Details

Aircraft Systems


Aircraft Systems

Instruments, Communications, Navigation, and Control
Wiley - IEEE 1. Aufl.

von: Chris Binns

92,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-IEEE Press
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 12.10.2018
ISBN/EAN: 9781119262350
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 512

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Beschreibungen

An authoritative guide to the various systems related to navigation, control, and other instrumentation used in a typical aircraft Aircraft Systems offers an examination of the most recent developments in aviation as it relates to instruments, radio navigation, and communication. Written by a noted authority in the field, the text includes in-depth descriptions of traditional systems, reviews the latest developments, as well as gives information on the technologies that are likely to emerge in the future. The author presents material on essential topics including instruments, radio propagation, communication, radio navigation, inertial navigation, and puts special emphasis on systems based on MEMS. This vital resource also provides chapters on solid state gyroscopes, magnetic compass, propagation modes of radio waves, and format of GPS signals. Aircraft Systems is an accessible text that includes an investigation of primary and secondary radar, the structure of global navigation satellite systems, and more. This important text: Contains a description of the historical development of the latest technological developments in aircraft instruments, communications and navigation Gives several “interesting diversion” topics throughout the chapters that link the topics discussed to other developments in aerospace Provides examples of instruments and navigation systems in actual use in cockpit photographs obtained during the authors work as a flight instructor Includes numerous worked examples of relevant calculations throughout the text and a set of problems at the end of each chapter Written for upper undergraduates in aerospace engineering and pilots in training, Aircraft Systems offers an essential guide to both the traditional and most current developments in aviation as it relates to instruments, radio navigation, and communication.
Acknowledgments xiii About the Companion Website xv 1 Historical Development 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 The Advent of Instrument Flight 2 1.3 Development of Flight Instruments Based on Air Pressure 5 1.3.1 The Altimeter 5 1.3.2 The Vertical Speed Indicator (Variometer) 7 1.3.3 The Airspeed Indicator 8 1.4 Development of Flight Instruments Based on Gyroscopes 10 1.5 Development of Aircraft Voice Communications 12 1.6 Development of Aircraft Digital Communications 19 1.6.1 Communication Via Satellite (SATCOM) 19 1.6.2 Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) and Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) 20 1.6.3 Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS) 23 1.7 Development of Radio Navigation 24 1.7.1 Radio Direction Finding 24 1.7.2 Guided Radio Beam Navigation 28 1.7.3 VHF/UHF Radio Navigation Systems 31 1.8 Area and Global Navigation Systems 40 1.8.1 Hyperbolic Navigation 40 1.8.2 Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) 44 1.8.3 Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) 48 1.8.4 Combining Systems: Performance-Based Navigation (PBN) and Required Navigation Performance (RNP) 53 1.9 Development of Auto Flight Control Systems 57 References 65 2 Pressure Instruments 67 2.1 Layers of the Atmosphere 67 2.2 The International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) 68 2.3 Nonstandard Atmospheres 72 2.4 Dynamic Pressure and the Bernoulli Equation 73 2.5 Definition of Sea Level and Elevation 77 2.6 Definition of Height, Altitude, and Flight Level 77 2.7 Pitot and Static Sources 80 2.8 Pressure Altimeter 81 2.8.1 Basic Principles of the Pressure Altimeter 81 2.8.2 Altimeter Display 86 2.8.3 Servo Altimeter 89 2.8.4 Altimeter with Digital Encoder 91 2.9 Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) 93 2.9.1 Instantaneous Vertical Speed Indicator (IVSI) 98 2.10 Airspeed Indicator 100 2.11 Mach Meter 105 2.11.1 Critical Mach Number 105 2.11.2 Direct-Reading Mach Meter 107 2.12 OAT Probe 109 2.12.1 Ram Rise and Total Air Temperature 109 2.12.2 Direct-Reading Thermometer for Low Airspeeds 110 2.12.3 Resistance Thermometer Probes 110 2.13 Pitot–Static Systems 113 2.14 Air Data Computer (ADC) 117 2.14.1 Altitude and Vertical Speed 117 2.14.2 TAS and Mach number in Compressible Flow 117 2.14.3 ADC Inputs and Outputs 119 Problems 121 References 121 3 Gyroscopic and Magnetic Instruments 123 3.1 Mechanical Gyroscopes and Instruments 123 3.1.1 Basic Properties of Mechanical Gyroscopes 123 3.1.2 Gyroscope Wander 124 3.1.3 Labeling of Aircraft Axes and Rotations 125 3.1.4 Types of Gyroscope 126 3.1.5 Power for Gyroscopic Instruments 126 3.1.6 Direction Indicator (DI) 127 3.1.7 Earth Rate 129 3.1.8 Transport Wander 131 3.1.9 Attitude Indicator (AI) 134 3.1.10 Turn and Slip Indicator and Turn Coordinator 138 3.2 Solid-State Gyroscopes 141 3.2.1 The Advantages of Solid-State Gyroscopes 141 3.2.2 The Sagnac Effect 141 3.2.3 Fiber-Optic Gyroscope 142 3.2.4 Ring Laser Gyroscope 143 3.2.5 Micro-Electromechanical System (MEMS) Gyroscopes 146 3.2.6 MEMS Accelerometers 148 3.3 Magnetic Compass 149 3.3.1 Terrestrial Magnetism 149 3.3.2 Direct Indicating Magnetic Compass 151 3.3.3 Flux Gate Sensor 156 3.3.4 Miniature Magnetometers 159 3.4 Attitude Heading and Reference System (AHRS) 161 3.5 Sensor Fusion 162 Problems 163 References 165 4 Radio Propagation and Communication 167 4.1 Basic Properties of Radio Waves 167 4.2 Propagation of Radio Waves 169 4.2.1 Attenuation 169 4.2.2 Non-Ionospheric Propagation 171 4.2.2.1 Surface (or Ground) Wave: 20 kHz to 50 MHz (LF–HF) 171 4.2.2.2 Space (or Direct) Wave: >50 MHz (VHF) 172 4.2.3 Ionospheric Propagation (Skywaves) 173 4.2.3.1 Origin of the Ionosphere 173 4.2.3.2 Reflection and Absorption of Radio Waves by the Ionosphere 176 4.2.3.3 Ducting Propagation of Very Low Frequency (VLF) Waves 178 4.3 Transmitters, Receivers, and Signal Modulation 178 4.3.1 Basic Continuous Wave Morse Code Transmitter/Receiver 178 4.3.2 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation of Carrier 180 4.3.3 Superheterodyne Receivers and Demodulation of QAM Signals 182 4.3.4 Amplitude Modulated (AM) Transmission 184 4.3.5 Channel Spacing in the VHF Band for AM Voice Transmission 187 4.3.6 Frequency Modulation 189 4.3.7 Modulation for Digital Data Transmission 193 4.3.7.1 Pulsed Modulation 193 4.3.7.2 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) 193 4.3.7.3 Binary Continuous Phase Frequency Shift Keying (BCPFSK) 196 4.3.8 ITU Codes for Radio Emissions 198 4.4 Antennas 198 4.4.1 Basic Antenna Theory 198 4.4.2 Resonant Half-Wave Dipole and Quarter-Wave Monopole Antennas for VHF and UHF 206 4.4.3 Effect of Ground and Airframe on Radiation Pattern 211 4.4.4 Feeders, Transmission Lines, Impedance Matching, and Standing Wave Ratio 212 4.4.5 HF Antennas for Skywave Communications 215 4.4.6 Low-Frequency Small Loop Antenna 215 4.4.7 Directional Antennas in the VHF and UHF Bands 216 4.4.7.1 Yagi–Uda Antenna 217 4.4.7.2 Log-Periodic Antenna 219 4.4.8 Directional Antennas in the SHF Band 220 4.4.8.1 Waveguides as Feeders 220 4.4.8.2 Horn Antenna 222 4.4.8.3 Parabolic Dish Antenna 226 4.4.8.4 Slotted Array 229 4.4.8.5 Patch or Microstrip Antenna 231 4.5 VHF Communications System 233 4.6 Long-Range HF Communications System 237 4.6.1 Coverage and Frequency Bands 237 4.6.2 Selective Calling (SELCAL) 240 4.6.3 HF Ground Station Network 240 4.6.4 HF Data Link (HFDL) 242 4.7 Satellite Communications 242 4.8 Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS) 245 Problems 247 References 248 5 Primary and Secondary Radar 249 5.1 Primary Radar 249 5.2 Ground Radar 257 5.3 Airborne Weather Radar 258 5.4 Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) 272 5.4.1 Mode A and Mode C Interrogation Pulses 273 5.4.2 Mode A Reply from the Aircraft 274 5.4.3 Mode C Reply from the Aircraft 275 5.4.4 Conflicts Between Mode A and Mode C Replies from Different Aircraft 276 5.4.5 Mode S 276 5.4.6 Mode S All Call Interrogation 277 5.4.7 Mode S Selective Call Interrogation 278 5.4.8 Mode S Reply from Aircraft 279 5.4.9 Traffic Surveillance by Mode S 280 5.4.10 Squitters and Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) 281 5.4.11 Universal Access Transceivers (UAT) and ADS-B 283 5.4.12 Surveillance by ADS-B 286 5.5 Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) 288 5.6 Radio Altimeter 291 Problems 293 References 294 6 General Principles of Navigation 295 6.1 Coordinate Reference System for the Earth 295 6.1.1 Latitude and Longitude 295 6.1.2 Great Circle Routes, Rhumb Lines, and Departure 297 6.2 Compass Heading, Variation, and Deviation 302 6.3 Aviation Charts 305 6.3.1 General Chart Properties: Chart Scale, Orthomorphism, and Conformality 305 6.3.2 Chart Projections 308 6.3.2.1 Mercator Projection 308 6.3.2.2 Conical Projection 311 6.3.2.3 Gnomic and Polar Stereographic Projection 313 6.4 Non-Sphericity of the Earth and the WGS84 Model 315 6.5 Navigation by Dead Reckoning 319 6.5.1 Calculating the True Airspeed 320 6.5.2 Calculating the Heading and Ground Speed in a Known Wind 321 6.5.3 Pilot Log for a Visual Flight Rules (VFR) Navigation 324 6.5.4 Correcting Track Errors 327 Problems 331 References 332 7 Short-Range Radio Navigation 333 7.1 Automatic Direction Finder (ADF) 334 7.1.1 Principle of Operation 334 7.1.2 ADF Cockpit Instrumentation 336 7.2 VHF Omnidirectional Range (VOR) 342 7.2.1 Principle of Operation 342 7.2.2 Conventional VOR (CVOR) 344 7.2.3 Doppler VOR (DVOR) 348 7.2.4 VOR Cockpit Instrumentation 351 7.2.5 VOR Track Errors 354 7.2.6 Airways System Defined by VORs 358 7.2.7 Area Navigation (RNAV) 360 7.3 Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) 365 7.4 Instrument Landing System (ILS) 366 7.4.1 ILS Localizer 367 7.4.2 ILS Glide Slope 375 7.4.3 ILS Cockpit Instrumentation 378 7.4.4 Categories of ILS 379 7.5 Microwave Landing System (MLS) 381 Problems 383 References 385 8 Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) 387 8.1 Basic Principle of Satellite Navigation 387 8.2 The Constellation of Space Vehicles (SVs) 389 8.2.1 Orbital Radius of the GPS Constellation 389 8.2.2 Orbital Arrangement for Optimal Coverage by the GPS Constellation 391 8.3 Transmissions by the GPS SVs 395 8.3.1 GPS Time and UTC 395 8.3.2 Transmission Channels 396 8.3.3 Construction of the C/A Code 398 8.3.4 Multiplexed Decoding of the Navigation Message 400 8.3.5 Format of the Navigation Message 405 8.3.6 Precision P(Y) Code 413 8.3.7 Additional GPS Signals 413 8.3.7.1 L2C Signal 414 8.3.7.2 L5 Safety of Life Signal 415 8.3.7.3 L1C Signal 416 8.3.7.4 L3 and L4 Signals 416 8.4 Control Segment 419 8.5 Sources of GPS Errors 421 8.5.1 Geometric Dilution of Position 421 8.5.2 Ionospheric Propagation Error 421 8.5.3 Other Sources of Error 423 8.6 Relativity Corrections Required for GPS 424 8.7 Augmentation Systems 425 8.7.1 Wide Area Augmentation Systems (WAAS) 425 8.7.2 Local Area Augmentation Systems (LAAS) 426 8.7.3 Aircraft-Based Augmentation Systems (ABAS) and Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) 426 8.8 GPS Cockpit Instrumentation 428 8.9 Spoofing, Meaconing, and Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) Resilience 430 Problems 430 References 431 9 Inertial Navigation and Kalman Filtering 433 9.1 Basic Principle of Inertial Navigation 433 9.2 Gimbaled Systems 435 9.2.1 Stabilized Platforms 435 9.2.2 Obtaining Latitude and Longitude 436 9.2.3 Correcting the Platform Orientation for Earth Rate and Transport Wander 437 9.2.4 Initializing the Platform 439 9.3 Strapdown Systems 440 9.4 Accelerations Not due to Changes in Aircraft Motion 442 9.5 Schüler Oscillations 443 9.6 Earth-Loop Oscillations 445 9.7 Summary of Inertial Guidance Errors 445 9.7.1 Sensor Bias 446 9.7.2 Random Walk Position Error Produced by Sensor Noise 447 9.7.3 Environmental Factors 447 9.7.4 True Wander 448 9.8 Cockpit Instrumentation 449 9.9 Kalman Filter 451 9.9.1 Basic Principle of the Kalman Filter 451 9.9.2 Kalman Filter for One-Dimensional (Single Value) Data 454 9.9.3 Kalman Filtering of Multiple values 455 Problems 460 References 461 Appendix A Radiation from Wire Antennas 463 Appendix B Theory of Transmission Lines and Waveguides 475 Appendix C Effective Aperture of a Receiving Antenna 481 Appendix D Acronyms 485 Index 489
PROF. CHRIS BINNS is an Emeritus professor at the Department of Physics and Astronomy with the University of Leicester,??UK. Currently he is a??flight instructor and continues to teach engineers at universities in Greece and in the UK.
AN AUTHORITATIVE GUIDE TO THE VARIOUS SYSTEMS RELATED TO NAVIGATION, CONTROL, AND OTHER INSTRUMENTATION USED IN A TYPICAL AIRCRAFT Aircraft Systems??offers an examination of the most recent developments in aviation as it relates to instruments, radio navigation, and communication. Written by a noted authority in the field, the text includes in-depth descriptions of traditional systems, reviews the latest developments, as well as gives information on the technologies that are likely to emerge in the future. The author presents material on essential topics including instruments, radio propagation, communication, radio navigation, inertial navigation, and puts special emphasis on systems based on MEMS. This vital resource also provides chapters on solid state gyroscopes, magnetic compass, propagation modes of radio waves, and format of GPS signals.??Aircraft Systems??is an accessible text that includes an investigation of primary and secondary radar, the structure of global navigation satellite systems, and more. This important text: Contains a description of the historical development of the latest technological developments in aircraft instruments, communications and navigation Gives several "interesting diversion" topics throughout the chapters that link the topics discussed to other developments in aerospace Provides examples of instruments and navigation systems in actual use in cockpit photographs obtained during the authors work as a flight instructor Includes numerous worked examples of relevant calculations throughout the text and a set of problems at the end of each chapter Written for upper undergraduates in aerospace engineering and pilots in training,?? Aircraft Systems??offers an essential guide to both the traditional and most current developments in aviation as it relates to instruments, radio navigation, and communication.

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