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Anthropology For Dummies


Anthropology For Dummies


1. Aufl.

von: Cameron M. Smith, Evan T. Davies

13,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 23.02.2009
ISBN/EAN: 9780470507698
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 384

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Beschreibungen

<b>Covers the latest competing theories in the field</b> <p><b>Get a handle on the fundamentals of biological and cultural anthropology</b></p> <p>When did the first civilizations arise? How many human languages exist? The answers are found in anthropology - and this friendly guide explains its concepts in clear detail. You'll see how anthropology developed as a science, what it tells us about our ancestors, and how it can help with some of the hot-button issues our world is facing today.</p> <p><b>Discover:</b></p> <ul> <li>How anthropologists learn about the past</li> <li>Humanity's earliest activities, from migration to civilization</li> <li>Why our language differs from other animal communication</li> <li>How to find a career in anthropology</li> </ul>
<p><b>Introduction 1</b></p> <p>About This Book 2</p> <p>Conventions Used in This Book 2</p> <p>What You’re Not to Read 4</p> <p>Foolish Assumptions 4</p> <p>How This Book is Organized 5</p> <p>Part I: What is Anthropology? 5</p> <p>Part II: Physical Anthropology and Archaeology 5</p> <p>Part III: Cultural Anthropology and Linguistics 5</p> <p>Part IV: So What? Anthropology, the Modern World, and You 6</p> <p>Part V: The Part of Tens 6</p> <p>Icons Used in This Book 6</p> <p>Where to Go from Here 7</p> <p><b>Part I: What is Anthropology? 9</b></p> <p><b>Chapter 1: Human Beings and Being Human: An Overview of Anthropology 11</b></p> <p>Digging Into Anthropology’s History 12</p> <p>Getting Acquainted with Anthropology’s Subfields 12</p> <p>Physical anthropology 13</p> <p>Archaeology 14</p> <p>Cultural Anthropology 14</p> <p>Linguistics 15</p> <p>Making Sense of Anthropology’s Methods 16</p> <p>Applied Anthropology: Using the Science in Everyday Life 16</p> <p><b>Chapter 2: Looking Into Humanity’s Mirror: Anthropology’s History 19</b></p> <p>Getting to the Heart of Anthropology 20</p> <p>Dazed and Confused: What It is to Be Human 21</p> <p>Two types of culture22</p> <p>Two types of modernity 23</p> <p>-Isms and the Making of Anthropology 24</p> <p>Colonialism 25</p> <p>Antiquarianism 26</p> <p>Scientism 27</p> <p>Holism 29</p> <p>Anthropology Today 29</p> <p><b>Chapter 3: Actually, Four Mirrors: How Anthropology is Studied 31</b></p> <p>Physical Anthropology and the Evolutionary Basis of Biology 32</p> <p>You say you want an evolution 33</p> <p>More facets of physical anthropology 35</p> <p>The biocultural animal 38</p> <p>Archaeology: The Study of Ancient Societies 40</p> <p>Archaeology and evolution 41</p> <p>More facets of archaeology 42</p> <p>Linguistic Anthropology 45</p> <p>Nonhuman animal communication 46</p> <p>Spoken language 46</p> <p>Gesture and body language 47</p> <p>Cultural Anthropology: The Study of Living Societies 48</p> <p>Putting the culture in cultural anthropology 49</p> <p>Attempting to explain why humans do what they do 50</p> <p>Participant observation 51</p> <p>Applied anthropology and global culture 53</p> <p>Part II: Physical Anthropology and Archaeology 55</p> <p><b>Chapter 4: The Wildest Family Reunion: Meet the Primates 57</b></p> <p>Monkey Business: Primate Origins 57</p> <p>You Look Like an Ape: Primate Species 59</p> <p>What’s in a name? General primate characteristics 60</p> <p>Going ape (and prosimian): Primate subgroups 61</p> <p>Yes, We Have No Bananas: Primate Subsistence 67</p> <p>The indiscriminate-eaters: Omnivores 68</p> <p>The bug-eaters: Insectivores 69</p> <p>The leaf-eaters: Folivores 69</p> <p>The fruit-eaters: Frugivores 70</p> <p>Monkeying Around: Primate Locomotion 71</p> <p>Stand back, Tarzan: The brachiators 71</p> <p>Bug-bashers: The vertical-clingers-and-leapers 72</p> <p>In the trees: Arboreal quadrupeds 72</p> <p>Soldiers beware: Terrestrial quadrupeds 73</p> <p>A group of one: Bipeds 74</p> <p>Monkey See, Monkey Do: Primate Social Groups and Behavior 75</p> <p>Primates Today (But For How Long?) 77</p> <p><b>Chapter 5: My Career is in Ruins: How Anthropologists Learn about the Past 81</b></p> <p>What, How Old, and Where: It’s All You Need to Know 82</p> <p>The significance of where 82</p> <p>The significance of when 83</p> <p>The significance of artifacts 83</p> <p>Keeping Time: How Archaeologists Date Finds 85</p> <p>The deeper, the older: Stratigraphy 85</p> <p>Before or after? Relative dating 87</p> <p>Absolutely probably 6,344 years old (plus or minus): Radiometric absolute dating 87</p> <p>Saving Space: How Archaeologists Keep Track of Where Artifacts are Found 90</p> <p>Be there: Provenience 90</p> <p>Be square: Site grids 91</p> <p>Type Casting: How Archaeologists Classify Their Finds 92</p> <p>Types of types: The theory of classification 92</p> <p>Unearthing the most common artifact types 93</p> <p><b>Chapter 6: Bones of Contention: The Fossil Evidence for Early Human Evolution 97</b></p> <p>Great Africa: The Earliest Hominids 98</p> <p>Stand and Deliver: The Riddles of Bipedalism 99</p> <p>Walking upright: Pros and cons 99</p> <p>The complexities of early hominid evolution 100</p> <p>All the Same from the Neck Down: The Australopithecines 103</p> <p>The basic differences and similarities 103</p> <p>The crusher: Robust australopithecines 105</p> <p>The omnivore: Gracile australopithecines 107</p> <p>The Cracked Mirror: Early Homo 109</p> <p>Exploring characteristics of early Homo 109</p> <p>Dalmatians and cigar smoke: Finds at Olduvai Gorge 110</p> <p>Out of Africa: Early dispersals of early Homo 111</p> <p>Tool time: The decoupling of behavior from anatomy 112</p> <p>The Traveler: The Accomplishments of Homo erectus 112</p> <p>Characteristics of Homo erectus 113</p> <p>From confrontational scavenging to ambush hunting 114</p> <p>The use of fire 114</p> <p>Symmetry, watercraft, and the “15-minute culture” 114</p> <p><b>Chapter 7: It’s Good to Be Home: Homo sapiens sapiens, Our Biological Species 117</b></p> <p>Distinguishing Modern Homo sapiens sapiens (That’s You!) 118</p> <p>Anatomical modernity 118</p> <p>Behavioral modernity 119</p> <p>Africa: The Cradle of Humanity 120</p> <p>Discovering the first AMHss 120</p> <p>Exploring behavioral modernity 121</p> <p>Out of Africa: An Epic Migration 122</p> <p>Taking a closer look at Neanderthals 123</p> <p>Getting Neanderthals and AMHss together 124</p> <p>The Origins of Language: The Social Grooming Theory 126</p> <p>The Origins of the Modern Mind 128</p> <p>The evolution of consciousness: Two models 128</p> <p>The roots of myth 130</p> <p>The roots of ritual 131</p> <p>The roots of symbolism 131</p> <p><b>Chapter 8: Hunting, Fishing, Sailing, and Sledding: The Spread of Humanity Worldwide 133</b></p> <p>Migration and Survival: The Decoupling of Behavior from Biology 133</p> <p>The Colonization of Australasia 136</p> <p>The mysteries of Australian colonization 136</p> <p>What anthropologists know for sure 137</p> <p>Another Grand Exploration: The Colonization of the New World 137</p> <p>Dueling hypotheses: A couple of migration theories 137</p> <p>Just the facts, ma’am 139</p> <p>Igloos, Dogs, and Whalebone Knives: The Colonization of the Arctic 140</p> <p>First arrivals 141</p> <p>The Thule expansion 141</p> <p>The Voyage of Ru and Hina: The Colonization of the Pacific 142</p> <p>The tools of the explorers 143</p> <p>The society of the explorers 143</p> <p><b>Chapter 9: Old, Old McDonald: The Origins of Farming 145</b></p> <p>The Principle of Domestication 145</p> <p>Cultural selection 146</p> <p>Effects of farming on society 146</p> <p>Plant domestication 147</p> <p>Animal domestication 148</p> <p>Principles of Horticulture 149</p> <p>Distinctive characteristics of horticulture 149</p> <p>Garden horticulture 150</p> <p>Slashing and burning 150</p> <p>Limited storage 151</p> <p>Principles of Farming 152</p> <p>Distinguishing state farming from horticulture 152</p> <p>Water control 153</p> <p>Animal domestication, farming-style 153</p> <p>Massive storage 155</p> <p>Farming facilities and tools 155</p> <p>Secondary products 157</p> <p>Looking Back on the Origins of Farming 158</p> <p>Why farm in the first place? 158</p> <p>In the Near East 161</p> <p>In Africa 161</p> <p>In East Asia 162</p> <p>In the Western Pacific 163</p> <p>In the Americas 163</p> <p><b>Chapter 10: The Development of Civilization 165</b></p> <p>Human Subsistence and Social Organization 165</p> <p>Human subsistence 166</p> <p>Human social organization 170</p> <p>The Characteristics of Civilization 173</p> <p>Urbanization 174</p> <p>Long-distance trade 174</p> <p>Social stratification 175</p> <p>Durable record-keeping/writing 175</p> <p>Standing armies and extended warfare 176</p> <p>Money 177</p> <p>Slavery 177</p> <p>Territorial sovereignty 178</p> <p>Vassal tribute 178</p> <p>Non-food production specialists178</p> <p>Astronomy and/or mathematics 179</p> <p>Monumental architecture 179</p> <p>State religion 180</p> <p>Taxes 181</p> <p>Charting the Rise and Fall of the First Civilizations 181</p> <p>Egypt 181</p> <p>Inca 184</p> <p>Civilization Today: Will It Fall, Too? 185</p> <p>Part III: Cultural Anthropology and Linguistics 187</p> <p><b>Chapter 11: The Spice of Life: Human Culture 189</b></p> <p>Demystifying the Definition of Culture 189</p> <p>What Culture is and What Culture Isn’t 190</p> <p>Culture versus cultured 191</p> <p>Why human behavior differs 191</p> <p>Cultural Universals 192</p> <p>Having an Out-of-Body Experience 194</p> <p>Adaptation and its implications 195</p> <p>Behaviors 195</p> <p>Values 196</p> <p>Objects 197</p> <p>Language: Passing the baton of culture 198</p> <p>Opening Your Human Behavior Owner’s Manual 198</p> <p>Culture = software, brain = hardware199</p> <p>Problems with the software/hardware analogy 199</p> <p>Getting Your Cultural Education 200</p> <p>Life stages 200</p> <p>Stages of human learning 201</p> <p>From Mop-Tops to Mötley Crüe: What is Cultural Change? 201</p> <p>Diffusion versus assimilation 202</p> <p>Innovation 203</p> <p>Cultural Evolution 203</p> <p>How culture evolves 204</p> <p>What cultural evolution doesn’t mean 204</p> <p><b>Chapter 12: From Kalahari to Minneapolis: How Cultural Anthropologists Work 205</b></p> <p>Watching Cultural Anthropology Grow Up 206</p> <p>Battling ethnocentrism 206</p> <p>Getting scientific 207</p> <p>Embodying the etic modernist approach: Bronislaw Malinowski 210</p> <p>A More Personal Approach: Emic Research 212</p> <p>Recognizing how a researcher’s choices influence the results 212</p> <p>Realizing that the act of observing affects the results 213</p> <p>Considering Recent Developments 215</p> <p>Chewing on postmodernism 215</p> <p>Keeping pace with cultural change 215</p> <p>Striving for Accuracy 216</p> <p>Recognizing potential research pitfalls 216</p> <p>Watching cultural anthropology in action 218</p> <p>Going into the Field: Getting Prepared for Less-Than-Ideal Conditions 219</p> <p><b>Chapter 13: Can We Talk? Communication, Symbols, and Language 221</b></p> <p>Exploring the Complexity of Human Language 222</p> <p>Screeching and howling: Non-human animal communications 222</p> <p>Contrasting non-human and human symbolism 224</p> <p>Identifying characteristics of human spoken language 227</p> <p>Linking language to the mind: Tapping its true power 229</p> <p>Ready to Swear: How the Human Mind is Hard-Wired for Language 230</p> <p>First four months 231</p> <p>Six to twelve months 232</p> <p>12 to 18 months 232</p> <p>18 to 24 months 233</p> <p>36 months and later 233</p> <p>Watching Human Language Evolve 233</p> <p>Admitting our uncertainty 233</p> <p>Explaining language diversity 235</p> <p>Making room for new theories 236</p> <p><b>Chapter 14: Types of Types: Race and Ethnicity 239</b></p> <p>The Kinds of Humanity: Human Physical Variation 239</p> <p>The race card: Racial types and physical anthropology 240</p> <p>The lowdown: What anthropologists can say for sure about human races 242</p> <p>The history of racial typing 245</p> <p>The grand illusion: Race, turns out, is arbitrary 247</p> <p>Why is Everyone Different? Human Cultural Variation 248</p> <p>Distinguishing ethnicity from race 249</p> <p>A common horror: Ethnic cleansing250</p> <p>A common delight: Ethnic identity 251</p> <p>Ethnic group interactions 251</p> <p><b>Chapter 15: Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner? Identity, Family, Kinship, and Gender 255</b></p> <p>Am I “Cameron” or “a Smith”? The Scales of Human Identity 256</p> <p>Know thyself: Identity 256</p> <p>What’s in a name? 257</p> <p>A Family Affair 257</p> <p>Families of origin versus families of procreation 259</p> <p>Incest 259</p> <p>Marriage 260</p> <p>Kinship 261</p> <p>Sex and Gender 264</p> <p>The differences between sex and gender 264</p> <p>Common gender roles 265</p> <p>Kinship and Gender Worldwide and through Time 266</p> <p>Among foragers 266</p> <p>Among horticulturalists 267</p> <p>Among agriculturalists 268</p> <p><b>Chapter 16: Not at the Dinner Table! Religion and Politics 269</b></p> <p>What is Religion? 270</p> <p>Functions of religion 270</p> <p>Why religion is so powerful 271</p> <p>The Material and Supernatural Worlds 272</p> <p>Ritual and Religion 273</p> <p>The Organization of Supernatural Knowledge 275</p> <p>Shamans 275</p> <p>Priests 276</p> <p>The Origins of Religion 277</p> <p>Types of Religions 280</p> <p>The Relations of Power: Politics 281</p> <p>I’ve got the power (and I know how to use it) 282</p> <p>Power plays: How various societies apply power 283</p> <p>Part IV: So What? Anthropology,</p> <p>the Modern World, and You 285</p> <p><b>Chapter 17: Kiss or Kill? Diversity, Conflict, and Culture 287</b></p> <p>The Anthropology of Conflict and Conflict Resolution 287</p> <p>Scales and consequences of conflict 289</p> <p>Cultural conflict among small-scale societies 291</p> <p>Cultural conflict in larger-scale societies 292</p> <p>Humanity and justice 294</p> <p>Globalization and Human Culture 295</p> <p>Globalization and ecological justice 296</p> <p>Globalization and cultural assimilation 297</p> <p>Globalization and nativistic movements 297</p> <p>Globalization and forced migration 297</p> <p><b>Chapter 18: Looming Disasters? From Overpopulation to Space Debris 299</b></p> <p>The Only Constant is Change 299</p> <p>Overpopulation 301</p> <p>The road to overpopulation 302</p> <p>Hope on the horizon 303</p> <p>Climate Change 304</p> <p>Say What? The Loss of Linguistic Diversity 306</p> <p>Food and Water Availability/Famine 307</p> <p>Disease 308</p> <p>Space Debris 309</p> <p><b>Chapter 19: Eve and the Iceman: The Cutting Edge of Physical Anthropology 311</b></p> <p>Molecular Anthropology 311</p> <p>How it works 312</p> <p>How anthropologists use it 313</p> <p>Why some say it doesn’t work 315</p> <p>DNA and the Mitochondrial Eve 316</p> <p>Out of Africa: African diversity and extra-African similarity 317</p> <p>The inevitable debates 317</p> <p>Neanderthals and You: The Neanderthal Genome 318</p> <p>The Iceman 319</p> <p><b>Chapter 20: Stonehenge and You: Why Archaeology Matters 321</b></p> <p>History is Written by the Winners: The Importance of Archaeology 322</p> <p>Historical archaeology and written history 323</p> <p>Commoners of ancient Egypt 324</p> <p>The archaeology of American slaves 325</p> <p>Other important historical archaeology sites 326</p> <p>Conversation Stoppers? Archaeology and the Unknown 328</p> <p>Why did humanity take up farming? 329</p> <p>How did humans go from having leaders to having rulers? 329</p> <p>Does history repeat itself? 330</p> <p>Part V: The Part of Tens 331</p> <p><b>Chapter 21: Ten Things to Remember about Anthropology, Whatever Else You Forget 333</b></p> <p>We’re Not Just Like Apes, We are Apes 333</p> <p>Nobody Knows Why Hominids First Walked Upright (Yet) 333</p> <p>Everyone is in the Human Race 334</p> <p>Tool Use Separated Behavior from Anatomy 334</p> <p>Civilization is Brand-New 335</p> <p>There are Many Ways to Be Human 335</p> <p>Culture Doesn’t Ride on Genes 335</p> <p>Language and Metaphor are the Keys to Human Success 336</p> <p>Absolutely, There are No Absolutes 336</p> <p>There is No Ladder of Progress 336</p> <p><b>Chapter 22: Ten Great Careers for Anthropology Majors 339</b></p> <p>Academic Anthropology 339</p> <p>Cultural/Human Resources 340</p> <p>Medical Examination 340</p> <p>Crime Scene Investigation 340</p> <p>Primate Biology 341</p> <p>Primate Ethology 341</p> <p>Diplomacy 341</p> <p>Museum Work 341</p> <p>Library Science 342</p> <p>Contract Archaeology 342</p> <p><b>Chapter 23: Ten Great Anthropologically Themed Movies and Books 343</b></p> <p>Once We Were Warriors (1995) 343</p> <p>Gorillas in the Mist: The Story of Dian Fossey (1988) 343</p> <p>Neanderthal (2005) 344</p> <p>Quest for Fire (1982) 344</p> <p>Koyaanisqatsi (1982) 344</p> <p>The Places in Between (2006) 345</p> <p>Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors (1993) 345</p> <p>Maps and Dreams (1981; 2nd edition 2002) 345</p> <p>We, the Navigators: The Ancient Art of Landfinding in the Pacific (1972; 2nd edition 1998) 346</p> <p>Lord of the Flies (1954) 346</p> <p>Index 347</p>
<p><b>Cameron M. Smith, PhD,</b> teaches anthropology courses at Portland State University and has written articles for <i>Scientific American MIND, Archaeology,</i> and <i>Skeptical Inquirer.</i> <b>Evan T. Davies, PhD,</b> has conducted fieldwork in Africa.
<p><b> Covers the latest competing theories in the field</b> <p><b>Get a handle on the fundamentals of biological and cultural anthropology</b> <p>When did the first civilizations arise? How many human languages exist? The answers are found in anthropology — and this friendly guide explains its concepts in clear detail. You'll see how anthropology developed as a science, what it tells us about our ancestors, and how it can help with some of the hot-button issues our world is facing today. <p><b>Discover:</b> <ul> <li><b><i>How anthropologists learn about the past</i></b></li> <li><b><i>Humanity's earliest activities, from migration to civilization</i></b></li> <li><b><i>Why our language differs from other animal communication</i></b></li> <li><b><i>How to find a career in anthropology</i></b></li> </ul>

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