Details

Automated Vehicles and MaaS


Automated Vehicles and MaaS

Removing the Barriers
IEEE Press 1. Aufl.

von: Bob Williams

103,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 11.05.2021
ISBN/EAN: 9781119765332
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 288

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Beschreibungen

<b>AUTOMATED VEHICLES AND MaaS</b> <p><b>A topical overview of the issues facing automated driving systems and Mobility as a Service, identifies the obstacles to implementation and offers potential solutions</b><p>Advances in cooperative and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies, cultural and socio-economic shifts, measures to combat climate change, social pressures to reduce road deaths and injuries, and changing attitudes toward self-driving cars, are creating new and exciting mobility scenarios worldwide. However, many obstacles remain and are compounded by the consequences of COVID-19. Mobility as a Service (MaaS) integrates various forms of public and private transport services into a single on-demand mobility service. Combining trains, cars, buses, bicycles, and other forms of transport, MaaS promises a convenient, cost-effective, and eco-friendly alternative to private automobiles.<p><i>Automated Vehicles and MaaS: Removing the Barriers</i> is an up-to-date overview of the contemporary challenges facing CAVs and MaaS. Written in a clear and accessible style, this timely volume summarizes recent research studies, describes the evolution of automated driving systems and MaaS, identifies the barriers to their widespread adoption, and proposes potential solutions to overcome and remove these barriers. The text focuses on the claims, realities, politics, new organizational roles, and implementation problems associated with CAVs and MaaS—providing industry professionals, policymakers, planners, administrators, and investors with a clear understanding of the issues facing the introduction of automated driving systems and MaaS. This important guide and reference:<ul><li>Provides an overview of recent progress, the current state of the art, and discussion of future objectives</li><li>Presents both technical background and general overview of automated driving systems and MaaS</li><li>Covers political, commercial, and practical issues, as well as technical and research content, yet suitable for non-specialists</li><li>Helps readers make informed decisions and realistic estimates for implementing mobility solutions and new business models for transport services</li><li>Includes an extensive bibliography with direct links to in-depth technical engineering and research information</li></ul><p><i>Automated Vehicles and MaaS: Removing the Barriers</i> is an essential resource for transport providers, vehicle manufacturers, urban and transport planners, students of transportation, vehicle technology, and urban planning, and transport policy and strategy managers, advisors, and reviewers.
<p>1. The promise and hype regarding automated driving and MaaS 6</p> <p>1.1 The promise 6</p> <p>1.2 What do we mean by the term ‘automated driving’? 9</p> <p>1.3 The hype 11</p> <p>2 Automated Driving levels 27</p> <p>2.1 SAE J3016 27</p> <p>2.2 The Significance of Operational Design Domain (ODD 38</p> <p>2.3 Deprecated terms 39</p> <p>2.4 No relative merit 40</p> <p>2.5 Mutually Exclusive Levels 40</p> <p>2.6 J3016 Limitations 41</p> <p>2.7 Actors in the automated vehicle paradigm 42</p> <p>2.8 Other functions 49</p> <p>2.8.1 Regulation data access 49</p> <p>3 The current reality 51</p> <p>3.1 UNECE WP 29 51</p> <p>3.2 Social acceptance 53</p> <p>3.3 SMMT 53</p> <p>3.4 Other observations 54</p> <p>3.5 The European Commission 55</p> <p>3.6  Legislation 56</p> <p>3.7 Subsidiarity 57</p> <p>3.8 Viewpoints 57</p> <p>4 Automated Driving Paradigms 60</p> <p>4.1 OECD 60</p> <p>4.4 Communications evolution 60</p> <p>4.2 Cooperative ITS 62</p> <p>4.3 The C-ITS Platform 65</p> <p>4.5 Holistic approach 67</p> <p>4.6 It won’t happen quickly 68</p> <p>4.7 Implications of fully automated vehicles 69</p> <p>5 The MaaS Paradigm 81</p> <p>5.1  Purist definition for MaaS 81</p> <p>5.2 Vehicle manufacturer perspective for MaaS 81</p> <p>5.3 Traditional transport service provider perspective for MaaS 82</p> <p>5.4 MaaS from the perspective of the MaaS Broker 82</p> <p>5.5 MaaS as a tool for Social Engineering 87</p> <p>5.6 MaaS experience to date 89</p> <p>5.7 MaaS and Covid-19 89</p> <p>6 Challenges facing automated driving 93</p> <p>7 Potential problems hindering the instantiation of MaaS 98</p> <p>7.1 Root causes of obstacles 98</p> <p>7.2 Level of community readiness 98</p> <p>7.3 Level of Social Engineering readiness 99</p> <p>7.4 Perception of risks 101</p> <p>7.5 Level of market readiness 101</p> <p>7.6 Level of Software solution readiness 103</p> <p>7.7 Training 103</p> <p>7.8 Timing 103</p> <p>7.9 Institutional & Governance 103</p> <p>8 Potential solutions to overcoming barriers to automated driving 106</p> <p>8.1 Vehicle manufacturers flawed paradigm of the automated vehicle 106</p> <p>8.2 Vehicle manufacturers using different paradigms for competitive advantage 107</p> <p>8.3 Road operator’s responsibilities 110</p> <p>8.4 New modes of transport and new mobility services must be safe and secure by design 118</p> <p>8.5 How other road users interact with AVs 119</p> <p>8.6 Automated vehicles will have to be able to identify and consistently respond to different forms of communication 119</p> <p>8.7 AV’s by themselves will not necessarily be smarter than conventional vehicles 122</p> <p>8.8 Congestion levels will not drop significantly 124</p> <p>8.9 Automated vehicles will release unsatiated demand 125</p> <p>8.10 Safety and some operational data must be freely shared 128</p> <p>8.11 Mixed AV and conventional traffic 128</p> <p>8.12 AV Acceptability 129</p> <p>8.13 Low latency communication 130</p> <p>8.14 Roads could be allocated exclusively to AVs 133</p> <p>8.15 Automated and connected vehicles bring new requirements 135</p> <p>8.16  Cybersecurity 136</p> <p>8.17 Changing speed limits and even getting signs put up can take years 141</p> <p>8.18 Political decisions needed 142</p> <p>8.19 Role of government 143</p> <p>8.20 Fallback to driver 149</p> <p>8.21 Range of services supported 156</p> <p>8.21.1 Services that can be instantiated without the support of the local infrastructure 157</p> <p>8.21.2 Services that can only be provided using data/information from the local infrastructure 158</p> <p>8.21.3 Services that can be enhanced/improved/extended by using data/information from the local infrastructure 158</p> <p>8.21.4 The HARTS architecture with reference to C-ITS platform  Day/Day 1.5 services 160</p> <p>8.22 Young drivers and experience 197</p> <p>8.23 Liability 198</p> <p>8.24 Level 5 may take a long time to instantiate 203</p> <p>9 Potential solutions to overcoming barriers to MaaS 205</p> <p>9.1 Addressing General issues 205</p> <p>9.2 Essentials to enable MaaS 206</p> <p>9.2.1 Trust 207</p> <p>9.2.2 Impartiality 207</p> <p>9.2.3 Cooperation 208</p> <p>9.2.4 Integration services 208</p> <p>9.2.5 Commercial agreements 209</p> <p>9.2.6 Data protection 210</p> <p>9.2.7 Solid Governance model 211</p> <p>9.3 Removing Obstacles to MaaS 217</p> <p>9.3 Innovative enablers for MaaS 218</p> <p>10 The C-ART innovation 220</p> <p>10.1 Overview 220</p> <p>10.2 Policy context 221</p> <p>10.3 Key conclusions 222</p> <p>10.4 C-ART scenarios 223</p> <p>10.4.1 Short to medium term scenario (2020-2030): C-ART 2030 223</p> <p>10.4.2  Medium to long term scenario (2030-2050): C-ART 2050 224</p> <p>10.4.3 Town planning as a consequence of C-ART 224</p> <p>10.4.4 An assessment of C-ART 225</p> <p>10.4.5 Technology principles and architecture behind C-ART 225</p> <p>10. 4.6  The C-ART framework 228</p> <p>10.4.7 Some observations on Project C-ART 231</p> <p>11 Potential solutions to instantiate AVs and MaaS: Managed Architecture for Transportation Optimisation (MOAT) 233</p> <p>11.1  Managed not controlled 233</p> <p>11.2 High level Actors in the MOAT architecture 235</p> <p>11.2.1 Traveller Group (Traveller) 235</p> <p>11.2.2 Subscriber (Subscriber) 235</p> <p>11.2.3 Travel Service Provider (TSP) 236</p> <p>11.2.4 AV operator (AVO) 236</p> <p>11.2.6 Travel Information Provider (TIP) 236</p> <p>11.2.7 Traffic Management Centre (TMC) 236</p> <p>11.2.8 Travel Optimisation Service (TOS) 236</p> <p>11.3 MOAT from the subscriber / user perspective 237</p> <p>11.4 MOAT from the Travel Service Provider perspective 239</p> <p>11.4.1 Operate user interface (UI) 239</p> <p>11.4.2 Receive request from subscriber 239</p> <p>11.4.3 Characterise request options 239</p> <p>11.4.4 Calculate viable travel options 239</p> <p>11.4.5 Confirm options to subscriber 239</p> <p>11.4.6 Receive subscriber selection 240</p> <p>11.4.7 Fulfil travel arrangements 240</p> <p>11.4.8 Provide confirmation to subscriber 240</p> <p>11.4.9 Monitor/Manage progress of journey 240</p> <p>11.4.10 Acknowledge end of journey 240</p> <p>11.4.11 Process administration requirement 240</p> <p>11.4.12 Delete personal data 240</p> <p>11.5  MOAT from the road operator perspective 240</p> <p>11.6 MOAT from the AV operator (AVO) perspective 241</p> <p>11.7 MOAT from the Travel Optimisation Service (TOS) perspective 242</p> <p>11.8 MOAT from the Traffic Management Centre (TMC) perspective 243</p> <p>11.9 MOAT from the Travel Information Provider (TIP) perspective 243</p> <p>11.10 MOAT and privacy 243</p> <p>11.11 The MOAT overview architecture 243</p> <p>11.12 The MOAT systems architecture 244</p> <p>12 The Business Case for MaaS 247</p> <p>12.1 The Challenge 247</p> <p>12.3 The Solution 247</p> <p>12.4 The Outlook 248</p> <p>13 The Business Case for Automated Vehicles 248</p> <p>13.1 The Challenge 248</p> <p>13.3 The Solution 249</p> <p>13.4 The Outlook 250</p> <p>14 Timescales to successful implementation 251</p> <p>14.1 Caveat 251</p> <p>14.2 Phased MOAT 252</p> <p>14.3 Timescales MaaS 253</p> <p>14.4 Timescales for Automated Vehicles 253</p> <p>14.5 The first half of the Twentieth Century 255</p> <p>14.6 The second half of the twentieth Century 255</p> <p>14.7 2000 - 2009 256</p> <p>14.8  2010-2019 257</p> <p>14.9 2020 – 2029 259</p> <p>14.10 2030 - 2039 260</p> <p>14.11 2040 – 2050 260</p> <p>14.12 2050-2060 261</p> <p>14.13 In summary 261</p> Bibliography 262
<b>Bob Williams, PhD, FCMA, CGMA, FIoD</b> is internationally recognized as one of the world's leading independent data capture consultants specializing in wireless technologies. He has nearly 40 years experience in Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), and Bar Coding. He provides support to many of the world's leading companies and governments and is the architect and editor of over one hundred International Standards deliverables for ITS and RFID.
<p><b>A topical overview of the issues facing automated driving systems and Mobility as a Service, identifies the obstacles to implementation and offers potential solutions</b></p><p>Advances in cooperative and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies, cultural and socio-economic shifts, measures to combat climate change, social pressures to reduce road deaths and injuries, and changing attitudes toward self-driving cars, are creating new and exciting mobility scenarios worldwide. However, many obstacles remain and are compounded by the consequences of COVID-19. Mobility as a Service (MaaS) integrates various forms of public and private transport services into a single on-demand mobility service. Combining trains, cars, buses, bicycles, and other forms of transport, MaaS promises a convenient, cost-effective, and eco-friendly alternative to private automobiles.</p><p><i>Automated Vehicles and MaaS: Removing the Barriers</i> is an up-to-date overview of the contemporary challenges facing CAVs and MaaS. Written in a clear and accessible style, this timely volume summarizes recent research studies, describes the evolution of automated driving systems and MaaS, identifies the barriers to their widespread adoption, and proposes potential solutions to overcome and remove these barriers. The text focuses on the claims, realities, politics, new organizational roles, and implementation problems associated with CAVs and MaaS—providing industry professionals, policymakers, planners, administrators, and investors with a clear understanding of the issues facing the introduction of automated driving systems and MaaS. This important guide and reference:</p><ul><li>Provides an overview of recent progress, the current state of the art, and discussion of future objectives</li><li>Presents both technical background and general overview of automated driving systems and MaaS</li><li>Covers political, commercial, and practical issues, as well as technical and research content, yet suitable for non-specialists</li><li>Helps readers make informed decisions and realistic estimates for implementing mobility solutions and new business models for transport services</li><li>Includes an extensive bibliography with direct links to in-depth technical engineering and research information</li></ul><p><i>Automated Vehicles and MaaS: Removing the Barriers</i> is an essential resource for transport providers, vehicle manufacturers, urban and transport planners, students of transportation, vehicle technology, and urban planning, and transport policy and strategy managers, advisors, and reviewers.</p>

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