Audit and Accounting Guide: Not-for-Profit Entities, 2018
AICPA Audit and Accounting Guide 1. Aufl.
This AICPA Accounting and Auditing Guide is a must-have for the resource libraries of accounting and auditing professionals who work with not-for-profit organizations. This essential reference book assists accountants in the unique aspects of accounting and financial statement preparation and auditing for not-for-profit entities. Created with common errors and questions in mind, accountants benefit from not-for-profit industry-specific guidance on the issues they are likely to encounter this year. The 2018 edition includes guidance on financial reporting changes, reporting donated services between affiliated NFPs, split-interest agreements, contributions and grants, functional expenses and joint costs, and much more. This new edition provides a comprehensive discussion of FASB ASU No. 2016-14, Not-for-Profit Entities (Topic 958): Presentation of Financial Statements of Not-for-Profit Entities. The discussion includes highlights of the changes that will assist financial statement preparers with implementing the standard. The guide offers dual guidance throughout, providing readers with the “before-and-after” context to enhance their understanding of the changes, as well as two all-inclusive appendices.
Chapter 1 Introduction 01-27 Scope 01-12 Entities 01-06 Basis of Accounting 07-10 Level of Service 11-12 GAAP for NFPs 13-19 Fund Accounting and Net Asset Classes 20-25 Other Resources for Financial Reporting by NFPs 26-27 Chapter 2 General Auditing Considerations 01-150 Overview 01-02 Purpose of an Audit of Financial Statements 03-08 Audit Risk 05-08 Terms of Engagement 09-11 Audit Planning Considerations 12-59 Group Audits 14-18 Using the Work of an Auditor’s Specialist 19-24 Materiality 25-33 Related-Party Transactions 34-37 Consideration of Errors and Fraud 38-41 Compliance with Laws and Regulations 42-56 Processing of Transactions by Service Organizations 57-59 Use of Assertions in Assessment of Risks of Material Misstatement 60-64 Risk Assessment Procedures 65-88 Risk Assessment Procedures and Related Activities 67-69 Analytical Procedures 70-72 Discussion among the Audit Team 73 Understanding of the Entity and Its Environment, Including the Entity’s Internal Control 74-88 Using Risk Assessment to Design Further Audit Procedures 89-111 Identifying and Assessing the Risks of Material Misstatement 90-92 Risks That Require Special Audit Consideration 93-94 Designing and Performing Further Audit Procedures 95-110 Evaluating the Sufficiency and Appropriateness of Audit Evidence 111 Evaluation of Misstatements Identified During the Audit 112-114 Communication with Those Charged With Governance 115-121 Completing the Audit 122-149 Going-Concern Considerations 122-132 Written Representations 133-141 Audit Documentation 142-149 Appendix A—Consideration of Fraud in a Financial Statement Audit 150 Chapter 3 Financial Statements, the Reporting Entity, and General Financial Reporting Matters 01-194 Introduction 01-05 Statement of Financial Position 06-27 Effects of Restrictions, Designations, and Other Limitations on Liquidity 09-23 Classification of Net Assets 24-27 Statement of Activities 28-45 Reporting Expenses, Including in a Statement of Functional Expenses 40-45 Statement of Cash Flows 46-54 Comparative Financial Information 55-57 Reporting of Related Entities, Including Consolidation 58-121 Relationships with another NFP 63-71 Relationships with a For-Profit Entity 72-99 Consolidation of a Special-Purpose Leasing Entity 100-101 Consolidated Financial Statements 102-119 Parent-Only and Subsidiary-Only Financial Statements 120 Combined Financial Statements 121 Mergers and Acquisitions 122-135 Merger of Not-for-Profit Entities 124-125 Acquisition by a Not-for-Profit Entity 126-135 Collaborative Arrangements 136-137 The Use of Fair Value Measures 138-171 Definition of Fair Value 141-147 Valuation Approaches and Techniques 148-154 The Fair Value Hierarchy 155-158 Additional Guidance for Fair Value Measurement in Special Circumstances 159-167 Disclosures 168 Fair Value Option 169-171 Financial Statement Disclosures Not Considered Elsewhere 172-184 Noncompliance with Donor-Imposed Restrictions 173-175 Risks and Uncertainties 176 Subsequent Events 177-180 Related Party Transactions 181-184 Auditing 185-192 Financial Statement Close Process 186-187 Operating and Nonoperating Classifications in the Statement of Activities 188 Consolidation 189 Liquidity 190 Mergers and Acquisitions 191 Noncompliance with Donor-Imposed Restrictions 192 Supplement A—Flowcharts 193 Appendix A—Financial Statements Prepared in Accordance with FASB ASU No. 2016-14 194 Chapter 4 Cash, Cash Equivalents, and Investments 01-118 Cash and Cash Equivalents 01-04 Investments Discussed in This Chapter 05-10 Initial Recognition and Measurement of Investments 11-12 Valuation of Investments Subsequent to Acquisition 13-44 Equity Securities with Readily Determinable Fair Value (Other Than Consolidated Subsidiaries and Equity Securities Reported Under the Equity Method) and All Debt Securities 17 Investments That Are Accounted for Under the Equity Method or a Fair Value Election 18-28 Derivative Instruments 29-37 Other Investments 38 Decline in Fair Value after the Date of the Financial Statements 39 Fair Value Measurements 40-44 Investment Income and Expenses 45-53 Unrealized and Realized Gains and Losses 54-56 Investments Held as an Agent 57 Investment Pools 58-64 Self-Managed Investment Pools 58 Investment Pools Managed by a Financially Interrelated Entity 59 Investment Pools Managed by Third Parties 60-64 Endowment Funds 65-79 Financial Statement Presentation 80-89 Cash and Cash Equivalents 80-83 Investments 84-89 Disclosures 90-102 Auditing 103-117 Endowment Funds 108 Investment Pools 109-114 Audit Objectives and Procedures 115-117 Appendix A—Determining Fair Value of Alternative Investments 118 Chapter 5 Contributions Received and Agency Transactions 01-242 Introduction 01-04 Distinguishing Contributions from Other Transactions 05-57 Agency Transactions 07-22 Variance Power 23-27 Financially Interrelated Entities 28-32 Similar Transactions That Are Revocable, Repayable,or Reciprocal 33-38 Exchange Transactions 39-57 Core Recognition and Measurement Principles for Contributions 58-88 Recognition Principles 59-66 Measurement Principles 67-70 Recognition If a Donor Imposes a Condition 71-74 Recognition If a Donor Imposes a Restriction 75-88 Additional Accounting Considerations for Certain Contributions 89-179 Promises to Give 89-111 Contributed Services 112-117 Special Events 118-122 Gifts in Kind 123-149 Contributed Items to Be Sold at Fund-raising Events 150-151 Contributed Fund-raising Material, Informational Material, or Advertising, Including Media Time or Space 152-163 Contributed Utilities and Use of Long-Lived Assets 164-166 Guarantees 167-171 Below-Market Interest Rate Loans 172-174 Contributed Collection Items 175 Split-Interest Agreements 176 Administrative Costs of Restricted Contributions 177-179 Measurement Principles for Contributions Receivable 180-212 Present Value Techniques 183-186 Organization of the Measurement Guidance 187 Initial Measurement 188-196 Subsequent Measurement 197-212 Financial Statement Presentation 213-215 Disclosures 216-222 Illustrative Disclosures 222 Auditing 223-240 Contributions Receivable 237-239 Agency Transactions 240 Appendix A—Excerpt From AICPA Financial Reporting White Paper Measurement of Fair Value for Certain Transactions of Not-for-Profit Entities 241 Appendix B—Technical Questions and Answers about Financially Interrelated Entities 242 Chapter 6 Split-Interest Agreements and Beneficial Interests in Trusts 01-96 Introduction 01 Types of Split-Interest Agreements 02-03 Recognition and Measurement Principles 04-45 Use of Fair Value Measures 05-06 Recognition of Revocable Agreements 07 Recognition of Irrevocable Agreements 08-12 Initial Recognition and Measurement of Unconditional Irrevocable Agreements Other Than Pooled Income Funds or Net Income Unitrusts 13-27 Initial Recognition and Measurement of Pooled Income Funds and Net Income Unitrusts 28 Recognition and Measurement during the Agreement’s Term for Unconditional Irrevocable Agreements Other Than Pooled Income Funds or Net Income Unitrusts 29-40 Recognition and Measurement during the Agreement’s Term for Pooled Income Funds and Net Income Unitrusts 41 Recognition upon Termination of Agreement 42 Purchase of Annuity Contracts to Make Distributions to the Beneficiaries 43-45 Financial Statement Presentation 46-53 Statement of Financial Position 46 Statement of Activities 47 Disclosures 48-53 Examples of Split-Interest Agreements 54-88 Charitable Lead Trust 55-61 Perpetual Trust Held by a Third Party 62-66 Charitable Remainder Trust 67-73 Charitable Gift Annuity 74-78 Pooled (Life) Income Fund 79-83 Life Interest in Real Estate 84-88 Auditing 89-94 Appendix A—Excerpt From AICPA White Paper Measurement of Fair Value for Certain Transactions of Not-for-Profit Entities 95 Appendix B—Journal Entries 96 Chapter 7 Other Assets 01-45 Introduction 01 Inventory 02-10 Acting as an Agent in a Sale of Commodities 10 Prepaid Expenses, Deferred Costs, and Similar Items 11-15 Collections and Works of Art, Historical Treasures, or Similar Assets 16-28 Financial Statement Presentation of Collections 25-27 Illustrative Disclosures about Collections 28 Goodwill 29-31 Intangible Assets Other Than Goodwill 32-35 Auditing 36-45 Inventory 37 Goodwill 38-39 Collection Items 40-45 Chapter 8 Programmatic Investments 01-71 Introduction 01-07 Core Considerations for Accounting and Reporting 08 Loans 09-52 Effective Interest Rate Approach 11-17 Inherent Contribution Approach 18-33 Loans That Contain a Right to Profit from the Sale or Refinancing of Property 34 Forgiveness of Programmatic Loans 35-37 Impairment of Programmatic Loans 38-50 Disclosures about Programmatic Loans 51-52 Equity Instruments 53-61 Programmatic Equity Investments That Are Consolidated 55 Programmatic Equity Investments Reported Using the Equity Method 56-58 Programmatic Equity Investments Reported Using Fair Value 59 Programmatic Equity Investments Reported Using a Cost Method 60 Disclosures about Programmatic Equity Instruments 61 Guarantees 62 Concentrations of Risk 63 Presentation of Programmatic Investments 64-69 Contributed Resources for Making Programmatic Investments 64-66 Agency Resources for Making Programmatic Investments 67-69 Program-Related Investments of Private Foundations 70 Auditing 71 Chapter 9 Property and Equipment 01-49 Introduction 01-02 Recognition and Measurement Principles 03-33 Contributed Property and Equipment 04-07 Use of Property and Equipment Owned by Others 08-13 Capitalized Interest 14-19 Depreciation and Amortization 20-23 Expiration of Restrictions on Property and Equipment 24 Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets 25-29 Asset Retirement Obligations 30-32 Gains and Losses 33 Financial Statement Presentation 34-40 Auditing 41-49 Property and Equipment Additions 43-46 Account Balances 47-49 Chapter 10 Debt and Other Liabilities 01-117 Introduction 01 Fair Value Measurement 02-08 Municipal Bond Financing and Other Long-Term Debt 09-87 Joint and Several Liability Arrangements 14-17 Conduit Bonds That Trade in Public Markets 18-20 Credit Enhancement 21-23 Issuance of Municipal Bonds 24-25 Extinguishment and Modification Transactions 26-53 IRS Considerations 54-58 Financial Statement Presentation and Disclosure 59-86 Annual Filing Requirements 87 Tax Liabilities 88 Deferred Revenue 89 Refunds Due to and Advances from Third Parties 90 Promises to Give 91-95 Split-Interest Obligations 96 Amounts Held for Others under Agency Transactions 97 Revenue Sharing and Other Agreements 98 Exit or Disposal Activities 99 Guarantees 100-101 Contingencies 102 Pension and Other Defined Benefit Postretirement Plan Obligations 103-110 Single-Employer Plans 103-105 Multiemployer Plans 106-110 Auditing 111-115 General 111-113 Debt 114-115 Appendix A—Municipal Securities Regulation 116 Appendix B—Auditor Involvement with Municipal Securities Filings 117 Chapter 11 Net Assets and Reclassifications of Net Assets 01-64 Introduction 01-02 Fiduciary Responsibilities to Meet Donor Restrictions 03-08 Failure to Meet a Donor’s Restriction 08 Net Asset Classes 09-24 Permanently Restricted Net Assets 12-14 Temporarily Restricted Net Assets 15-17 Unrestricted Net Assets 18-24 Noncontrolling Interests 25-27 Reclassifications 28 Expiration of Donor-imposed Restrictions 29-52 Using Restricted Contributions First 33-36 Expiration of Restrictions on Promises to Give 37-45 Expiration of Restrictions on Gifts of Long-Lived Assets or Gifts for Their Purchase 46-49 Expiration of Restrictions on Donor Restricted Endowment Funds 50-51 Restrictions That Are Met in the Same Year as the Contribution Was Received 52 Disclosures 53-59 Changing Net Asset Classifications Reported in a Prior Year 60 Auditing 61-63 Appendix A—Financial Statements Prepared in Accordance with FASB ASU No. 2016-14 64 Chapter 12 Revenues and Receivables from Exchange Transactions 01-25 Introduction 01-02 Difference between Revenues and Gains 03-05 Recognition, Measurement, and Display of Revenue 06-14 Discounts 12 Membership Dues 13-14 Receivables from Exchange Transactions 15-17 Auditing 18-24 Appendix A—Implementation Guidance for FASB Accounting Standards Update No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) 25 Chapter 13 Expenses, Gains, and Losses 01-134 Introduction 01 Expenses 02-06 Expense Recognition Issues 07-34 Fund-raising Costs 08-14 Financial Aid and Other Reductions in Amounts Charged for Goods and Services 15 Advertising Costs 16-18 Services Received From an Affiliate 19-23 Start-Up Costs 24-26 Internal Use Computer Software Costs 27 Contributions Made 28-34 Gains and Losses 35-50 Reporting Costs Related to Sales of Goods and Services 42-44 Reporting the Cost of Special Events and Other Fund-raising Activities 45-49 Investment Revenues, Expenses, Gains, and Losses 50 Functional Reporting of Expenses 51-124 Program Services 53-64 Supporting Services 65-70 Classification of Expenses Related to More Than One Function 71-118 Support to Related Local and National NFPs 119-120 Distributions from Financially Interrelated Fund-raising Foundations to Specified Beneficiaries 121-123 Expenses of Federated Fund-raising Entities 124 Income Taxes 125 Auditing 126-130 Expense Recognition Issues 128 Gains and Losses 129 Functional Reporting of Expenses 130 Supplement A—Accounting for Joint Activities 131 Supplement B—Examples of Applying the Criteria of Purpose, Audience, and Content to Determine Whether a Program or Management and General Activity Has Been Conducted 132 Supplement C—Allocation Methods for Joint Costs 133 Supplement D—Examples of Disclosures 134 Chapter 14 Reports of Independent Auditors 01-30 Reports on Financial Statements 01-02 Reports on Comparative Financial Statements and Presentation of Comparative Information 03-08 Unmodified Opinions 09 Modified Reports and Departures from Unmodified Opinions 10 Going Concern 11 Reporting on Supplementary Information 12-14 Special Considerations 15-16 Reporting Under Other Technical Standards 17-21 Reporting on Prescribed Forms 22-25 Reports Required by Government Auditing Standards, the Single Audit Act Amendments of 1996, and the Uniform Guidance 26-30 Chapter 15 Tax and Regulatory Considerations 01-74 Introduction 01-03 Internal Revenue Service 04-38 Basis of Exemption 04-23 IRS Filing Requirements 24-27 Unrelated Business Income 28-31 Alternative Investments 32 Tax Shelters 33 Employment Taxes 34-36 Private Foundations 37-38 Income Tax Positions 39-43 Deferred Tax Assets and Liabilities 44-45 State and Local Regulations 46-56 State Charitable Solicitation Laws 46-49 State and Local Gaming Regulations 50 Uniform Prudent Management of Institutional Funds Act 51-56 Securities Regulation 57-60 Sarbanes Oxley and Governance Policies 61-63 Executive Compensation 64-67 Other Regulatory Activities 68-70 U.S. Department of the Treasury Anti-Terrorist Financing Guidelines: Voluntary Best Practices for U.S.-Based Charities 68-70 Auditing 71-74 Chapter 16 Fund Accounting 01-25 Introduction 01 Fund Accounting and External Financial Reporting 02-05 Unrestricted Current (or Unrestricted Operating or General) Funds 06-07 Restricted Current (or Restricted Operating or Specific-Purpose) Funds 08-09 Plant (or Land, Building, and Equipment) Funds 10-15 Loan Funds 16-17 Endowment Funds 18-21 Annuity and Life-Income (Split-Interest) Funds 22-23 Agency (Or Custodian) Funds 24 Summary 25 Appendix A The New Not-for-Profit Financial Reporting Model Standards: FASB ASU No. 2016-14 Appendix B The New Revenue Recognition Standard: FASB ASC 606 Appendix C The New Leases Standard: FASB ASC 842 Appendix D FASB Accounting Standards Codification 958, Not-For-Profit Entities, Topic Hierarchy Appendix E Information Sources Appendix F Overview of Statements on Quality Control Standards Appendix G Schedule of Changes Made to the Text from the Previous Edition Glossary Index of Pronouncements and Other Technical Guidance Subject Index
Founded in 1887, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) represents the CPA and accounting profession nationally and globally regarding rule-making and standard-setting, and serves as an advocate before legislative bodies, public interest groups and other professional organizations. The AICPA develops standards for audits of private companies and other services by CPAs; provides educational guidance materials to its members; develops and grades the Uniform CPA Examination; and monitors and enforces compliance with the accounting profession's technical and ethical standards.The AICPA's founding established accountancy as a profession distinguished by rigorous educational requirements, high professional standards, a strict code of professional ethics, a licensing status and a commitment to serving the public interest.
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