Details

Atlas of Natural and Induced Fractures in Core


Atlas of Natural and Induced Fractures in Core


1. Aufl.

von: John C. Lorenz, Scott P. Cooper

122,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 20.09.2017
ISBN/EAN: 9781119160038
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 328

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Beschreibungen

An invaluable reference that helps geologists recognize and differentiate the many types of natural fractures, induced fractures and artefacts found in cores Atlas of Natural and Induced Fractures in Core offers a reference for the interpretation of natural and induced fractures in cores. The natural and induced fracture data contained in cores provides a wealth of information once they are recognized and properly interpreted. Written by two experts in the field, this resource provides a much-needed tool to help with the accurate interpretation of these cores.  The authorsinclude the information needed to identify different fracture types as well as the criteria for distinguishing between the types of fractures. The atlas shows how to recognize non-fracture artefacts in a core since many of them provide other types of useful information. In addition, the text’s illustrated structures combined with their basic interpretations are designed to be primary building blocks of a complete fracture assessment and analysis. The authors show how to recognize and correctly interpret these building blocks to ensure that subsequent analyses, interpretations, and modeling efforts regarding fracture-controlled reservoir permeability are valid. Presented in full color throughout, this comprehensive reference is written for geologists charged with interpreting fracture-controlled permeability systems in reservoirs as well as for students or other scientists who need to develop the skills to accurately interpret the natural and induced fractures in cores.
Foreword xi Preface xiii Acknowledgments xv Introduction 1 Part 1 Natural Fractures 9 Section A Extension Fractures 11 A1 High?Angle Extension Fractures 13 A1a Introduction 13 A1b Fractography of High?Angle Extension Fractures 14 A1c Extension Fracture Dimensions 21 A1d Extension Fracture Variations and Lithologic Influences 33 A1e High?Angle Extension Fracture Intersections 43 A1f High? Angle Extension Fractures in Deviated Core 47 A2 Inclined Extension Fractures 51 A2a Inclined Extension Fractures in Horizontally Bedded Strata 51 A2b Inclined Extension Fractures in Inclined Strata 53 A2c Vertical Extension Fractures in Inclined Strata 54 A3 Horizontal Extension Fractures 55 A3a Beef?Filled Fractures 55 A3b Other Calcite?Mineralized Horizontal Extension Fractures 57 A3c NOT Horizontal Extension Fractures 57 Section B Shear Fractures 59 B1 Introduction 61 B1a Nomenclature 61 B1b Anderson’s Shear Fracture/Fault Classification 62 B2 Shear Fracture Dimensions 65 B3 Shear Fracture Fractography 67 B3a Slickensides, Slickenlines, and Accretionary Steps 67 B3b En Echelon Segments 69 B3c Steps 71 B3d Pinch and Swell 72 B3e Sheared and Glassy Surfaces 75 B3f Slickencrysts 75 B3g Other Evidence for Shear 76 B4 High?Angle Shear Fractures 79 B4a Introduction 79 B4b High?Angle Strike?Slip Shear Fractures 79 B4c Non? Ideal High?Angle Shear Fractures 82 B5 Intermediate?Angle Shear Fractures 85 B6 Low?Angle Shear Fractures 89 B7 Bed?Parallel Shear Fractures 93 B8 Deformation Bands 97 B9 Faults 101 Section C Other Types of Natural Fractures 105 C1 Introduction 107 C2 Microfractures 109 C3 Ptygmatically Folded Fractures 111 C4 Fissures 117 C5 Veins 119 C6 Expulsion Structures 121 C7 Syn?Sedimentary Fractures 125 C8 Compound/Reactivated Fractures 133 C9 Shattered Rock 137 C10 Karst Breccias 139 C11 Pocket?Size Geomechanical Systems 143 C12 Stylolites 147 Section D Mineralization 151 D1 Mineralization 153 D1a Introduction 153 D1b Calcite Mineralization 154 D1c Other Types of Mineralization 160 D1d Oil and Bitumen 163 D1e False Mineralization 167 Part 2 Induced Fractures 171 2A Introduction 173 2B Petal and Saddle Fractures 175 2C Centerline Fractures 185 2D Disc Fractures 197 2E Scribe?Knife Fractures 209 2F Torque and Helical Twist Fractures 213 2G Core?Compression Fractures 219 2H Percussion?Induced Fractures 221 2I Bending Fractures with Barbs 225 2J Irregular Crack Networks 229 2K Induced Fractures with Curved Strikes 233 2L Waterflood?Related Fractures 237 2M Cored Hydraulic Fractures 241 Part 3 Artifacts 245 3A Introduction 247 3B Core Tops and Core Bases 249 3C1 Core?Catcher Drag 253 3C2 Core Orientation Scribe Grooves 257 3C3 Irregular Core Diameters 261 3C4 Pinion Holes 263 3D1 Spinoffs 265 3D2 Twice?Turned Core 269 3E Saw Scars 271 3F1 Core Plucking 277 3F2 Scratches 279 3F3 Drill?Mud Erosion 281 3F4 Core?Parting Enigmas 283 3F5 Polished Fracture Surfaces in Horizontal Cores 285 3F6 Tip Polish 287 3F7 Slab?Plane Consistency 291 3F8 Illusions 295 3F9 Coring?Related Rock Alteration on Core Surfaces 299 Index 301
"A high quality publication that should be an essential text in any and all core facilities and essential reading for anyone who spends time looking at core." Geoscientist Online
John C. Lorenz and Scott P. Cooper are Senior Geologists with FractureStudies LLC in Edgewood, New Mexico.
An invaluable reference that helps geologists recognize and differentiate the many types of natural fractures, induced fractures and artefacts found in cores Atlas of Natural and Induced Fractures in Core offers a reference for the interpretation of natural and induced fractures in cores. The natural and induced fracture data contained in cores provides a wealth of information once they are recognized and properly interpreted. Written by two experts in the field, this resource provides a much-needed tool to help with the accurate interpretation of these cores. The authors include the information needed to identify different fracture types as well as the criteria for distinguishing between the types of fractures. The atlas shows how to recognize non-fracture artefacts in a core since many of them provide other types of useful information. In addition, the text's illustrated structures combined with their basic interpretations are designed to be primary building blocks of a complete fracture assessment and analysis. The authors show how to recognize and correctly interpret these building blocks to ensure that subsequent analyses, interpretations, and modeling efforts regarding fracture-controlled reservoir permeability are valid. Presented in full color throughout, this comprehensive reference is written for geologists charged with interpreting fracture-controlled permeability systems in reservoirs as well as for students or other scientists who need to develop the skills to accurately interpret the natural and induced fractures in cores.

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