Advanced Textile Engineering Materials is written to educate readers about the use of advanced materials in various textile applications. In the first part, the book addresses recent advances in chemical finishing, and also highlights environmental issues in textile sectors. In the second part, the book provides a compilation of innovative fabrication strategies frequently adopted for the mechanical finishing of textiles. The key topics are• Smart textiles• Functional modifications• Protective textiles• Conductive textiles• Coated/laminated textiles• Antimicrobial textiles• Environmental aspects in textiles • Textile materials in composites• 3-D woven preforms for composite reinforcement • Evolution of soft body armor
Part 1: Chemical Aspects 1 1. Application of Stimuli-Sensitive Materials in Smart Textiles 3Ali Akbar Merati 1.1. Introduction 3 1.2. Phase Change Materials 4 1.3. Shape Memory Materials 11 1.4. Chromic Materials 13 1.5. Conjugated Polymers 14 1.6. Conductive Polymers 16 1.7. Piezoelectricity 17 1.8. Optical Fibers 18 1.9. Hydrogels 20 1.10. Smart Textiles and Nanotechnology 22 1.11. Future Trends 23 References 23 2. Functional Finishing of Textile Materials and Its Psychological Aspects 31Muhammad Mohsin and Qurat Ul Ain Malik 2.1. Introduction 31 2.2. Softeners 34 2.3. Oil- and Water-Repellent Finishes 36 2.4. Fire Retardants 39 2.5. Easy Care Finishing 43 2.6. Psychological Aspect of Functional Textiles 47 2.7. Challenges and Future Directions 50 2.8. Conclusion 50 References 51 3. Recent Advances in Protective Textile Materials 55Santanu Basak, Animesh Laha, Mahadev Bar, and Rupayan Roy 3.1. Introduction 56 3.2. Application of the Protective Textile in the Defense Arena 65 3.3. Recent Advancements in Engineering to Create UV-Protective Textiles 70 3.4. Insect-Repellent Textiles 72 3.5. Microorganism Protective Textile Materials 75 3.6. Camouflage Application as Protective Textile 78 3.7. Challenges and Future Directions 79 References 80 4. Antibacterial Aspects of Nanomaterials in Textiles: From Origin to Release 87Zahra Khodaparast, Akram Jahanshahi, and Mohammadreza Khalaj 4.1. Introduction 87 4.2. Nanomaterial Properties 89 4.3. Release 103 4.4. Conclusion 116 Acknowledgement 117 References 117 5. Modification of Wool and Cotton by UV Irradiation for Dyeing and Finishing Processes 125Franco Ferrero, Gianluca Migliavacca, and Monica Periolatto 5.1. Introduction 126 5.2. Interaction of UV Radiation with Textile Fibers 128 5.3. Interaction of UV Radiation with Naturally Present Chromophores of Different Fibers 135 5.4. UV Irradiation on Wool 144 5.5. UV Irradiation on Cotton 162 5.6. Conclusions 168 5.7. Future Perspectives 169 References 170 6. Electroconductive Textiles 177Arobindo Chatterjee and Subhankar Maity 6.1. Introduction 177 6.2. Electrical Conductivity 179 6.3. The Source of Conductivity in Conducting Polymers 182 6.4. Electroconductive Textiles Based on Metals 183 6.5. Electroconductive Textiles Based on Graphene 183 6.6. Electroconductive Textile Based on PPy 184 6.7. Conductive Polymer-Based Textiles 190 6.8. Effect of Various Yarns and Fabrics as Substrate 200 6.9. Applications of Electroconductive Textiles 202 6.10. Durability Properties of Conductive Polymer-Based Textiles 231 6.11. Future Scope and Challenges 239 6.12. Conclusions 239 References 240 7. Coated or Laminated Textiles for Aerostat and Stratospheric Airship 257Bapan Adak and Mangala Joshi 7.1. Introduction 258 7.2. Global Competitors for Making Aerostat/Airship at Present 260 7.3. Working Atmosphere of Aerostats and High Altitude Airship (HAA) 260 7.4. Materials Used in LTA Envelopes 261 7.5. Case Studies on Different Coated or Laminated LTA Envelopes 272 7.6. Advanced Polymer Nanocomposites as Potential Material for LTA Envelopes 274 7.7. Models for Predicting the Performance and Service Life of Aerostats/Airships 280 7.8. Challenges and Future Scopes 281 7.9. Conclusion 282 References 283 8. Woolen Carpet Industry: Environmental Impact and Recent Remediation Approaches 289Anu Mishra 8.1. Introduction 289 8.2. Flowchart of the Manufacture of a Woolen Carpet, Its Use and After-Use Disposal 290 8.3. Wool Fiber Production and Related Environmental Issues 290 8.4. Wool Fiber Cleaning and Related Environmental Issues 295 8.5. Woolen Carpet Yarn Manufacturing and Related Environmental Issues 299 8.6. Bleaching of Woolen Yarn and Related Environmental Issues 302 8.7. Dyeing of Woolen Carpet Yarn and Related Environmental Issues 303 8.8. Manufacture of Woolen Carpets and Related Environmental Issues 308 8.9. Washing of Carpets and Related Environmental Issues 311 8.10. Environmental Issues Related to the Usage of Woolen Carpets 314 8.11. Environmental Issues Related to the Disposal of Used Woolen Carpets 315 8.12. Some Remediation Approaches to Combat Environmental Issues of Wool Carpet Industry 315 8.13. Conclusion 324 References 324 9. Intensification of Textile Wastewater Treatment Processes 329Mahmood Reza Rahimi and Soleiman Mosleh 9.1. Introduction 330 9.2. AOP Techniques 333 9.3. Process Intensification 343 9.4. Equipment and Processes 347 9.5. Catalyst Design and Modification 354 9.6. Economic Evaluation/Justification of AOPs 357 9.7. Industrial and Large-Scale Applications 366 9.8. Application of Nanostructures in Wastewater Treatment 367 9.9. Challenges and Future Directions 370 9.10. Conclusion 371 References 371 10. Visible-Light-Induced Photocatalytic Degradation of Textile Dyes over Plasmonic Silver-Modified TiO2 389Rashmi Acharya, Brundabana Naik, and K. M. Parida 10.1. Introduction 390 10.2. Basic Principle of Photocatalysis 391 10.3. TiO2 as a Versatile Photocatalyst 392 10.4. Silver (Ag)-Modified TiO2 (Ag-TiO2) as Visible-Light-Induced Photocatalyst 393 10.5. Ag-Modified TiO2 with Non-Metal Doping 404 10.6. Ag-TiO2 with Other Plasmonic Metals 408 10.7. Conclusion 410 References Part 2: Mechanical Aspects 419 11. Application of Textile Materials in Composites 421Swati Sharma, Indu Chauhan, and Bhupendra Singh Butola 11.1. Introduction 421 11.2. Essential Properties of Fibers for Composite Applications 427 11.3. Textile Fibers Used for Composite Applications 432 11.4. Surface Modification of Fibers 443 11.5. Manufacturing of Textile Composite Materials 444 11.6. Application of Textile Composites in Various Industries 451 11.7. Conclusions 454 References 455 12. Emerging Trends in Three-Dimensional Woven Preforms for Composite Reinforcements 463R. N. Manjunath and B. K. Behera 12.1. Introduction 463 12.2. Three-Dimensional Fabrics 466 13. Evolution of Soft Body Armor 499Sanchi Arora and Aranya Ghosh 13.1. Introduction 499 13.2. Constituents of Soft Body Armor 501 13.3Performance Evaluation of Materials 526 13.4. Advancements in Soft Body Armor Technology 532 13.5. Conclusion 540 References 541 Index 553
Shahid-ul-Islam received his PhD in Chemistry from Jamia Millia Islamia (A Central University), India, in 2016. He then joined the Department of Textile Technology at the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD) where he is currently DST-SERB National Postdoctoral Fellow. His research interests include green chemistry, dyes and pigments, thermodynamics and kinetics of colorants, and textile finishing using polymeric nanocomposites. He is a recipient of several academic awards and competitive fellowships. He has published numerous peer-reviewed research articles in journals of high repute as well as edited 3 books with Wiley-Scrivener. B. S. Butola obtained his B. Tech. (1990) and Ph.D. degrees (2005) and is an Associate Professor at the Department of Textile Technology, IIT, Delhi. His research interests include functionalization of textiles with metal oxides, use of shear thickening fluids for improving the impact performance of ballistic textiles, polymeric nanocomposites and smart colorants.
A groundbreaking book on the recent advances in chemical finishing, innovative fabrication strategies frequently adopted for the mechanical finishing of textiles, as well as the environmental issues in textile sectors Advanced materials are undoubtedly becoming very popular as substitutes for traditional materials in the textile engineering field. Advanced textile engineering materials are giving way to innovative textile materials with novel functions and are widely perceived as offering huge potential in a wide range of applications such as healthcare, defense, personal protective equipment, textile antennas, garments for motion capture, and sensors, etc. Advanced Engineering Textile Materials contains 13 chapters written by high profile contributors with many years of experience in textile technology, and cover fundamental and advanced approaches associated with the design and development of textile implants, conductive textiles, 3D textiles, smart-stimuli textiles, antiballistic textiles and fabric structures designed for a medical application intrabody/extra-body, implantable/non-implantable) and various modification and processing techniques. Audience The book is intended to be of interest and useful to a wide group of people: researchers, post and undergraduates in the fields of textile engineering, functional finishing, chemical processing and material sciences.
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