Advanced Materials for Electromagnetic ShieldingFundamentals, Properties, and Applications
A comprehensive review of the field of materials that shield people and sensitive electronic devices from electromagnetic fields Advanced Materials for Electromagnetic Shielding offers a thorough review of the most recent advances in the processing and characterization of the electromagnetic shielding materials. In this groundbreaking book, the authors—noted experts in the field—discuss the fundamentals of shielding theory as well as the practice of electromagnetic field measuring techniques and systems. They also explore applications of shielding materials used as absorbers of electromagnetic radiation, or as magnetic shields and explore coverage of new advanced materials for EMI shielding in aerospace applications. In addition, the text contains methods of preparation and applicability of metal foams. This comprehensive text examines the influence of technology on the micro-and macrostructure of polymers enabling their use in screening technology, technologies of shielding materials based on textiles, and analyses of its effectiveness in screening. The book also details the method of producing nanowires and their applications in EM shielding. This important resource: Explores the burgeoning market of electromagnetic shielding materials as we create, depend upon, and are exposed to more electronic devices than ever Addresses the most comprehensive issues relating to electromagnetic fields Contains information on the manufacturing, characterization methods, and properties of materials used to protect against them Discusses the important characterization techniques compared with one another, thus allowing scientists to select the best approach to a problem Written for materials scientists, electrical and electronics engineers, physicists, and industrial researchers, Advanced Materials for Electromagnetic Shielding explores all aspects in the area of electromagnetic shielding materials and examines the current state-of-the-art and new challenges in this rapidly growing area.
List of Contributors xv 1 EMI Shielding Fundamentals 1 M. K. Aswathi, Ajay V. Rane , A. R. Ajitha, Sabu Thomas, and Maciej Jaroszewski 1.1 Fundamentals of EMI Shielding Theory 1 1.2 Materials for EMI Shielding 3 1.3 Mechanism of EM Shielding Materials 3 References 8 2 EM Noise and Its Impact on Human Health and Safety 11 Halina Anio?czyk 2.1 Introduction 11 2.2 Impact of Non?ionizing EMFs on Humans 13 2.3 Overview of Most Common Sources of EMFs in the Occupational and Residential Modern Human Environment 16 2.4 Protection Against EMFs in European and International Law 19 2.5 Assessment of the Level of EMFs in the Workplaces 22 2.6 Assessment of EMF Levels in Inhabited Area 25 2.7 Assessment of the Level of EMF From Hi?tech Equipment for Personal Use 26 2.8 Needs and Possibilities of Shielding to Reduce the Exposure to EMF 29 2.9 Summary 30 References 31 3 Electromagnetic Field Sensors 35 Vishnu Priya Murali, Jickson Joseph, and Kostya (Ken) Ostrikov 3.1 Introduction 36 3.2 How are EMFs Produced? 36 3.3 Electromagnetic Field Measurements 38 3.4 Conclusion 56 References 56 4 Shielding Efficiency Measuring Methods and Systems 61 Saju Daniel and Sabu Thomas 4.1 Introduction 62 4.2 Calculation of Electromagnetic Shielding Effectiveness 65 4.3 Effect of Various Parameters on Electromagnetic Shielding Effectiveness 69 4.4 Types of EMI Shielding Effectiveness Tests 71 4.5 Shielding Effectiveness Measurement Methods and Systems 73 4.6 Transfer Impedance of Coaxial Cable 84 4.6.1 Measurement of Transfer Impedance of Coaxial Cable 84 4.7 Measurement of Transfer Impedance of Conductive Gasket 85 4.8 Summary 86 References 86 5 Electrical Characterization of Shielding Materials 89 B. J. Madhu 5.1 Introduction 89 5.2 Basics of Electrostatics 89 5.4 Electric Fields in Materials 98 5.4.1 Dielectrics 98 5.4.2 Polarization 98 5.5 Dielectric Properties 101 References 105 6 Magnetic Field Shielding 109 Qiang Zhang 6.1 Introduction 109 6.2 Theories of Magnetic Field Shielding 110 6.3 Standard Shielding Materials 116 6.4 Multilayer Ferromagnetic Matrix Composite Materials 121 6.5 Sandwich Composite/Structure Shielding System 134 6.5.1 Fe/Fe?Al Alloy/Fe Sandwich Composite 135 6.6 Summary 143 References 144 7 Recent Progress in Electromagnetic Absorbing Materials 147 Raghvendra Kumar Mishra, Aastha Dutta, Priyanka Mishra, and Sabu Thomas 7.1 Introduction 147 7.2 Core– Shell Structured Electromagnetic Absorbing Materials 151 7.3 CNM? Based Electromagnetic Absorbing Material 153 7.4 Graphene Based Polymer Composites for EMI Shielding 158 7.5 Challenges and Prospect 160 References 160 8 Flexible and Transparent EMI Shielding Materials 167 Bishakha Ray, Saurabh Parmar, and Suwarna Datar 8.1 Introduction 167 8.2 Theory of Transparent EMI Shielding 168 8.3 Transparent Thin Films for EMI Shielding 169 8.4 Nanocarbon Based Flexible, Transparent EMI Shielding Materials 170 8.5 Conducting Polymer?Based Flexible, Transparent EMI Shielding Materials 172 8.6 Nanowire Based Flexible, Transparent EMI Shielding Materials 172 8.7 Conclusions 174 References 175 9 Polymer?Based EMI Shielding Materials 177 Chong Min Koo, Faisal Shahzad, Pradip Kumar, Seunggun Yu, Seung Hwan Lee, and Jun Pyo Hong 9.1 Introduction 178 9.2 Types of Polymer Matrixes 181 9.3 Polymer Composites for EMI Shielding Applications 184 9.4 Structured Polymer Composites for EMI Shielding 203 9.4.1 Foamed Structures 204 9.5 Future Perspectives 212 References 213 10 Textile Based Shielding Materials 219 Julija Baltušnikait??Guzaitien? and Sandra Varnait???uravliova 10.1 Introduction 219 10.2 Materials for Production of EMI Textiles 220 10.3 Development Trends of Textile Based Shielding Materials 224 10.4 Methods of Shielding Effectiveness Measurement 228 10.5 Conclusions 232 References 233 11 Graphene and CNT Based EMI Shielding Materials 241 M.D. Teli and Sanket P. Valia 11.1 Introduction to Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes 241 11.2 Brief Outline of Synthesis of EMI Shielding Materials 242 11.3 General Characteristic of EMI Shielding Materials 245 11.4 EMI Shielding Properties of EMI Shielding Materials 246 11.5 Overview of Structure and EMI Shielding Property Relationship and Their Applications 251 11.6 Future Scope of Research and Application of these Materials 256 11.7 Conclusions 257 References 257 12 Nanocomposites Based EMI Shielding Materials 263 Hossein Yahyaei and Mohsen Mohseni 12.1 Nanomaterials and Nanocomposite Materials 263 12.2 EMI Shielding Materials 264 12.3 Electromagnetic Wave and EMI Shielding Mechanism 265 12.4 Carbonous EMI Shielding Nanocomposites 266 12.5 Other EMI Shielding Nanocomposites 280 References 284 13 Silver Nanowires as Shielding Materials 289 Feng Xu, Wenfeng Shen, Wei Xu, Jia Li, and Weijie Song 13.1 Introduction 289 13.2 Scalable Synthesis of AgNWs 290 13.3 Fabrication of Shielding Materials Based on Silver Nanowire/Polymer Conductive Composites 294 13.4 Properties of Shielding Materials Based on Silver Nanowire/Polymer Conductive Composites 295 13.5 Conclusion 301 References 302 14 Advanced Carbon Based Foam Materials for EMI Shielding 305 A. R. Ajitha, Anu Surendran, M. K. Aswathi, V. G. Geethamma, and Sabu Thomas 14.1 Introduction 305 14.2 Carbon Hybrid Materials for EMI Shielding 306 14.3 Conclusion 322 References 322 15 Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Materials for Aerospace Application: A State of the Art 327 Raghvendra Kumar Mishra, Martin George Thomas, Jiji Abraham, Kuruvilla Joseph, and Sabu Thomas 15.1 Introduction 327 15.2 Radiation in Space Environment 328 15.3 Electromagnetic Radiated Field 330 15.4 Electromagnetic Interference in Aerospace 332 15.5 Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Mechanism for Various Materials 336 15.6 Requirement of Shielding Materials for Aerospace 337 15.7 Types of Shielding Materials for Aerospace 338 15.8 Conclusion 354 References 355 16 Metamaterials as Shielding Materials 367 Yogesh S. Choudhary and N. Gomathi 16.1 Introduction 367 16.2 The Need for EMI Shielding 370 16.3 Why Metamaterials for Shielding Applications? 371 16.4 Metamaterials for Electromagnetic Shielding 371 16.5 Design and Fabrication of Metamaterials 378 16.6 Other Applications 385 16.7 Challenges in Metamaterials 386 16.8 Summary 386 References 387 17 Double Percolating EMI Shielding Materials Based on Polymer Blend Nanocomposites 393 P. Mohammed Arif, Jemy James, Jiji Abraham, K. Nandakkumar, and Sabu Thomas 17.1 Introduction 394 17.2 Concept of Double Percolation 394 17.3 Carbon Black and Carbon Nanofiber Based Composites 395 17.4 Carbon Nanotube Based Nanocomposites 400 17.5 Hybrid Filler Based Nanocomposites 405 17.6 Conclusion 407 References 407 18 Mechanical Performance Characterization of EMI Shielding Materials Using Optical Experimental Techniques 409 Wenfeng Hao, Can Tang, and Jianguo Zhu 18.1 Introduction 409 18.2 Characterizing the In?Plane Mechanical Performance of EMI Shielding Materials 410 18.2.1 Digital Image Correlation (DIC) 410 18.3 Characterizing Out?of?Plane Mechanical Performance of EMI Shielding Materials 414 18.4 Characterizing the Fracture and Fatigue Performance of EMI Shielding Materials 415 18.5 Concluding Remarks 420 Acknowledgments 420References 420 Index 425
MACIEJ JAROSZEWSKI, PHD, is an Assistant Professor, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, and Head of the High Voltage Laboratory at Wroc??aw University of Science and Technology, in Wroc??aw, Poland. SABU THOMAS, PHD, is the Pro-Vice Chancellor of Mahatma Gandhi University and the Founder Director and Professor of the??International and Interuniversity Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology.?? AJAY V. RANE is a doctoral research fellow, at Durban University of Technology in the Composites Research Group.
A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW OF THE FIELD OF MATERIALS THAT SHIELD PEOPLE AND SENSITIVE ELECTRONIC DEVICES FROM ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS Advanced Materials for Electromagnetic Shielding??offers a thorough review of the most recent advances in the processing and characterization of electromagnetic shielding materials. In this groundbreaking book, the authors—noted experts in the field—discuss the fundamentals of shielding theory as well as the practice of electromagnetic field measuring techniques and systems. They also explore applications of shielding materials used as absorbers of electromagnetic radiation, or magnetic shields and explore coverage of new advanced??materials for electromagnetic interference shielding in aerospace applications. In addition, the text contains methods of preparation and applicability of metal foams. This comprehensive text examines the influence of technology on the micro-and macrostructure of polymers enabling their use in screening technology, technologies of shielding materials based on textiles, and analyses of its effectiveness in screening. The book also details the method of producing nanowires and their applications in electromagnetic shielding. This important resource: Explores the burgeoning market of electromagnetic shielding materials as we create, depend upon, and are exposed to more electronic devices than ever Comprehensively addresses all relevant aspects of electromagnetic shielding Contains information on the manufacturing, characterization methods, and properties of materials used to protect against them ?? Discusses the most important characterization techniques compared with one another, thus allowing scientists to select the best approach to a problem Written for materials scientists, electrical and electronics engineers, physicists, and industrial researchers,??Advanced Materials for Electromagnetic Shielding??explores all aspects in the area of electromagnetic shielding materials and examines the current state-of-the-art and new challenges in this rapidly growing area.
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