Audel HVAC Fundamentals, Volume 1Heating Systems, Furnaces and Boilers
Audel Technical Trades Series, Band 17 4. Aufl.
A reference you'll warm up to From the background and basics of heating systems to the newest chip-based technology, this first volume of Audel's HVAC Library gives you comprehensive information you need on the job. Whether you're installing, servicing, repairing, or troubleshooting an old or new heating system, you'll find what you're looking for, from wood and coal furnace maintenance to new calculations and the latest environmental technologies and regulations. * Review the basics of installation, wiring, and troubleshooting for different HVAC systems * Choose the correct system for the space, climate, and needs * Compare the economy and efficiency of various fuel types * Install, maintain, and troubleshoot conversion units * Find formula cross references, data tables with conversions, and listings of trade organizations and equipment manufacturers
Introduction. About the Author. Chapter 1: Introduction. Heating and Ventilating Systems. Air Conditioning. Selecting a Suitable Heating, Ventilating, or Air Conditioning System. Career Opportunities. Professional Organizations. Chapter 2: Heating Fundamentals. British Thermal Unit. Relationship Between Heat and Work. Heat Transfer. Specific, Sensible, and Latent Heat. Heat-Conveying Mediums. Air. Steam. Water. Electricity. Chapter 3: Insulating and Ventilating Structures. Insulating Structures. Principles of Heat Transmission. Heat Transfer Values. Thermal Conductivity. Thermal Conductance. Thermal Resistance. Overall Coefficient of Heat Transmission. Condensation. Vapor Retarders. Air Barriers and Air/Vapor Retarders. Insulating Materials . Rigid Insulation Board. Reflective Insulation. Blanket or Batt Insulation. Loose-Fill Insulation. Blown-In Insulation. Foam Insulation. Building Construction and Location. Recommended Insulation Practices. Frame Walls. Masonry. Metal. Sandwich Construction. Basement Walls. Crawl Space Exterior Walls. Walls Between Separately Heated Dwelling Units. Wood or Metal Joist Frame Floors. Concrete Floors. Slab-on-Grade Floors. Floors of Sandwich Construction. Frame Ceilings and Roofs. Concrete Ceilings. Sandwich Ceilings. Windows and Doors. Insulating Attics, Attic Crawl Spaces, and Flat Roofs. Ventilating Structures. Chapter 4: Sizing Residential Heating and Air Conditioning Systems. Rule-of-Thumb Methods. Sizing Systems Using Coefficients of Heat Transmission. Outside Design Temperature. Inside Design Temperature. Design Temperature Difference. Determining Coefficients of Heat Transmission. Calculating Net Area. Heat Transmission Loss Formula. Computing Total Heat Loss. Loss in Doors and Windows. Loss in Basements. Loss in Slab Construction. Infiltration Heat Loss. Ventilation Heat Loss. The Average Value Method. Heat Loss Tabulation Forms. Estimating Fuel Requirements and Heating Costs. The Heat Loss Formula. The Corrected Heat Loss Formula. The Degree-Day Formula. The NEMA Formula. Manual J and Related Materials Used for Sizing Heating/Cooling Systems. Other Heating Costs. Determining Utility Rates. Chapter 5: Heating Fuels. Natural Gas. Manufactured Gas. Liquefied Petroleum Gas. Fuel Oils. Coal. Coke. Briquettes. Coal Oil. Wood as Fuel. Ash, Slag, and Clinker Formation. Soot. Comparing Heating Fuel Costs. Chapter 6: Warm-Air Heating Systems. Classifying Warm-Air Heating Systems. Gravity Warm-Air Heating Systems. Planning a Gravity Warm-Air Heating System. Forced-Warm-Air Heating Systems. Planning a Forced-Warm-Air Heating System. Perimeter-Loop Warm-Air Heating Systems. Ceiling Panel Systems. Crawl Space Plenum Systems. Zoning a Forced-Warm-Air Heating System. Balancing a Warm-Air Heating System. Warm-Air Furnaces. Control Components. Ducts and Duct Sizing. Cooling with a Warm-Air Heating System. Air Cleaning. Humidifiers and Dehumidifiers. Advantages of a Warm-Air Heating System. Disadvantages of a Warm-Air Heating System. Troubleshooting a Warm-Air Heating System. Chapter 7: Hydronic Heating Systems. Classifying Hot-Water Heating Systems. One-Pipe System. Series-Loop System. Two-Pipe, Direct-Return System. Two-Pipe, Reverse-Return System. Combination Pipe Systems. Zoning a Two-Pipe System. Radiant Panel Heating. Other Applications. Gravity Hot-Water Heating Systems. Forced-Hot-Water Heating Systems. Hot-Water Boilers. Hydronic Furnaces. Combination Water Heaters. Control Components. Pipe and Pipe Sizing. Expansion Tanks. Circulating Pumps (Circulators). Drainage. Heat-Emitting Units. Air Conditioning. Moisture Control. Electrically Heated Systems. Advantages of Hydronic Heating Systems. Disadvantages of Hydronic Heating Systems. Troubleshooting Hydronic Heating Systems. Chapter 8: Steam Heating Systems. Classifying Steam Heating Systems. Gravity Steam Heating Systems. One-Pipe, Reverse-Flow System.9 Upfeed One-Pipe System. Upfeed One-Pipe Relief System. Downfeed One-Pipe System. One-Pipe Circuit System. One-Pipe, Divided-Circuit Nonrelief System. One-Pipe Circuit System with Loop. Two-Pipe Steam Heating Systems. Two-Pipe, Divided-Circuit System. Vapor Steam Heating Systems. Open (Atmospheric) Vapor Systems. Closed Vapor Systems. Vacuum Steam Heating Systems. Natural Vacuum Systems. Mechanical Vacuum System. Combined Atmospheric Pressure and Vacuum Systems. Exhaust-Steam Heating. Proprietary Systems. High-Pressure Steam Heating Systems. Steam Boilers. Control Components. Hartford Return Connection. Pipes and Piping Details. Steam Traps. Pumps. Heat-Emitting Units. Air Supply and Venting. Unit Heaters. Air Conditioning. Troubleshooting Steam Heating Systems. Chapter 9 Electric Heating Systems. Central Hot-Water Systems. Central Forced-Warm-Air Heating Systems. Radiant Heating Systems. Baseboard Heating Systems. Electric Unit Ventilators. Electric Unit Heaters. Electric Space Heaters. Heat Pumps. Electric Heating and Cooling Controls. Insulation for Electrically Heated and Cooled Structures. Further Information. Advantages of Electric Heating and Cooling. Disadvantages of Electric Heating and Cooling. Troubleshooting Electric Heating Systems. Chapter 10: Furnace Fundamentals. Classifying Furnaces. Upflow Highboy Furnace. Upflow Lowboy Furnace. Downflow Furnace. Horizontal Furnace. Gravity Warm-Air Furnaces. Selecting a Furnace for a New House. Selecting a Furnace for an Older House. Furnace Components and Controls. Pipeless Floor and Wall Furnaces. Duct Furnaces. Geothermal Furnaces. Furnace Installation. Furnace Maintenance. Troubleshooting Furnaces. Chapter 11: Gas Furnaces. Types of Gas Furnaces. Standing-Pilot Gas Furnaces. Mid-Efficiency Gas Furnaces. High-Efficiency Gas Furnaces. Gas Furnace Components. Furnace Controls. Heat Exchanger. Gas Burners. Gas Pilot Assembly. Blower and Motor. Air Filter. Some Installation Recommendations. Locations and Clearances. Wiring. Duct Connections. Ventilation and Combustion Air. Venting. Flue Pipe. Chimney. Chimney Troubleshooting. Draft Hood. Pilot Burner Adjustment. Gas Input Adjustment. High-Altitude Adjustment. Changing Burner Orifices. Manifold Pressure Adjustment. Combustion Air Adjustment. Gas Supply Piping. Sizing Gas Piping. Installing Gas Piping. Typical Startup Instructions for a Standing-Pilot Gas Furnace. Typical Startup Instructions for an Electronic Ignition Furnace. Blowers and Motors. Air Delivery and Blower Adjustment. Direct-Drive Blower Adjustment. Belt-Drive Blower Adjustment. Air Filters. Air Conditioning. Installation Checklist. Gas Furnace Inspections, Service, and Maintenance Tips. Troubleshooting a Gas Furnace. Troubleshooting Charts. Chapter 12: Oil Furnaces. Conventional Oil Furnace. Mid-Efficiency and High-Efficiency Oil Furnaces. Mid-Efficiency (Noncondensing) Oil Furnace. High-Efficiency (Condensing) Oil Furnace. Basic Components of an Oil Furnace. Furnace Controls. Heat Exchanger. Oil Burner Assembly. Fuel Pump and Fuel Pump Motor. Blower and Motor. Combustion Air Blowers. Cleanout and Observation Ports. Vent Opening. Air Filter. Installing an Oil Furnace. Some Installation Recommendations. Location and Clearance. Wiring. Duct Connections. Ventilation and Combustion Air. Combustion Draft. Venting. Chimneys and Chimney Troubleshooting. Installation Checklist. Fuel Supply Tank and Fuel Line. Fuel Tank Location. Filler Pipe. Tank Vent Pipe. Oil Filter. Blowers and Motors. Waste Oil Furnaces. Air Conditioning. Starting the Burner. Oil Furnace Spillage. Oil Furnace Inspection, Service, and Maintenance Tips. Oil Furnace Adjustments. Troubleshooting Oil Furnaces. Troubleshooting Charts. Chapter 13: Coal Furnaces, Wood Furnaces, and Multi-Fuel Furnaces. Coal Furnaces. Sizing Requirements. Location and Clearance. Installation Recommendations. Duct Connections. Electrical Wiring. Ventilation and Combustion Air. Venting. Flue Pipe. Chimneys and Chimney Troubleshooting. Furnace Components. Automatic Controls. Furnace Grate. Coal Stoker. Hand-Firing Methods. Blower and Motor Assembly. Blower Adjustment. Air Filter. System Accessory Devices. Wood Furnaces. Wood Add-On Furnaces. Multi-Fuel Furnaces. Installation, Operating, and Maintenance Instructions for Coal, Wood, and Multi-Fuel Furnaces. Assembly and Installation Recommendations. Maintenance Instructions. Multi-Fuel Furnace Operation. Troubleshooting Coal, Wood, and Multi-Fuel Furnaces. Chapter 14: Electric Furnaces. Electrical Power Supply. Planning Suggestions. Location and Clearance. Installation Recommendations. Duct Connections. Basic Components. Automatic Controls. Heating Elements. Timing Sequences. Safety Controls. Temperature Limit Controls. Secondary High-Limit Control. Furnace Fuses. Circuit Breakers. Transformer. Thermal Overload Protector. Electrical Wiring. Blowers and Motors. Air Delivery and Blower Adjustment. Air Filter. Air Conditioning. Maintenance and Operating Instructions. Furnace Air Filters, Electronic Air Cleaners, and Humidifers. Heating Elements and Heating Control Wiring. Blowers/Fans. Ducts. Thermostats. Furnaces without Air Conditioners. Troubleshooting an Electric Furnace. Chapter 15: Steam and Hot-Water Space Heating Boilers. Boiler Rating Method. Boiler Heating Surface. Boiler Efficiency. Types of Boilers. Gas-Fired Boilers. OilFired Boilers. Coal-Fired Boilers. Electric Boilers. High-Efficiency Boilers. Steam Boiler Valves, Controls, and Accessories. Steam Boiler Low-Water Cutoffs. Installing a Low-Water Cutoff. Fusible Plugs. Pressure Relief Valves. Pressure Controllers. Vacuum Relief Valve. Steam Boiler Aquastat. Blowdown Valve. Try Cocks. Steam Boiler Injectors. Water Gauges. Water Columns. Steam Gauges. Steam Gauge Pigtails. Hartford Return Connection. Hot-Water Boiler Valves, Controls, and Accessories. Hot-Water Boiler Low-Water Cutoffs. Hot-Water Boiler Pressure Relief Valves. High-Pressure Limit Switch. Hot-Water Boiler Aquastats. Pressure-Reducing Valves. Combination Valves. Balancing Valve. Backflow Preventer. Altitude Gauges. Circulator (Pump). Air Separator. Purging Air from the System. Expansion Tanks. Air Supply and Venting. Induced-Draft Fans. Controlling Excessive Draft (Gas-FiredBoilers). Tankless Water Heaters. Leaking Coils. Blowing Down a Boiler. Boiler Operation, Service, and Maintenance. Steam Boilers. Hot-Water (Hydronic) Boilers. Boiler Water. Cleaning Boilers. Troubleshooting Boilers. Boiler Repairs. Installing Boilers. Chapter 16: Boiler and Furnace Conversion. Preparation for Conversion. Basic Combustion Chamber Requirements. Combustion Chambers for Conversion Gas Burners. Combustion Chambers for Conversion Oil Burners. Construction Materials. Building a Combustion Chamber. Ventilation Requirements. Flue Pipe and Chimney. Baffling. Gas Piping and Piping Connections. Gas Input Setting. Installing a Conversion Gas Burner. Starting a Conversion Gas Burner (with Pilot Light). Starting a Conversion Gas Burner (Pilotless). Servicing a Conversion Gas Burner. Oil Tanks and Oil Piping. Installing a Conversion Oil Burner. Starting a Conversion Oil Burner. Servicing a Conversion Oil Burner. Troubleshooting Oil and Gas Conversion Burners. Appendix A: Professional and Trade Associations. Appendix B: Manufacturers. Appendix C: HVAC/R Education, Training, Certification, and Licensing. Appendix D: Data Tables. Appendix E: Conversion Tables. Index.
James E. Brumbaugh has spent twenty years in the residential and light commercial construction industry. He is an accomplished educator fluent in several languages, and has written more than fifteen books on HVAC, construction, and the building trades.
A reference you’ll warm up to From the background and basics of heating systems to the newest chip-based technology, this first volume of Audel’s HVAC Library gives you comprehensive information you need on the job. Whether you’re installing, servicing, repairing, or troubleshooting an old or new heating system, you’ll find what you’re looking for, from wood and coal furnace maintenance to new calculations and the latest environmental technologies and regulations. Review the basics of installation, wiring, and troubleshooting for different HVAC systems Choose the correct system for the space, climate, and needs Compare the economy and efficiency of various fuel types Install, maintain, and troubleshoot conversion units Find formula cross references, data tables with conversions, and listings of trade organizations and equipment manufacturers
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