Boys and Girls Learn Differently! A Guide for Teachers and Parents
A thoroughly revised edition of the classic resource for understanding gender differences in the classroom In this profoundly significant book, author Michael Gurian has revised and updated his groundbreaking book that clearly demonstrated how the distinction in hard-wiring and socialized gender differences affects how boys and girls learn. Gurian presents a proven method to educate our children based on brain science, neurological development, and chemical and hormonal disparities. The innovations presented in this book were applied in the classroom and proven successful, with dramatic improvements in test scores, during a two-year study that Gurian and his colleagues conducted in six Missouri school districts. Explores the inherent differences between the developmental neuroscience of boys and girls Reveals how the brain learns Explains when same sex classrooms are appropriate, and when they’re not This edition includes new information on a wealth of topics including how to design the ultimate classroom for kids in elementary, secondary, middle, and high school.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xv INTRODUCTION 1 Who We Are and What We Do 2 How to Use This New Edition 5 Success Stories Since the Missouri Pilot 6 Innovating with Single-Sex Options 8 Moving Forward at the Nexus of Science and Practice 9 PART ONE: HOW BOYS AND GIRLS LEARN DIFFERENTLY 11 1 HOW THE BRAIN LEARNS: INHERENT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BOYS AND GIRLS 13 The Wide Spectrum of Gender in the Brain 15 How the Brain Works 17 How Boys’ and Girls’ Minds Are Different 19 Developmental and Structural Differences 25 Chemical Differences 27 Hormonal Differences 27 Functional Differences 29 Differences in Processing Emotion 31 Why the Brains Are Different 37 A Brief History of Brain Difference 38 The Role of Hormones in the Womb and at Puberty 40 2 HOW BRAIN-BASED DIFFERENCES AFFECT BOYS AND GIRLS 43 Areas of Learning-Style Difference 44 Deductive and Inductive Reasoning 44 Abstract and Concrete Reasoning 45 Use of Language 45 Logic and Evidence 46 The Likelihood of Boredom 46 Use of Space 47 Movement 47 Sensitivity and Group Dynamics 47 Use of Symbolism 49 Use of Learning Teams 49 Learning Differences and the Intelligences 50 Time and Sequence 50 Space and Place 51 Applying the Intelligences to Brain-Based Gender Difference 52 The State of Boys and Girls in Our Schools 54 Advantages for Boys, Challenges for Girls 54 Advantages for Girls, Challenges for Boys 56 Applying Brain-Based Research to Gender Advantage 57 Studies Based on Political Assumptions 64 The Political Search for Workplace Privation 66 Creating the Ultimate Classroom 67 PART TWO: CREATING THE ULTIMATE CLASSROOM FOR BOTH BOYS AND GIRLS 71 Authors' Note 72 3 THE ULTIMATE PRESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN CLASSROOM 75 The Foundation of Early Learning: Bonding and Attachment 76 Handling Children’s Emotional Stress 78 Bonding and Attachment Solutions 80 Day Care, Preschool, and Kindergarten Community Building 86 The Case for Preschool 86 Parents as Teachers 87 The Parent Education Coordinator 88 Nutrition and Learning 89 Carbohydrates, Proteins, and the School Day 89 Fatty Acids 91 Dealing with Aggressive Behavior 92 Aggression Nurturance 95 Increasing Empathy Nurturance and Verbalization 96 Discipline Techniques 99 The Outdoor Classroom 101 Directing Boys and Girls to Academic Excellence 103 Teaching Math and Spatials 105 Language Development 113 Special Education 117 Creating a Tribe: Bonding and School-Home Alliances 118 Use of Psychotropic Medications 119 The Ultimate Preschool and Kindergarten Classroom for Both Boys and Girls 123 For the Boys 123 For the Girls 124 Tips for Parents 125 4 THE ULTIMATE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CLASSROOM 127 Structural Innovations 129 Use of School Time 130 Class Size, Number of Teachers, and Teacher-to-Student Ratio 133 Using Group Dynamics and Group Work as a Basis of Pedagogy 135 Use of Computers and Other Media in Elementary School 137 The Outdoor Classroom 139 Bonding and Attachment in Elementary Learning 142 Handling Students' Emotional Stress 149 The Role of the Mentor 155 Community Collaboration: Mentors from Outside the School 158 How to Provide Discipline in the Elementary Classroom 160 Learning from Past Mistakes 161 Discipline Techniques After an Offending Act 163 Discipline Techniques to Prevent Undisciplined Behavior 168 Motivation Techniques 170 Character Education 171 CHARACTERplus 172 Integrating Character Education into the Whole School 173 Dealing with Cruelty, Hazing, and Violence 174 Defi nition of Terms 175 Zero-Tolerance Policies 176 Innovations for Academic Excellence 180 Innovations for Teaching Language Arts, Especially Reading and Writing 180 Innovations for Teaching Math and Science 184 Standardized Testing 189 Special Education, Learning Disabilities, and Behavioral Disabilities 191 Class Within a Class 193 Fast ForWord 195 Other Spatial Stimulants and Use of Movement 195 The Multisensory Approach to Reading Problems 196 Cooperative and Competitive Learning 196 Sports and Athletics 199 The Ultimate Elementary Classroom for Both Boys and Girls 200 For the Boys 200 For the Girls 201 Tips for Parents 203 5 THE ULTIMATE MIDDLE SCHOOL CLASSROOM 204 Structural Innovations 206 Single-Sex Education 206 Rites of Passage 215 Use of Uniforms 218 Classroom Size and Other Innovations 220 Bonding and Attachment 222 The Early Adolescent's Drop in Self-Esteem 223 Handling Students' Emotional Stresses 225 Community Collaboration 231 How to Provide Discipline in the Middle School Classroom 234 Strategies for Providing Discipline 234 Mandatory Sports 238 Character Education 240 Innovations for Teaching Language Arts and Math and Science 243 Innovations for Teaching Language Arts 243 Innovations for Teaching Math and Science 247 Girls and Computer Science 249 Special Education 250 Rethinking Special Education Through the Lens of Gender and the Brain 252 Innovations for Dealing with Behavioral Elements of Special Ed 255 The Underachiever as a Special Ed Category 257 "Mr. Daba": The Power of Bonding 258 The Ultimate Middle School Classroom for Both Boys and Girls 261 For the Boys 262 For the Girls 263 Tips for Parents 263 6 THE ULTIMATE HIGH SCHOOL CLASSROOM 266 Bonding and Attachment 268 Communication and Confl ict Resolution 270 The Art of Mentoring 272 Peer Leadership, Not Peer Pressure 274 Discipline Systems 275 Character Education and Service Projects 277 Structural Innovations 278 Class and School Size 279 Uniforms 280 Time and Time-of-Day Innovations 284 The Innovations Students Are Asking For 286 Counterinnovations 287 Rites of Passage 289 Full Psychosocial Education, Not Just Sex Education 291 Improving Sex Education 292 Gender Education 294 Innovations to Improve Academic Learning 297 Teaching Mathematics, Science, and Technology 298 Technology and Gender 301 Teaching Reading and Literacy 302 Standardized Testing 307 Special Education 310 The Ultimate High School Classroom for Both Boys and Girls 313 For the Boys 313 For the Girls 314 Tips for Parents 315 What High School Students Are Saying: Their Fears 316 EPILOGUE 319 NOTES 323 PARENTS' BOOK STUDY FOR BOYS AND GIRLS LEARN DIFFERENTLY! 333 TEACHERS' BOOK STUDY FOR BOYS AND GIRLS LEARN DIFFERENTLY! 341 THE GURIAN INSTITUTE 349 ABOUT THE AUTHORS 351 INDEX 355
Michael Gurian is a pioneer and leading authority in gender issues worldwide. The New York Times best-selling author of The Wonder of Boys, The Minds of Boys, The Purpose of Boys, and The Wonder of Girls, he is cofounder of the Gurian Institute, an active research and training organization in the fields of education, family development, and gender studies. Kathy Stevens is executive director of the Gurian Institute and coauthor of five books with Michael, including The Minds of Boys.
THE 10TH ANNIVERSARY EDITION of the Groundbreaking Classic For Understanding Gender Differences in the Classroom With this edition, author Michael Gurian and educator Kathy Stevens have revised and updated Gurian's highly acclaimed book Boys and Girls Learn Differently! That classic work clearly demonstrated how the distinction in hard wiring and socialized gender differences affects how boys and girls learn. In this new edition, Gurian and Stevens present a proven method for educating our children based on both the latest research in brain science and leading-edge practical strategies. The innovations presented in this book were applied in the classroom and proven successful, with significant improvements in test scores, student behavior, and teacher effectiveness, during a two-year study Gurian and his colleagues conducted in six Missouri school districts. This revised edition also includes new information on a wealth of topics including how to design successful classrooms for both boys and girls in elementary, secondary, middle, and high school. PRAISE FOR the first edition of Boys and Girls Learn Differently! "Guidance on how to create 'ultimate classrooms' at all grade levels." —Chicago Tribune "Calls for many changes if we are to make schools the best that they can be." —American Secondary Education "Provides guidelines for brain-based innovations that will motivate and inspire everyone—teachers, parents, policymakers, and caretakers—interested in educating kids." —The African Sun Times "Combines theory and practical suggestions in an effective, readable text. Recommended." —Library Talk
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