Details

Bad Arguments


Bad Arguments

100 of the Most Important Fallacies in Western Philosophy
1. Aufl.

von: Robert Arp, Steven Barbone, Michael Bruce

12,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 28.09.2018
ISBN/EAN: 9781119165798
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 456

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Beschreibungen

A timely and accessible guide to 100 of the most infamous logical fallacies in Western philosophy, helping readers avoid and detect false assumptions and faulty reasoning  You’ll love this book or you’ll hate it. So, you’re either with us or against us. And if you’re against us then you hate books. No true intellectual would hate this book. Ever decide to avoid a restaurant because of one bad meal? Choose a product because a celebrity endorsed it? Or ignore what a politician says because she’s not a member of your party? For as long as people have been discussing, conversing, persuading, advocating, proselytizing, pontificating, or otherwise stating their case, their arguments have been vulnerable to false assumptions and faulty reasoning. Drawing upon a long history of logical falsehoods and philosophical flubs, Bad Arguments demonstrates how misguided arguments come to be, and what we can do to detect them in the rhetoric of others and avoid using them ourselves. Fallacies—or conclusions that don’t follow from their premise—are at the root of most bad arguments, but it can be easy to stumble into a fallacy without realizing it. In this clear and concise guide to good arguments gone bad, Robert Arp, Steven Barbone, and Michael Bruce take readers through 100 of the most infamous fallacies in Western philosophy, identifying the most common missteps, pitfalls, and dead-ends of arguments gone awry. Whether an instance of sunk costs, is ought, affirming the consequent, moving the goal post, begging the question, or the ever-popular slippery slope, each fallacy engages with examples drawn from contemporary politics, economics, media, and popular culture. Further diagrams and tables supplement entries and contextualize common errors in logical reasoning. At a time in our world when it is crucial to be able to identify and challenge rhetorical half-truths, this bookhelps readers to better understand flawed argumentation and develop logical literacy. Unrivaled in its breadth of coverage and a worthy companion to its sister volume Just the Arguments (2011), Bad Arguments is an essential tool for undergraduate students and general readers looking to hone their critical thinking and rhetorical skills.
Notes on Contributors xiii Introduction 1 Part I Formal Fallacies 35 Propositional Logic 37 1 Affirming a Disjunct 39Jason Iuliano 2 Affirming the Consequent 42Brett Gaul 3 Denying the Antecedent 46Brett Gaul Categorical Logic 49 4 Exclusive Premises 51Charlene Elsby 5 Four Terms 55Charlene Elsby 6 Illicit Major and Minor Terms 60Charlene Elsby 7 Undistributed Middle 63Charlene Elsby Part II Informal Fallacies 67 Fallacies of Relevance 69 8 Ad Hominem: Bias 71George Wrisley 9 Ad Hominem: Circumstantial 77George Wrisley 10 Ad Hominem: Direct 83George Wrisley 11 Ad Hominem: Tu Quoque 88George Wrisley 12 Adverse Consequences 94David Vander Laan 13 Appeal to Emotion: Force or Fear 98George Wrisley 14 Appeal to Emotion: Pity 102George Wrisley 15 Appeal to Ignorance 106Benjamin W. McCraw 16 Appeal to the People 112Benjamin W. McCraw 17 Appeal to Personal Incredulity 115Tuomas W. Manninen 18 Appeal to Ridicule 118Gregory L. Bock 19 Appeal to Tradition 121Nicolas Michaud 20 Argument from Fallacy 125Christian Cotton 21 Availability Error 128David Kyle Johnson 22 Base Rate 133Tuomas W. Manninen 23 Burden of Proof 137Andrew Russo 24 Countless Counterfeits 140David Kyle Johnson 25 Diminished Responsibility 145Tuomas W. Manninen 26 Essentializing 149Jack Bowen 27 Galileo Gambit 152David Kyle Johnson 28 Gambler’s Fallacy 157Grant Sterling 29 Genetic Fallacy 160Frank Scalambrino 30 Historian’s Fallacy 163Heather Rivera 31 Homunculus 165Kimberly Baltzer?Jaray 32 Inappropriate Appeal to Authority 168Nicolas Michaud 33 Irrelevant Conclusion 172Steven Barbone 34 Kettle Logic 174Andy Wible 35 Line Drawing 177Alexander E. Hooke 36 Mistaking the Relevance of Proximate Causation 181David Kyle Johnson 37 Moving the Goalposts 185Tuomas W. Manninen 38 Mystery, Therefore Magic 189David Kyle Johnson 39 Naturalistic Fallacy 193Benjamin W. McCraw 40 Poisoning the Well 196Roberto Ruiz 41 Proving Too Much 201Kimberly Baltzer?Jaray 42 Psychologist’s Fallacy 204Frank Scalambrino 43 Red Herring 208Heather Rivera 44 Reductio ad Hitlerum 212Frank Scalambrino 45 Argument by Repetition 215Leigh Kolb 46 Special Pleading 219Dan Yim 47 Straw Man 223Scott Aikin and John Casey 48 Sunk Cost 227Robert Arp 49 Two Wrongs Make a Right 230David LaRocca 50 Weak Analogy 234Bertha Alvarez Manninen Fallacies of Ambiguity 239 51 Accent 241Roberto Ruiz 52 Amphiboly 246Roberto Ruiz 53 Composition 250Jason Waller 54 Confusing an Explanation for an Excuse 252Kimberly Baltzer?Jaray 55 Definist Fallacy 255Christian Cotton 56 Division 259Jason Waller 57 Equivocation 261Bertha Alvarez Manninen 58 Etymological Fallacy 266Leigh Kolb 59 Euphemism 270Kimberly Baltzer?Jaray 60 Hedging 273Christian Cotton 61 If by Whiskey 277Christian Cotton 62 Inflation of Conflict 280Andy Wible 63 Legalistic Mistake 282Marco Antonio Azevedo 64 Oversimplification 286Dan Burkett 65 Proof by Verbosity 289Phil Smolenski 66 Sorites Fallacy 293Jack Bowen Fallacies of Presumption 297 67 Accident 299Steven Barbone 68 All or Nothing 301David Kyle Johnson 69 Anthropomorphic Bias 305David Kyle Johnson 70 Begging the Question 308Heather Rivera 71 Chronological Snobbery 311A.G. Holdier 72 Complex Question 314A.G. Holdier 73 Confirmation Bias 317David Kyle Johnson 74 Conjunction 321Jason Iuliano 75 Constructive Nature of Perception 324David Kyle Johnson 76 Converse Accident 330Steven Barbone 77 Existential Fallacy 332Frank Scalambrino 78 False Cause: Cum Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc 335Bertha Alvarez Manninen 79 False Cause: Ignoring Common Cause 338Bertha Alvarez Manninen 80 False Cause: Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc 342Bertha Alvarez Manninen 81 False Dilemma 346Jennifer Culver 82 Free Speech 348Scott Aikin and John Casey 83 Guilt by Association 351Leigh Kolb 84 Hasty Generalization 354Michael J. Muniz 85 Intentional Fallacy 357Nicolas Michaud 86 Is/Ought Fallacy 360Mark T. Nelson 87 Masked Man 364Charles Taliaferro 88 Middle Ground 367Grant Sterling 89 Mind Projection 369Charles Taliaferro 90 Moralistic Fallacy 371Galen Foresman 91 No True Scotsman 374Tuomas W. Manninen 92 Reification 378Robert Sinclair 93 Representative Heuristic 382David Kyle Johnson 94 Slippery Slope 385Michael J. Muniz 95 Stolen Concept 388Rory E. Kraft, Jr. 96 Subjective Validation 392David Kyle Johnson 97 Subjectivist Fallacy 396Frank Scalambrino 98 Suppressed Evidence 399David Kyle Johnson 99 Unfalsifiability 403Jack Bowen 100 Unwarranted Assumption 407Kimberly Baltzer?Jaray Index 410  
ROBERT ARP is an instructor of philosophy and a researcher for the US Army. He has published numerous books and articles in philosophy and other areas. More information about his work and research interests can be found on his website. STEVEN BARBONE is an Associate Professor of philosophy at San Diego State University. He has published numerous articles and book chapters on Baruch Spinoza. MICHAEL BRUCE works in the software industry in San Francisco. With Steven Barbone, he edited Just the Arguments (Wiley Blackwell, 2011). An avid researcher in the history of philosophy and psychology, he has been published widely and is an active blogger for Psychology Today.
You'll love this book or you'll hate it. So, you're either with us or against us. And if you're against us then you hate books. No true intellectual would hate this book. Ever decide to avoid a restaurant because of one bad meal? Choose a product because a celebrity endorsed it? Or ignore what a politician says because she's not a member of your party? For as long as people have been discussing, conversing, persuading, advocating, proselytizing, pontificating, or otherwise stating their case, arguments have been vulnerable to false assumptions and faulty reasoning. Drawing upon a long history of logical falsehoods and philosophical flubs, Bad Arguments demonstrates how misguided arguments come to be, what we can do to detect them in the rhetoric of others, and how to avoid using them ourselves. Fallacies – or conclusions that don't follow from their premises – are at the root of most bad arguments, but it can be easy to stumble into a fallacy without realizing it. In this clear and concise guide to good arguments gone bad, Robert Arp, Steven Barbone, and Michael Bruce take readers through 100 of the most infamous fallacies in Western philosophy, identifying the most common missteps, pitfalls, and dead-ends of argumentation. Whether an instance of sunk cost, is ought, affirming the consequent, moving the goal post, begging the question, or the ever-popular slippery slope, each fallacy is enriched by examples drawn from contemporary politics, economics, media, and popular culture, and is supplemented with useful diagrams and tables. At a time in our world when it is crucial to be able to identify and challenge rhetorical half-truths, this book helps readers to better understand flawed argumentation and develop logical literacy. Unrivaled in its breadth of coverage and a worthy companion to its sister volume, Just the Arguments (2011), Bad Arguments is an essential tool for students and general readers looking to hone their critical thinking and rhetorical skills.

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