Advanced Multilevel Converters and Applications in Grid Integration
A comprehensive survey of advanced multilevel converter design, control, operation and grid-connected applications Advanced Multilevel Converters and Applications in Grid Integration presents a comprehensive review of the core principles of advanced multilevel converters, which require fewer components and provide higher power conversion efficiency and output power quality. The authors – noted experts in the field – explain in detail the operation principles and control strategies and present the mathematical expressions and design procedures of their components. The text examines the advantages and disadvantages compared to the classical multilevel and two level power converters. The authors also include examples of the industrial applications of the advanced multilevel converters and offer thoughtful explanations on their control strategies. Advanced Multilevel Converters and Applications in Grid Integration provides a clear understanding of the gap difference between research conducted and the current industrial needs. This important guide: Puts the focus on the new challenges and topics in related areas such as modulation methods, harmonic analysis, voltage balancing and balanced current injection Makes a strong link between the fundamental concepts of power converters and advances multilevel converter topologies and examines their control strategies, together with practical engineering considerations Provides a valid reference for further developments in the multilevel converters design issue Contains simulations files for further study Written for university students in electrical engineering, researchers in areas of multilevel converters, high-power converters and engineers and operators in power industry, Advanced Multilevel Converters and Applications in Grid Integration offers a comprehensive review of the core principles of advanced multilevel converters, with contributions from noted experts in the field.
List of Contributors xv Preface xvii Part I A review on Classical Multilevel Converters 1 1 Classical Multilevel Converters 3Gabriel H. P. Ooi, Ziyou Lim, and Hossein Dehghani Tafti 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Classical Two-Level Converters 3 1.3 The Need for Multilevel Converters 4 1.4 Classical Multilevel Converters 5 1.5 Multilevel Applications and Future Trends 12 References 14 2 Multilevel Modulation Methods 17Ziyou Lim, Hossein Dehghani Tafti, and Harikrishna R. Pinkymol 2.1 Introduction 17 2.2 Carrier-Based Sinusoidal Pulse-WidthModulation Methods 19 2.3 Space Vector Modulation (SVM) 24 2.4 Summary 27 References 28 3 Mathematical Modeling of Classical Three-Level Converters 29Gabriel H. P. Ooi 3.1 Introduction 29 3.2 Three-Level Diode-Clamped Inverter Topology 29 3.3 Three-Level Flying-Capacitor Inverter Topology 38 3.4 Summary 44 References 44 4 Voltage BalancingMethods for Classical Multilevel Converters 45Gabriel H. P. Ooi, Hossein Dehghani Tafti, and Harikrishna R. Pinkymol 4.1 Introduction 45 4.2 Active Balancing by Adding dc Offset Voltage to Modulating Signals 45 4.3 Measurement Results for dc Offset Modulation Control 47 4.4 Natural Balancing by using Star Connected RC Filter 49 4.5 Measurement Results for the Natural Balancing Method 59 4.6 Space Vector Modulation with the Self-Balancing Technique 59 4.7 Summary 61 References 63 Part II Advanced Multilevel Rectifiers and their Control Strategies 65 5 Unidirectional Three-Phase Three-Level Unity-Power Factor Rectifier 67Gabriel H. P. Ooi and Hossein Dehghani Tafti 5.1 Introduction 67 5.2 Circuit Configuration 67 5.3 Proposed Controller Scheme 70 5.4 Experimental Verification 80 5.5 Summary 86 References 86 6 Bidirectional and Unidirectional Five-Level Multiple-Pole Multilevel Rectifiers 89Gabriel H. P. Ooi 6.1 Introduction 89 6.2 Circuit Configuration 89 6.3 Modulation Scheme 91 6.4 Design Considerations 93 6.5 Comparative Evaluation 95 6.6 Control Strategy 101 6.7 Experimental Verification 103 6.8 Summary 105 References 105 7 Five-Level Multiple-Pole Multilevel Vienna Rectifier 107Gabriel H. P. Ooi and Ali I. Maswood 7.1 Introduction 107 7.2 Operating Principle 108 7.3 Design Considerations 110 7.4 Control Strategy 112 7.5 Validation 115 7.6 Summary 116 References 117 8 Five-Level Multiple-Pole Multilevel Rectifier with Reduced Components 119Gabriel H. P. Ooi 8.1 Introduction 119 8.2 Operation Principle 120 8.3 Modulation Scheme 122 8.4 Control Strategy 123 8.5 Design Considerations 128 8.6 Validation 131 8.7 Experimental Verification 131 8.8 Summary 132 References 134 9 Four-Quadrant Reduced Modular Cell Rectifier 137Ziyou Lim 9.1 Introduction 137 9.2 Circuit Configuration 139 9.3 Operating Principle 139 9.4 Design Considerations 141 9.5 Control Strategy 144 9.6 Comparative Evaluation of Classical MFCR and Proposed RFCR 148 9.7 Experimental Verification 149 References 160 Part III Advanced Multilevel Inverters and their Control Strategies 163 10 Transformerless Five-Level/Multiple-Pole Multilevel Inverters with Single DC Bus Configuration 165Gabriel H. P. Ooi 10.1 Introduction 165 10.2 Five-Level Multiple-Pole Concept 166 10.3 Circuit Configuration and Operation Principles 167 10.4 Modulation Scheme 176 10.5 Design Consideration 176 10.6 Accuracy of the Current Stress Calculation 184 10.7 Losses in Power Devices 189 10.8 Discussion 197 References 199 11 Transformerless Seven-Level/Multiple-Pole Multilevel Inverters with Single-Input Multiple-Output (SIMO) Balancing Circuit 201Hossein Dehghani Tafti and Gabriel H. P. Ooi 11.1 Introduction 201 11.2 Circuit Configuration and Operating Principles 201 11.3 SIMO Voltage Balancing Circuit 204 11.4 Design Considerations 208 11.5 Experimental Verification 212 11.6 Summary 215 References 215 12 Three-Phase Seven-Level Three-Cell Lightweight Flying Capacitor Inverter 217Ziyou Lim 12.1 Introduction 217 12.2 LFCI Topology 219 12.3 Circuit Configuration 220 12.4 Operational Principles 220 12.5 Modulation Scheme 228 12.6 Design Considerations 230 12.7 Harmonic Characteristics 234 12.8 Experimental Verification 247 References 250 13 Three-Phase Seven-Level Four-Cell Reduced Flying Capacitor Inverter 251Ziyou Lim 13.1 Introduction 251 13.2 Circuit Configuration 251 13.3 Operation Principles 252 13.4 Design Considerations 254 13.5 Flying Capacitor Voltage Balancing Control 259 13.6 Experimental Verification 264 14 Active Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverter 275Ziyou Lim 14.1 Introduction 275 14.2 Circuit Configuration 277 14.3 Operating Principles 277 14.4 Design Considerations 279 14.5 Multiple Voltage Quantities Enhancement Control 280 14.6 Common Mode Reduction 298 References 316 15 Multilevel Z-Source Inverters 319Muhammad M. Roomi 15.1 Introduction 319 15.2 Two-Level ZSI 321 15.3 Three-Level ZSI 324 15.4 Modulation Methods for Three-Level Z-Source NPC Inverter 332 15.5 Modulation Method for Three-Level Dual Z-Source NPC Inverter 335 15.6 Reference Disposition Level-Shifted PWM for Non-ideal Dual Z-Source Network NPC Inverter 350 15.7 Applications of ZSI 363 15.8 Summary 365 References 367 Part IV Grid-Integration Applications of Advanced Multilevel Converters 369 16 Multilevel Converter-Based Photovoltaic Power Conversion 371Hossein Dehghani Tafti, Georgios Konstantinou, and Josep Pou 16.1 Introduction 371 16.2 Three-Level Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverter–Based PV Power Plant 371 16.3 Seven-Level Cascaded H-Bridge Inverter–Based PV Power Plant 390 16.4 Summary 407 References 407 17 Multilevel Converter–basedWind Power Conversion 413Md Shafquat Ullah Khan 17.1 Introduction 413 17.2 Wind Power Conversion Principles 413 17.3 Multilevel Converters in Wind Power Conversion 416 17.4 Grid-Connected Back-to-Back Three-Phase NPC Converter 418 17.5 Summary 429 References 429 18 Z-Source Inverter–Based Fuel Cell Power Generation 433Muhammad M. Roomi 18.1 Introduction 433 18.2 Fuel Cell Power Conversion Principles 436 18.3 Modelling of the PEMFC 437 18.4 Circuit Configuration 439 18.5 Control Strategy 440 18.6 Validation 442 18.7 Summary 451 References 453 19 Multilevel Converter-Based Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System 455Muhammad M. Roomi and Harikrishna R. Pinkymol 19.1 Introduction 455 19.2 A Space Vector Modulated Five-Level Multiple-pole Multilevel Diode-Clamped STATCOM 456 19.3 Summary 470 References 470 Index 473
EDITORS ALI I. MASWOOD, PHD, is an Associate Professor at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. He received his first class B & M. Eng from Moscow Power Engineering Institute and Ph. D degree from Concordia University, Canada. Having taught in Canada for some time, he joined NTU, Singapore. Dr. Maswood is an Associate Editor, IET PEL, author of more than 100 journal and conference papers and a number of patents. His research interests are in unity PF converters, harmonics, multilevel converters, and modulation techniques. He is the recipient of several national and international grants that include the Qatar Foundation & Rolls Royce. HOSSEIN DEHGHANI TAFTI, PHD, received B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in electrical engineering and power system engineering from Amirkabir University of Technology, Iran, in 2009 and 2011, respectively, and a Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, in 2017. From February to August 2016, he was on a research exchange program with the University of New South Wales, Australia, where he was working in the control of multilevel grid-connected converters. From August to October 2017, he was a Researcher with Aalborg University, Denmark, where he was working on the constant power generation of photovoltaic power plants. Since January 2018 he has worked as a research fellow at Nanyang Technological University. His research interests include photovoltaic power plants, multilevel converters, renewable energy, and fault-ride-through capabilities of power converters.
A COMPREHENSIVE SURVEY OF ADVANCED MULTILEVEL CONVERTER DESIGN, CONTROL, OPERATION AND GRID-CONNECTED APPLICATIONS Advanced Multilevel Converters and Applications in Grid Integrationpresents a comprehensive review of the core principles of advanced multilevel converters, which require fewer components and provide higher power conversion efficiency and output power quality.In this work, noted experts in the field explain in detail the operation principles and control strategies, and present the mathematical expressions and design procedures of their components. The text examines the advantages and disadvantages compared to the classical multilevel and two level power converters. The authors also include examples of the industrial applications of the advanced multilevel converters and offer thoughtful explanations on their control strategies.Advanced Multilevel Converters and Applications in Grid Integrationprovides a clear understanding of the gap between research conducted and the current industrial needs. This important guide: Puts the focus on the new challenges and topics in related areas such as modulation methods, harmonic analysis, voltage balancing and balanced current injection Makes a strong link between the fundamental concepts of power converters, advances multilevel converter topologies and examines their control strategies, together with practical engineering considerations Provides a valid reference for further developments in the multilevel converters design issue Contains simulation files for further study Written for university students in electrical engineering, researchers in areas of multilevel converters and high-power converters, and engineers and operators in the power industry, Advanced Multilevel Converters and Applications in Grid Integration offers a comprehensive review of the core principles of advanced multilevel converters, with contributions from noted experts in the field.
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