Coherent Detection 26</p> <p>1.6 Interferometers 29</p> <p>1.7 Photon Budgets and Operating Specifications 30</p> <p>1.8 Signal Processing Strategy 36</p> <p><b>2 Sources And Illuminators </b><b>41</b></p> <p>2.1 Introduction 41</p> <p>2.2 The Spectrum 41</p> <p>2.3 Radiometry 43</p> <p>2.4 Continuum Sources 43</p> <p>2.5 Interlude: Coherence 46</p> <p>2.6 More Sources 50</p> <p>2.7 Incoherent Line Sources 55</p> <p>2.8 Using Low-Coherence Sources: Condensers 56</p> <p>2.9 Lasers 57</p> <p>2.10 Gas Lasers 59</p> <p>2.11 Solid-State Lasers 59</p> <p>2.12 Diode Lasers 61</p> <p>2.13 Laser Noise 69</p> <p>2.14 Diode Laser Coherence Control 76</p> <p><b>3 Optical Detection </b><b>81</b></p> <p>3.1 Introduction 81</p> <p>3.2 Signal-to-Noise Ratios 82</p> <p>3.3 Detector Figures of Merit 83</p> <p>3.4 Quantum Detectors 90</p> <p>3.5 Photomultipliers 100</p> <p>3.6 Thermal Detectors 114</p> <p>3.7 Image Intensifiers 115</p> <p>3.8 Silicon Array Sensors 116</p> <p>3.9 How Do I Know Which Noise Source Dominates? 124</p> <p>3.10 Hacks 129</p> <p><b>4 Lenses, Prisms, and Mirrors </b><b>137</b></p> <p>4.1 Introduction 137</p> <p>4.2 Optical Materials 137</p> <p>4.3 Light Transmission 140</p> <p>4.4 Surface Quality 141</p> <p>4.5 Windows 142</p> <p>4.6 Pathologies of Optical Elements 143</p> <p>4.7 Fringes 143</p> <p>4.8 Mirrors 147</p> <p>4.9 Glass Prisms 149</p> <p>4.10 Prism Pathologies 153</p> <p>4.11 Lenses 154</p> <p>4.12 Complex Lenses 158</p> <p>4.13 Other Lenslike Devices 162<i> </i></p> <p><b>5 Coatings, Filters, and Surface Finishes </b><b>165</b></p> <p>5.1 Introduction 165</p> <p>5.2 Metal Mirrors 165</p> <p>5.3 Transmissive Optical Coatings 168</p> <p>5.4 Simple Coating Theory 171</p> <p>5.5 Moth-Eye Finishes 179</p> <p>5.6 Absorptive Filters 180</p> <p>5.7 Beam Dumps and Baffles 182</p> <p>5.8 White Surfaces and Diffusers 186</p> <p><b>6 Polarization </b><b>191</b></p> <p>6.1 Introduction 191</p> <p>6.2 Polarization of Light 191</p> <p>6.3 Interaction of Polarization with Materials 193</p> <p>6.4 Absorption Polarizers 197</p> <p>6.5 Brewster Polarizers 197</p> <p>6.6 Birefringent Polarizers 198</p> <p>6.7 Double-Refraction Polarizers 199</p> <p>6.8 TIR Polarizers 202</p> <p>6.9 Retarders 203</p> <p>6.10 Polarization Control 206</p> <p><b>7 Exotic Optical Components </b><b>211</b></p> <p>7.1 Introduction 211</p> <p>7.2 Gratings 211</p> <p>7.3 Grating Pathologies 214</p> <p>7.4 Types of Gratings 215</p> <p>7.5 Resolution of Grating Instruments 218</p> <p>7.6 Fine Points of Gratings 219</p> <p>7.7 Holographic Optical Elements 222</p> <p>7.8 Photonic Crystals and Metamaterials 223</p> <p>7.9 Retroreflective Materials 224</p> <p>7.10 Scanners 225</p> <p>7.11 Modulators 231</p> <p><b>8 Fiber Optics </b><b>239</b></p> <p>8.1 Introduction 239</p> <p>8.2 Fiber Characteristics 239</p> <p>8.3 Fiber Theory 242</p> <p>8.4 Fiber Types 247</p> <p>8.5 Other Fiber Properties 251</p> <p>8.6 Working with Fibers 255</p> <p>8.7 Fiber Devices 260</p> <p>8.8 Diode Lasers and Fiber Optics 264</p> <p>8.9 Fiber Optic Sensors 264</p> <p>8.10 Intensity Sensors 265</p> <p>8.11 Spectrally Encoded Sensors 266</p> <p>8.12 Polarimetric Sensors 269</p> <p>8.13 Fiber Interferometers 270</p> <p>8.14 Two-Beam Fiber Interferometers 270</p> <p>8.15 Multiple Beam Fiber Interferometers 272</p> <p>8.16 Phase and Polarization Stabilization 274</p> <p>8.17 Multiplexing and Smart Structures 276</p> <p>8.18 Fiber Sensor Hype 276</p> <p><b>9 Optical Systems </b><b>279</b></p> <p>9.1 Introduction 279</p> <p>9.2 What, Exactly, Does a Lens Do? 279</p> <p>9.3 Diffraction 288</p> <p>9.4 Aberrations 300</p> <p>9.5 Representing Aberrations 303</p> <p>9.6 Optical Design Advice 306</p> <p>9.7 Practical Applications 308</p> <p>9.8 Illuminators 311</p> <p><b>10 Optical Measurements </b><b>315</b></p> <p>10.1 Introduction 315</p> <p>10.2 Grass on the Empire State Building 315</p> <p>10.3 Detection Issues: When Exactly Is Background Bad? 318</p> <p>10.4 Measure the Right Thing 322</p> <p>10.5 Getting More Signal Photons 324</p> <p>10.6 Reducing the Background Fluctuations 326</p> <p>10.7 Optically Zero-Background Measurements 328</p> <p>10.8 Spectrally Resolved Measurements 329</p> <p>10.9 Electronically Zero-Background Measurements 333<i> </i></p> <p>10.10 Labeling Signal Photons 336</p> <p><b>11 Designing Electro-Optical Systems </b><b>343</b></p> <p>11.1 Introduction 343</p> <p>11.2 Do You Really Want To Do This? 343</p> <p>11.3 Very Basic Marketing 350</p> <p>11.5 Technical Taste 354</p> <p>11.6 Instrument Design 357</p> <p>11.7 Guiding Principles 361</p> <p>11.8 Design for Alignment 364</p> <p>11.9 Turning a Prototype into a Product 367</p> <p><b>12 Building Optical Systems </b><b>371</b></p> <p>12.1 Introduction 371</p> <p>12.2 Construction Style 371</p> <p>12.3 Build What You Designed 372</p> <p>12.4 Assembling Lab Systems 373</p> <p>12.5 Optical Assembly and Alignment Philosophy 381</p> <p>12.6 Collimating Beams 381</p> <p>12.7 Focusing 383</p> <p>12.8 Alignment and Testing 385</p> <p>12.9 Prototypes 386</p> <p>12.10 Aligning Beams with Other Beams 387</p> <p>12.11 Advanced Tweaking 390</p> <p>12.12 Aligning Laser Systems 395</p> <p>12.13 Adhesives 397</p> <p>12.14 Cleaning 400</p> <p>12.15 Environmental Considerations 402</p> <p><b>13 Signal Processing 405</b></p> <p>13.1 Introduction 405</p> <p>13.2 Analog Signal Processing Theory 406</p> <p>13.3 Modulation and Demodulation 409</p> <p>13.4 Amplifiers 416</p> <p>13.5 Departures From Linearity 416</p> <p>13.6 Noise and Interference 420</p> <p>13.7 Frequency Conversion 435</p> <p>13.8 Filtering 438</p> <p>13.10 Reducing Interference and Noise 450</p> <p>13.11 Data Acquisition and Control 452</p> <p><b>14 Electronic Building Blocks </b><b>457</b></p> <p>14.1 Introduction 457</p> <p>14.2 Resistors 457</p> <p>14.3 Capacitors 460</p> <p>14.4 Transmission Lines 470</p> <p>14.5 Transmission Line Devices 476</p> <p>14.6 Diodes 477</p> <p>14.7 Bipolar Junction Transistors 479</p> <p>14.8 Field-Effect Transistors (FETs) 486</p> <p>14.9 Heterojunction FETs 487</p> <p>14.10 Signal Processing Components 488</p> <p>14.11 Digitizers 496</p> <p>14.12 Analog Behavior of Digital Circuits 505</p> <p><b>15 Electronic Subsystem Design 507</b></p> <p>15.1 Introduction 507</p> <p>15.2 Design Approaches 507</p> <p>15.3 Perfection 514</p> <p>15.4 Feedback Loops 516</p> <p>15.5 Local Feedback 522</p> <p>15.6 Signal Detectors 522</p> <p>15.7 Phase-Locked Loops 530</p> <p>15.8 Calibration 535</p> <p>15.9 Filters 537</p> <p>15.10 Other Stuff 540<i> </i></p> <p>15.11 More Advanced Feedback Techniques 542</p> <p>15.12 Hints 544</p> <p>15.13 Linearizing 545</p> <p>15.14 Ultrastable Low Frequency Circuits 548</p> <p>15.15 Digital Control and Communication 549</p> <p>15.17 Bulletproofing 553</p> <p>15.18 Interference 557</p> <p>15.19 Reliable Designs 558</p> <p><b>16 Electronic Construction Techniques </b><b>559</b></p> <p>16.1 Introduction 559</p> <p>16.2 Circuit Strays 559</p> <p>16.3 Circuit Boards 560</p> <p>16.4 Stray Coupling 563</p> <p>16.5 Ground Plane Construction 563</p> <p>16.6 Technical Noise and Interference 566</p> <p>16.7 Product Construction 572</p> <p>16.8 Getting Ready 574</p> <p>16.10 Surface Mount Prototypes 582</p> <p>16.11 Prototyping Filters 585</p> <p>16.12 Tuning, or, You Can’t Hit What You Can’t See 587</p> <p><b>17 Digital Signal Processing </b><b>591</b></p> <p>17.1 Introduction 591</p> <p>17.2 Elementary Operations 592</p> <p>17.3 Dead Time Correction 595</p> <p>17.4 Fourier Domain Techniques 595</p> <p>17.5 The Fast Fourier Transform 602</p> <p>17.6 Power Spectrum Estimation 608</p> <p>17.7 Digital Filtering 612</p> <p>17.9 Resampling 617</p> <p>17.10 Fixing Space-Variant Instrument Functions 618</p> <p>17.11 Finite Precision Effects 619</p> <p>17.12 Pulling Data Out of Noise 620</p> <p>17.13 Phase Recovery Techniques 624</p> <p><b>18 Front Ends </b><b>627</b></p> <p>18.1 Introduction 627</p> <p>18.2 Photodiode Front Ends 628</p> <p>18.3 Key Idea: Reduce the Swing Across <i>Cd </i>630</p> <p>18.4 Transimpedance Amplifiers 631</p> <p>18.5 External Input Stages 635</p> <p>18.7 Advanced Photodiode Front Ends 652</p> <p>18.8 Other Types of Front End 658</p> <p>18.9 Hints 660</p> <p><b>19 Bringing Up the System </b><b>665</b></p> <p>19.1 Introduction 665</p> <p>19.2 Avoiding Catastrophe 667</p> <p>19.3 Debugging and Troubleshooting 670</p> <p>19.4 Getting Ready 671</p> <p>19.5 Indispensable Equipment 673</p> <p>19.6 Debugging Pickup and Interference Problems 676</p> <p>19.7 Digital Troubleshooting 677</p> <p>19.8 Analog Electronic Troubleshooting 678</p> <p>19.9 Oscillations 681</p> <p>19.10 Other Common Problems 683</p> <p>19.11 Debugging and Troubleshooting Optical Subsystems 685</p> <p>19.12 Localizing the Problem 688</p> <p><b>20 Thermal Control </b><b>695</b></p> <p>20.1 Introduction 695</p> <p>20.2 Thermal Problems and Solutions 696</p> <p>20.3 Heat Flow 699</p> <p>20.4 Insulation 705</p> <p>20.5 Temperature Sensors 707</p> <p>20.6 Temperature Actuators: Heaters and Coolers 712</p> <p>20.7 Heat Sinks 716</p> <p>20.8 Temperature Controller Design 722</p> <p>20.9 Temperature Controllers 725</p> <p><b>Appendix A Good Books </b><b>735</b></p> <p>A.1 Why Books? 735</p> <p>A.2 Good Books for Instrument Builders 735</p> <p>Notation 743</p> <p>Physical Constants and Rules of Thumb 745</p> <p>Index 747</p>
<p><b>Philip C.D. Hobbs, PhD,</b> is the Principal of ElectroOptical Innovations, a consultancy in Briarcliff Manor, New York.</p>
<p><b>A mentor-in-a-box for anyone working with electro-optical systems</b></p> <p>In the newly revised third edition of <i>Building Electro-Optical Systems: Making It All Work, </i>renowned Dr. Philip C. D. Hobbs delivers a birds-eye view of all the topics you’ll need to understand for successful optical instrument design and construction. The author draws on his own work as an applied physicist and consultant with over a decade of experience in designing and constructing electro-optical systems from beginning to end. <p>The book’s topics are chosen to allow readers in a variety of disciplines and fields to quickly and confidently decide whether a given device or technique is appropriate for their needs. Using accessible prose and intuitive organization, Building Electro-Optical Systems remains one of the most practical and solution-oriented resources available to graduate students and professionals. <p>The newest edition includes comprehensive revisions that reflect progress in the field of electro-optical instrument design and construction since the second edition was published. It also offers approximately 350 illustrations for visually oriented learners. Readers will also enjoy: <ul><li>A thorough introduction to basic optical calculations, including wave propagation, detection, coherent detection, and interferometers</li> <li>Practical discussions of sources and illuminators, including radiometry, continuum sources, incoherent line sources, lasers, laser noise, and diode laser coherence control</li> <li>Explorations of optical detection, including photodetection in semiconductors and signal-to-noise ratios</li> <li>Full treatments of lenses, prisms, and mirrors, as well as coatings, filters, and surface finishes, and polarization</li></ul> <p>Perfect for graduate students in physics, electrical engineering, optics, and optical engineering, <i>Building Electro-Optical Systems</i> is also an ideal resource for professional designers working in optics, electro-optics, analog electronics, and photonics.

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