Women, Crime, and JusticeBalancing the Scales
Women, Crime, and Justice: Balancing the Scales presents a comprehensive analysis of the role of women in the criminal justice system, providing important new insight to their position as offenders, victims, and practitioners. Draws on global feminist perspectives on female offending and victimization from around the world Covers topics including criminal law, case processing, domestic violence, gay/lesbian and transgendered prisoners, cyberbullying, offender re-entry, and sex trafficking Explores issues professional women face in the criminal justice workplace, such as police culture, judicial decision-making, working in corrections facilities, and more Includes international case examples throughout, using numerous topical examples and personal narratives to stimulate students’ critical thinking and active engagement
Acknowledgments xiii About the website xv 1 Foundations for understanding women and crime 1 Student learning outcomes 1 Introduction 1 Reasons for the focus on women and crime 2 Case study: Chibok kidnappings 3 Concepts of importance 3 Special legal issues: Legal considerations for the burqa and niqab 5 Gender in criminology and criminal justice 6 Global perspectives: An example of feminism in Saudi Arabia 11 Feminist criminology and feminist theory 12 Conclusion 13 Suggested readings 13 Student engagement activities 13 Discussion questions 14 Key terms 14 References 14 2 Women and the crimes that they commit 19 Student learning outcomes 19 Introduction 19 Case study: Rosemary West 22 Defining crime 22 Special legal issues: Differences in the defi nitions of crime 23 Measuring crime 24 Global perspectives: Female offenders across the globe 31 Explanations for crime 32 Why do women commit crime? 34 Conclusion 41 Suggested readings 41 Student engagement activities 41 Discussion questions 42 Key terms 42 References 42 3 Women convicted of crime and their punishments 51 Student learning outcomes 51 Introduction 51 Case study: Malala Yousafzai 52 Gender and sentencing 53 Women in institutional custody 54 Conditions specific to imprisoned women 61 Special legal issues: Medical care issues 63 Global perspectives: Incarcerated female offenders across the globe 65 Community corrections and reentry 68 Correctional programming for women 70 Conclusion 72 Suggested readings 72 Student engagement activities 72 Discussion questions 73 Key terms 73 References 74 4 Legal control over women’s bodies: Pregnancy and crime 82 Student learning outcomes 82 Introduction 82 Case study: Aleksa Lundberg 84 Involuntary sterilization and eugenics 85 Global perspectives: The sterilization of women across the globe 90 The criminalization of abortion 90 Special legal issues: One-child family policy in China and abortions 100 Criminalization of pregnant women 101 Shackling of pregnant inmates giving birth 105 Conclusion 108 Suggested readings 108 Student engagement activities 109 Discussion questions 109 Key terms 109 References 110 5 Sexual victimization 115 Student learning outcomes 115 Introduction 115 Case study: Sexual assault in India 116 Defining and prosecuting rape – then and now 118 Special legal issues: Legislative changes in India 119 The measurement of sexual victimization 120 Text box: National Violence Against Women definitions and survey questions 121 Prevalence of sexual victimization 122 Theories of rape 125 The social context of rape 128 Text box: Common rape myths from the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale 129 Types of sexual victimization 130 Global perspectives: Rape in wartime 136 The impact of rape on victims 136 Text box: “Remember My Name”: A poem written by a rape victim 137 Treatment of rape victims 139 Text box: Contents of a rape kit 140 Preventing sexual violence 144 Conclusion 144 Suggested readings 145 Student engagement activities 145 Discussion questions 146 Key terms 146 References 147 6 Domestic violence 153 Student learning outcomes 153 Introduction 153 When did society start to consider domestic violence to be a crime? 156 How many people are affected by family violence? 157 Global perspectives: Domestic violence across the globe 160 Theory and domestic violence 161 Special legal issues: Battered women syndrome defense in other countries 163 What are the risk factors associated with domestic assault? 164 Case study: Case A. Homicide–parasuicide involving a man killing his spouse 165 Domestic violence and other domestic relationships 167 Intimate partner violence and victim responses 168 What has been done legally? 168 Necessary criminal justice policy responses and domestic violence 170 Necessary social service agencies and medical professional responses to domestic violence 171 What programs exist for offenders? 173 Conclusion 173 Suggested readings 174 Student engagement activities 174 Discussion questions 175 Key terms 175 References 175 7 Victimization enabled by technology: Cyberbullying and related crimes 181 Student learning outcomes 181 Introduction 181 Bullying behavior and victimization 182 Text box: Statistics: Bullying statistics 2010 183 Global perspectives: Cyberbullying in the United Kingdom 188 Case study: Cyberbullying suicide in Italy 190 Cyberbullying laws 190 Necessary criminal justice policy responses to cyberbullying 191 Text box: Cyberbullying: What we know, What can we do? 193 Necessary social and community responses to cyberbullying 194 Conclusion 194 Suggested readings 195 Student engagement activities 195 Discussion questions 195 Key terms 195 References 196 8 Women and law enforcement 199 Student learning outcomes 199 Introduction 199 Case study: Malalai Kakar 200 History of women in policing 200 Global perspectives: Entry into policing and roles 202 Text box: Female police in Latin America 203 Special legal issues: Legal pathways for female officers in South Africa 207 Women and their employment in law enforcement 207 Global perspectives: Shared experiences/distinct differences 213 Conclusion 215 Suggested readings 215 Student engagement activities 215 Discussion questions 216 Key terms 216 References 216 9 Women in the courts 222 Student learning outcomes 222 Introduction 222 Case study: Kate Baker 223 History of women as lawyers and jurists 224 Global perspectives: Entry into the legal profession for women across the globe 225 Text Box: Bradwell v. State of Illinois, 83 U.S. 130 (Wall., 1872) 227 Women and their employment in the legal profession 231 Special legal issues: Discrimination in Iran 235 Text box: Women in the federal judiciary: Still a long way to go 236 Global perspectives: Female judges in Syria 238 Necessary legal system policy responses 239 Conclusion 239 Suggested readings 240 Student engagement activities 240 Discussion questions 240 Key terms 240 References 241 10 Women working with post-conviction offenders 244 Student learning outcomes 244 Introduction 244 Case study: Claire Lewis 245 History of women working in jails and prisons 245 Global perspectives: Entry into corrections for women across the globe 248 Special legal issues: Prison law of China 250 Challenges to women in the fi eld of corrections 251 Global perspectives: Women in corrections across the border 257 Effectiveness of women correctional workers 258 Conclusion 260 Suggested readings 260 Student engagement activities 261 Discussion questions 261 Key terms 261 References 262 11 Conclusion 266 Student learning outcomes 266 Introduction 266 Case study: The Australian rugby team and group sex session 269 Women, feminist criminology, and criminal justice 270 Global perspectives: Islamic feminism in the Middle East 271 Special legal issues: UN Bangkok Rules 272 Text box: International Women’s Day 2015 Theme: MAKE IT HAPPEN 272 Conclusion 276 Suggested readings 277 Student engagement activities 277 Discussion questions 277 Key term 277 Note 277 References 278 Glossary 281 Index 294
Elaine Gunnison is an Associate Professor and Graduate Director in the Criminal Justice Department at Seattle University. She is the co-author of Offender Reentry: Beyond Crime and Punishment (2013), and she has published journal articles examining criminological theories as applied to female offenders, female victimization, and women in corrections. Frances Bernat is Associate Dean in the College of Arts and Sciences at Texas A&M International University and Emeritus Professor at Arizona State University. She is the co-author of Criminal Procedure Law: Police Issues and the Supreme Court (2013) and Human Sex Trafficking (2011). Lynne Goodstein is Professor of Sociology at the University of Connecticut. She is the co-author of The American Prison (1989) and Rethinking Gender, Crime and Justice: Feminist Readings (2006); and several book chapters and journal articles on higher education, sexual assault, women and crime, corrections, and criminal sentencing.
Women, Crime, and Justice: Balancing the Scales presents a comprehensive assessment and analysis of the role of women in the criminal justice system as offenders, victims, and practitioners. Utilizing feminist perspectives, the authors shed important new light on a wide range of women and gender issues relating to criminal offending, victimization, and the criminal justice workplace. While seamlessly incorporating issues of race, class, and international perspectives throughout the text, coverage includes such topics as criminal law, case processing, domestic violence, transgendered prisoners, cyberbullying, offender reentry, sex trafficking—and a variety of issues relating to professional women in the criminal justice workplace such as police culture, women as lawyers and jurists, judicial decision-making, women working in corrections facilities, and many more. Topical examples and personal narratives interspersed throughout the text greatly enhance comprehension and stimulate critical thinking about the various topics covered. Contributing timely and important knowledge to an underserved field, Women, Crime, and Justice: Balancing the Scales offers illuminating insights into the relationship of gender to crime and justice.
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