Details

Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection


Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection


4. Aufl.

von: James S. Bogard, Darryl J. Downing, Robert L. Coleman, Keith F. Eckerman, James E. Turner

115,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-VCH
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 01.12.2022
ISBN/EAN: 9783527805587
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 608

DRM-geschütztes eBook, Sie benötigen z.B. Adobe Digital Editions und eine Adobe ID zum Lesen.

Beschreibungen

<b>Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection</b> <p><b>Discover the keys to radiation protection in the fourth edition of this best-selling textbook </b> <p>A variety of atomic and sub-atomic processes, including alpha, beta, and gamma decay or electron ejection from inner atom shells, can produce ionizing radiation. This radiation can in turn produce environmental and biological effects both harmful – including DNA damage and other impacts of so-called ‘radiation sickness’ – and helpful, including radiation treatment for cancerous tumors. Understanding the processes that generate radiation and the steps which can be taken to mitigate or direct its effects is therefore critical in a wide range of industries and medical subfields. <p>For decades, <i>Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection </i>has served as the classic reference work on the subject of ionizing radiation and its safeguards. Beginning with a presentation of fundamental atomic structure and the physical mechanisms which produce radiation, the book also includes thorough discussion of how radiation can be detected and measured, as well as guide-lines for interpreting radiation statistics and detailed analysis of protective measures, both individual and environmental. Now updated by a new generation of leading scholars and researchers, <i>Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection </i>will continue to serve global scientific and industrial research communities. <p>Readers of the fourth edition of <i>Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection </i>will also find: <ul><li>Detailed updates of existing material, including the latest recommendations of the ICRP and NCRP</li> <li>Treatment of current physiokinetic and dosimetric models</li> <li>All statistics now presented in SI units, making the book more globally accessible</li></ul> <p><i>Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection </i>is a foundational guide for graduate students and researchers in health physics and nuclear physics, as well as related industries.
ABOUT ATOMIC PHYSICS AND RADIATION<br> Classical Physics<br> Discovery of X-Rays<br> Some Important Dates in Atomic and Radiation Physics<br> Important Dates in Radiation Protection<br> Sources and Levels of Radiation Exposure<br> Suggested Reading<br> <br> ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND ATOMIC RADIATION<br> The Atomic Nature of Matter (ca. 1900)<br> The Rutherford Nuclear Atom<br> Bohr's Theory of the Hydrogen Atom<br> Semiclassical Mechanics, 1913-1925<br> Quantum Mechanics<br> The Pauli Exclusion Principle<br> Atomic Theory of the Periodic System<br> Molecules<br> Solids and Energy Bands<br> Continuous and Characteristic X Rays<br> Auger Electrons<br> Suggested Reading<br> Problems<br> Answers<br> <br> THE NUCLEUS AND NUCLEAR RADIATION<br> Nuclear Structure<br> Nuclear Binding Energies<br> Alpha Decay<br> Beta Decay (beta-)<br> Gamma-Ray Emission<br> Internal Conversion<br> Orbital Electron Capture<br> Positron Decay (beta+)<br> Suggested Reading<br> Problems<br> Answers<br> <br> RADIOACTIVE DECAY<br> Activity<br> Exponential Decay<br> Specific Activity<br> Serial Radioactive Decay<br> Natural Radioactivity<br> Radon and Radon Daughters<br> Suggested Reading<br> Problems<br> Answers<br> <br> INTERACTION OF HEAVY CHARGED PARTICLES WITH MATTER<br> Energy-Loss Mechanisms<br> Maximum Energy Transfer in a Single Collision<br> Single-Collision Energy-Loss Spectra<br> Stopping Power<br> Semiclassical Calculation of Stopping Power<br> The Bethe Formula for Stopping Power<br> Mean Excitation Energies<br> Table for Computation of Stopping Powers<br> Stopping Power of Water for Protons<br> Range<br> Slowing-Down Time<br> Limitations of Bethe's Stopping-Power Formula<br> Suggested Reading<br> Problems<br> Answers<br> <br> INTERACTION OF ELECTRONS WITH MATTER<br> Energy-Loss Mechanisms<br> Collisional Stopping Power<br> Radiative Stopping Power<br> Radiation Yield<br> Range<br> Slowing-Down Time<br> Examples of Electron Tracks in Water<br> Suggested Reading<br> Problems<br> Answers<br> <br> PHENOMENA ASSOCIATED WITH CHARGED-PARTICLE TRACKS<br> Delta Rays<br> Restricted Stopping Power<br> Linear Energy Transfer (LET)<br> Specific Ionization<br> Energy Straggling<br> Range Straggling<br> Multiple Coulomb Scattering<br> Suggested Reading<br> Problems<br> Answers<br> <br> INTERACTION OF PHOTONS WITH MATTER<br> Interaction Mechanisms<br> Photoelectric Effect<br> Energy-Momentum Requirements for Photon Absorption by an Electron<br> Compton Effect<br> Pair Production<br> Photonuclear Reactions<br> Attenuation Coefficients<br> Energy-Transfer and Energy-Absorption Coefficients<br> Calculation of Energy Absorption and Energy Transfer<br> Suggested Reading<br> Problems<br> Answers<br> <br> NEUTRONS, FISSION, AND CRITICALITY<br> Introduction<br> Neutron Sources<br> Classification of Neutrons<br> Interactions with Matter<br> Elastic Scattering<br> Neutron-Proton Scattering Energy-Loss Spectrum<br> Reactions<br> Energetics of Threshold Reactions<br> Neutron Activation<br> Fission<br> Criticality<br> Suggested Reading<br> Problems<br> Answers<br> <br> METHODS OF RADIATION DETECTION<br> Ionization in Gases<br> Ionization in Semiconductors<br> Scintillation<br> Photographic Film<br> Thermoluminescence<br> Other Methods<br> Neutron Detection<br> Suggested Reading<br> Problems<br> Answers<br> <br> STATISTICS<br> The Statistical World of Atoms and Radiation<br> Radioactive Disintegration-Exponential Decay<br> Radioactive Disintegration-a Bernoulli Process<br> The Binomial Distribution<br> The Poisson Distribution<br> The Normal Distribution<br> Error and Error Propagation<br> Counting Radioactive Samples<br> Minimum Significant Measured Activity-Type-I Errors<br> Minimum Detectable True Activity-Type-II Errors<br> Criteria for Radiobioassay, HPS Nl3.30-1996<br> Instrument Response<br> Monte Carlo Simulation of Radiation Transport<br> Suggested Reading<br> Problems<br> Answers<br> <br> RADIATION DOSIMETRY<br> Introduction<br> Quantities and Units<br> Measurement of Exposure<br> Measurement of Absorbed Dose<br> Measurement of X- and Gamma-Ray Dose<br> Neutron Dosimetry<br> Dose Measurements for Charged-Particle Beams<br> Determination of LET<br> Dose Calculations<br> Other Dosimetric Concepts and Quantities<br> Suggested Reading<br> Problems<br> Answers<br> <br> CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF RADIATION<br> Time Frame for Radiation Effects<br> Physical and Prechemical Chances in Irradiated Water<br> Chemical Stage<br> Examples of Calculated Charged-Particle Tracks in Water<br> Chemical Yields in Water<br> Biological Effects<br> Sources of Human Data<br> The Acute Radiation Syndrome<br> Delayed Somatic Effects<br> Irradiation of Mammalian Embryo and Fetus<br> Genetic Effects<br> Radiation Biology<br> Dose-Response Relationships<br> Factors Affecting Dose Response<br> Suggested Reading<br> Problems<br> Answers<br> <br> RADIATION-PROTECTION CRITERIA AND EXPOSURE LIMITS<br> Objective of Radiation Protection<br> Elements of Radiation-Protection Programs<br> The NCRP and ICRP<br> NCRP/ICRP Dosimetric Quantities<br> Risk Estimates for Radiation Protection<br> Current Exposure Limits of the NCRP and ICRP<br> Occupational Limits in the Dose-Equivalent System<br> The "2015 ICRP Recommendations"<br> ICRU Operational Quantities<br> Probability of Causation<br> Suggested Reading<br> Problems<br> Answers<br> <br> EXTERNAL RADIATION PROTECTION<br> Distance, Time, and Shielding<br> Gamma-Ray Shielding<br> Shielding in X-Ray Installations<br> Protection from Beta Radiation<br> Neutron Shielding<br> Suggested Reading<br> Problems<br> Answers<br> <br> INTERNAL DOSIMETRY AND RADIATION PROTECTION<br> Objectives<br> ICRP Publication<br> Methodology<br> ICRP-30 Dosimetric Model for the Respiratory System<br> ICRP-66 Human Respiratory Tract Model<br> ICRP-30 Dosimetric Model for the Gastrointestinal Tract<br> Organ Activities as Functions of Time<br> Specific Absorbed Fraction, Specific Effective Energy, Committed Quantities<br> Number of Transformations in Source Organs over 50 Y<br> Dosimetric Model for Bone<br> ICRP-30 Dosimetric Model for Submersion in a Radioactive Cloud<br> Selected ICRP-30 Metabolic Data for Reference Man<br> Suggested Reading<br> Problems<br> Answers<br> <br> APPENDIX<br> A Physical Constants<br> B Units and Conversion Factors<br> C Some Basic Formulas of Physics (MKS and CCS Units)<br> D Selected Data on Nuclides<br> E Statistical Derivations<br> <br> Index<br> <br>
<p><i><b>James S. Bogard </b>is retired from Dade Moeller/NV5 and from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, where he was Senior Health Physicist and Senior Research Staff, respectively. He is the author or co-author of over 100 articles, technical reports and presentations, including a workbook of health physics problems and solutions and a textbook on statistical methods used in radiation physics and health physics. Dr. Bogard is a past President of the American Academy of Health Physics, a Fellow of the Health Physics Society, and a Distinguished Alumnus of Texas State University. </i> <p><i><b>Darryl J. Downing </b>is Vice President, Statistical and Quantitative Sciences, as GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceutical company. He is also a member of the International Statistics Institute, and has served as a researcher at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, as well as authoring numerous scholarly publications. </i> <p><i><b>Robert L. Coleman </b>is a Senior Scientist at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Technical Lead for in-vivo bioassay measurements. He is in charge of technical and everyday aspects of whole body, lung and organ measurements for gamma and x-ray emitting radionuclides in support of the ORNL radiation dosimetry program. </i> <p><i><b>Keith F. Eckerman </b>is Staff Scientist in Energy and Environmental Sciences at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. He received his PhD in Radiological Physics from Northwestern University, is a Fellow of the Health Physics Society, an emeritus member of Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, and has contributed widely to various regulatory issues in radiation protection. </i> <p><i><b>James E. Turner </b>(1930-2008) was a Corporate Fellow at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and an Adjunct Professor of Nuclear Engineering at the University of Tennessee. He served on the editorial staffs of multiple journals, including Health Physics and Radiation Research, and conducted extensive research and teaching both inside and outside the US.</i>
<p><b>Discover the keys to radiation protection in the fourth edition of this best-selling textbook </b> <p>A variety of atomic and sub-atomic processes, including alpha, beta, and gamma decay or electron ejection from inner atom shells, can produce ionizing radiation. This radiation can in turn produce environmental and biological effects both harmful – including DNA damage and other impacts of so-called ‘radiation sickness’ – and helpful, including radiation treatment for cancerous tumors. Understanding the processes that generate radiation and the steps which can be taken to mitigate or direct its effects is therefore critical in a wide range of industries and medical subfields. <p>For decades, <i>Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection </i>has served as the classic reference work on the subject of ionizing radiation and its safeguards. Beginning with a presentation of fundamental atomic structure and the physical mechanisms which produce radiation, the book also includes thorough discussion of how radiation can be detected and measured, as well as guide-lines for interpreting radiation statistics and detailed analysis of protective measures, both individual and environmental. Now updated by a new generation of leading scholars and researchers, <i>Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection </i>will continue to serve global scientific and industrial research communities. <p>Readers of the fourth edition of <i>Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection </i>will also find: <ul><li>Detailed updates of existing material, including the latest recommendations of the ICRP and NCRP</li> <li>Treatment of current physiokinetic and dosimetric models</li> <li>All statistics now presented in SI units, making the book more globally accessible</li></ul> <p><i>Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection </i>is a foundational guide for graduate students and researchers in health physics and nuclear physics, as well as related industries.

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