Details

Artificial Materials


Artificial Materials


1. Aufl.

von: Olivier Vanbésien

146,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Iste
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 17.12.2012
ISBN/EAN: 9781118562987
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 346

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Beschreibungen

This book addresses artificial materials including photonic crystals (PC) and metamaterials (MM). The first part is devoted to design concepts: negative permeability and permittivity for negative refraction, periodic structures, transformation optics. The second part concerns PC and MM in stop band regime: from cavities, guides to high impedance surfaces. Abnormal refraction, less than one and negative, in PC and MM are studied in a third part, addressing super-focusing and cloaking. Applications for telecommunications, lasers and imaging systems are also explored.
Introduction xi PART 1. A FEW FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS 1 Chapter 1. Definitions and Concepts 3 1.1. Effective parameters of materials 3 1.2. Terminology of artificial materials 6 1.3. Negative refraction: stakes and consequences 8 1.4. Bibliography 11 Chapter 2. The Metamaterial Approach – Permeability and Permittivity Engineering 13 2.1. Background history 13 2.2. An imbricated lattice approach 17 2.3. Cell approach 23 2.4. Alternative approach: Mie resonances 31 2.5. Bibliography 33 Chapter 3. Photonic Crystal Approach – Band Gap Engineering 37 3.1. Historical background 37 3.2. Study tool: band structure 39 3.3. 2D ½ photonic crystals 44 3.4. A few words on three-dimensional photonic crystals 53 3.5. Conclusion: metamaterials or photonic crystals? 55 3.6. Bibliography 56 Chapter 4. Transformation Optics 59 4.1. Context 59 4.2. Method description 60 4.3. Bibliography 69 PART 2. MATERIALS USED IN A BAND GAP REGIME 71 Chapter 5. Point and Extended Defects in Photonic Crystals 73 5.1. Context 73 5.2. Defect zoology 74 5.3. Selectivity of photonic crystal microcavities 77 5.4. Waveguiding in photonic crystals 82 5.5. Slowing down light 90 5.6. Bibliography 92 Chapter 6. Routing Devices made from Photonic Crystals 95 6.1. The building brick: the add/drop filter 95 6.2. A few photonic crystal approaches 98 6.3. Interference-based couplers 100 6.4. Conclusion 117 6.5. Bibliography 117 Chapter 7. Single Negative Metamaterials 121 7.1. Context 121 7.2. ENGs: negative permittivity materials 122 7.3. MNGs: negative permeability materials 128 7.4. What of frequency-selective surfaces? 132 7.5. Bibliographyc 135 PART 3. MATERIALS IN AN ABNORMAL REFRACTION REGIME (N < 1 AND N < 0) 137 Chapter 8. Two-dimensional Microwave Balanced Composite Prism 139 8.1. Why use a microwave prism? 139 8.2. Conception and sizing of a balanced composite lattice 140 8.3. Two-dimensional prism 147 8.4. Bibliography 154 Chapter 9. Metal-dielectric Materials – from the Terahertz to the Visible 157 9.1. From the terahertz to the infrared 157 9.2. A backward propagation line at terahertz frequency 158 9.3. From “nano”-resonators to “fishnets” 163 9.4. Three-dimensional metamaterials 172 9.5. Bibliography 174 Chapter 10. Abnormal Refraction in Photonic Crystals 177 10.1. Context 177 10.2. (An)isotropy in photonic crystals 178 10.3. Exploiting anisotropy 185 10.4. Focalization and negative refraction: looking for isotropy 189 10.5. Bibliography 194 Chapter 11. A Photonic Crystal Flat Lens at Optical Wavelength 197 11.1. A bit of background 197 11.2. How to define a typical prototype at optical wavelengths 198 11.3. Lens optimization: impedance and resolution 201 11.4. Experiments 213 11.5. Reverse engineering: from a two-dimensional prototype to three-dimensional reality 218 11.6. Conclusion 221 11.7. Bibliography 222 Chapter 12. Wave-controlling Systems – Towards Bypass and Invisibility 225 12.1. “Transformation optics” or “dispersion engineering” 225 12.2. Component approaches for controlling waves 226 12.3. Invisibility at terahertz frequencies: Mie resonances 241 12.4. An alternative with the photonic crystal: the butterfly 246 12.5. Perspectives 250 12.6. Bibliography 250 PART 4. MOVING TOWARD APPLICATIONS 253 Chapter 13. Guiding, Filtering and Routing Electromagnetic Waves 255 13.1. Context 255 13.2. Guiding: propagation lines and tunable phase shifters 256 13.3. Filtering 266 13.4. Metamaterial-based routing 273 13.5. Conclusion 276 13.6. Bibliography 276 Chapter 14. Antennas 279 14.1. Towards the miniaturization of transmission/reception systems 279 14.2. Directivity engineering 280 14.3. Subwavelength sizing 293 14.4. Conclusion 298 14.5. Bibliography 299 Chapter 15. Optics: Fibers and Cavities 301 15.1. Optical issues: the privileged domain of photonic crystals 301 15.2. Microstructured optical fibers 302 15.3. Toward zero threshold lasers 310 15.4. Bibliography 318 Chapter 16. Detection, Imaging and Tomography Systems 321 16.1. From detection to imaging 321 16.2. Terahertz sensors 322 16.3. Direct approach for imaging 326 16.4. Detection and image reconstruction 328 16.5. A vast field to explore 337 16.6. Bibliography 339 Conclusion 341 Index 345

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