Details

Wine Production and Quality


Wine Production and Quality


2. Aufl.

von: Keith Grainger, Hazel Tattersall

70,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 29.12.2015
ISBN/EAN: 9781118934579
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 328

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Beschreibungen

Gourmand Award for the No. 1 Best Wine Book in the World for ProfessionalsSince the publication of Wine Production: Vine to Bottle (2005) and Wine Quality: Tasting and Selection (2009), there has been a great deal of change in the wine industry, and the perceptions of critics and expectations of consumers have shifted. Wine Production and Quality, Second Edition brings together its two predecessors in one updated and considerably expanded volume. This comprehensive guide explores the techniques of wine production in the vineyard and winery, and considers their impact upon the taste, style and quality of wine in the bottle. Part 1 of the book provides a structured yet easily readable understanding of wine production, from vine to bottle. The impact of natural factors, including climate and soil, is considered, together with the decisions made and work undertaken in the vineyard and winery.  Part 2 looks at quality in wines: the concepts and techniques of tasting are detailed, along with the challenges in recognising and assessing quality. Also discussed are the steps producers may take, and the limitations they may face, in creating quality wines. The book will prove valuable to beverage industry professionals, wine trade students, wine merchants, sommeliers, restaurateurs , and wine lovers as well as those entering (or thinking of entering) the highly competitive world of wine production. 
Preface, xv Preface, xv Acknowledgements, xvii Part 1?Introduction to Part 1 – Wine Production, 1 Chapter 1?Viticulture – the basics, 5 1.1 The grape vine, 5 1.2 Grape varieties, 6 1.3 The structure of the grape berry, 7 1.3.1 Stalks, 7 1.3.2 Skins, 8 1.3.3 Yeasts, 9 1.3.4 Pulp, 9 1.3.5 Pips, 10 1.4 Crossings, hybrids, clonal and massal selection, 10 1.4.1 Crossings, 10 1.4.2 Hybrids, 11 1.4.3 Clones and massal selection, 11 1.5 Grafting, 11 1.6 Phylloxera vastatrix, 12 1.7 Rootstocks, 13 1.8 The life of the vine, 15 Chapter 2?Climate, 16 2.1 World climate classifications, 16 2.2 Climatic requirements of the grape vine, 17 2.2.1 Sunshine, 17 2.2.2 Warmth, 17 2.2.3 Cold winter, 17 2.2.4 Rainfall, 18 2.3 Climatic enemies of the grape vine, 18 2.3.1 Frost, 18 2.3.2 Hail, 19 2.3.3 Strong winds, 20 2.3.4 Excessive heat, 21 2.3.5 Drought, 21 2.4 Mesoclimate and microclimate, 22 2.4.1 Water, 22 2.4.2 Altitude, 22 2.4.3 Aspect, 22 2.4.4 Woods and trees, 23 2.5 The concept of degree days, 23 2.6 Impact of climate, 24 2.7 Weather, 25 2.8 Climate Change, 25 Chapter 3?Soil, 28 3.1 Soil requirements of the grape vine, 28 3.1. Good drainage, 31 3.1.2 Fertility, 31 3.1.3 Nutrients and minerals, 31 3.2 Influence of soils upon wine style and quality, 31 3.3 Soil types suitable for viticulture, 32 3.3.1 Limestone, 32 3.3.2 Chalk, 32 3.3.3 Clay, 32 3.3.4 Marl, 32 3.3.5 Granite, 33 3.3.6 Gravel, 33 3.3.7 Greywacke, 33 3.3.8 Sand, 33 3.3.9 Schist, 33 3.3.10 Slate, 33 3.3.11 Basalt and other volcanic soils, 34 3.4 Soil compatibility, 34 3.5 Terroir, 35 Chapter 4?The vineyard, 36 4.1 Vineyard location and site selection, 36 4.2 Density of planting of vines, 37 4.3 Training systems, 38 4.3.1 Main types of vine training, 38 4.3.2 Other training systems, 42 4.4 Pruning methods and canopy management, 42 4.4.1 Pruning methods, 45 4.4.2 Canopy management, 45 4.5 Irrigation, 45 4.6 The vineyard cycle and work in the vineyard, 47 4.6.1 Winter, 47 4.6.2 Spring, 48 4.6.3 Summer, 48 4.6.4 Autumn, 49 4.7 Grape?]berry development, 50 Chapter 5?Pests and diseases, 51 5.1Important vineyard pests, 51 5.1.1Insects, mites and worms, 52 5.1.2Animals and birds, 53 5.2 Diseases, 54 5.2.1 Fungal diseases, 54 5.2.2 Bacterial diseases, 56 5.2.3 Virus diseases, 57 5.3 Prevention and treatments, 58 Chapter 6?Environmentally sensitive vineyard practices, 59 6.1 Conventional viticulture, 59 6.2 IPM, 60 6.3 Organic viticulture, 61 6.4 Biodynamic viticulture, 63 6.4.1 Rudolf Steiner, 65 6.4.2 Biodynamic preparations, 65 6.4.3 Certification, 67 6.5 Natural wine, 68 Chapter 7?The harvest, 69 7.1 Grape ripeness and the timing of picking, 69 7.2 Harvesting methods, 70 7.2.1 Hand picking, 70 7.2.2 Machine picking, 72 7.3 Style and quality, 74 Chapter 8?Vinification and winery design, 75 8.1 Basic principles of vinification, 75 8.2 Winery location and design, 76 8.3 Winery equipment, 78 8.3.1 Fermentation vats, 78 Chapter 9?Red winemaking, 82 9.1 Sorting, destemming and crushing, 82 9.2 Must analysis, 83 9.3 Must preparation, 84 9.3.1 Sulfur dioxide (SO2), 84 9.3.2 Must enrichment (chaptalisation), 84 9.3.3 Acidification, 85 9.3.4 De?]acidification, 85 9.3.5 Yeast, 85 9.3.6 Yeast nutrients, 85 9.3.7 Tannin, 86 9.4 Fermentation, temperature control and extraction, 86 9.4.1 Fermentation, 86 9.4.2 Temperature control, 86 9.4.3 Extraction, 87 9.4.4 Fermentation monitoring, 88 9.5 Maceration, 89 9.6 Racking, 89 9.7 Pressing, 89 9.8 Malolactic fermentation, 90 9.9 Blending, 90 9.10 Maturation, 90 Chapter 10?Dry white winemaking, 92 10.1 Crushing and pressing, 92 10.1.1 Crushing, 92 10.1.2 Pressing, 93 10.2 Must preparation, 93 10.3 Fermentation, 93 10.4 MLF, 94 10.5 Lees ageing, 94 10.6 Maturation, 95 Chapter 11?Red and white winemaking – detailed processes, 96 11.1 Must concentration, 96 11.1.1 Must concentrators and reverse osmosis, 96 11.1.2 Cryoextraction, 98 11.2 Methods of extraction, 98 11.2.1 Cold soaking (pre?]fermentation maceration), 98 11.2.2 Pump overs – remontage, 98 11.2.3 Rack and return (délestage), 99 11.2.4 Punching down – pigeage, 100 11.2.5 Rotary vinifiers, 100 11.2.6 Thermo?]vinification – heat extraction, 100 11.2.7 Flash détente, 100 11.2.8 Whole grape fermentation, carbonic and semi?]carbonic maceration, 101 11.2.9 Fixing colour, 101 11.2.10?Post?]fermentation maceration, 101 11.3 Macro?], micro?] and hyper?]oxygenation, 101 11.3.1 Hyper?]oxygenation, 102 11.3.2 Macro?]oxygenation, 102 11.3.3 Micro?]oxygenation, 103 11.4 Removal of excess alcohol, 103 11.5 The choice of natural or cultured yeasts, 103 11.6 De?]stemming, 104 11.7 Fermenting high?]density musts to dryness, 105 11.8 Wine presses and pressing, 105 11.8.1 Continuous press, 105 11.8.2 Batch press, 106 11.8.3 Horizontal plate press, 106 11.8.4 Horizontal pneumatic press, 106 11.8.5 Vertical basket press, 107 11.9 Technology and the return to tradition, 109 Chapter 12?Barrel maturation and oak treatments, 110 12.1 History of barrel usage, 110 12.2 Oak and oaking, 111 12.3 The influence of the barrel, 111 12.3.1 Size of the barrel, 112 12.3.2 Type and origin of oak (or other wood), 112 12.3.3 Manufacturing techniques including toasting, 113 12.3.4 Stave thickness, 113 12.3.5 Amount of time spent in barrel, 113 12.3.6 Where barrels are stored, 114 12.4 Oak treatments, 115 Chapter 13?Preparing wine for bottling, 116 13.1 Fining, 116 13.2 Filtration, 117 13.2.1 Traditional methods in common use, 117 13.2.2 Sheet filtration (sometimes called plate filtration), 119 13.2.3 Membrane filtration and other methods of achieving biological stability, 120 13.3 Stabilisation, 121 13.4 Adjustment of sulfur dioxide levels, 123 13.5 Choice of bottle closures, 123 Chapter 14?Making other types of still wine, 126 14.1 Medium?]sweet and sweet wines, 126 14.1.1 Medium?]sweet wines, 127 14.1.2 Sweet wines, 127 14.2 Rosé wines, 130 14.2.1 Blending, 130 14.2.2 Skin contact, 130 14.2.3 Saignée, 131 14.3 Fortified (liqueur) wines, 131 14.3.1 Sherry production, 131 14.3.2 Port production, 133 14.3.3 Other well?]known fortified wines, 134 Chapter 15?Sparkling wines, 136 15.1 Fermentation in a sealed tank, 136 15.2 Second fermentation in bottle, 137 15.3 Traditional method, 138 15.3.1 Pressing, 138 15.3.2 Débourbage, 138 15.3.3 First fermentation, 138 15.3.4 Assemblage, 139 15.3.5 Addition of liqueur de tirage, 139 15.3.6 Second fermentation, 139 15.3.7 Maturation, 139 15.3.8 Rémuage, 140 15.3.9 Stacking sur pointes, 141 15.3.10 Dégorgement, 141 15.3.11 Dosage (liqueur d’expedition), 142 15.3.12 Corking and finishing, 142 15.4 Styles, 142 Part 2?Introduction to part 2 – wine quality, 143 Chapter 16?wine Tasting, 147 16.1 Wine tasting and laboratory analysis, 148 16.2 What makes a good wine taster?, 149 16.3 Where and when to taste – suitable conditions, 150 16.4 Appropriate equipment, 151 16.4.1 Tasting glasses, 151 16.4.2 Water, 155 16.4.3 Spittoons, 155 16.4.4 Tasting sheets, 156 16.4.5 Use of tasting software, 156 16.4.6 Tasting mats, 157 16.5 Tasting order, 158 16.6 Temperature of wines for tasting, 159 16.7 Tasting for specific purposes, 159 16.8 Structured tasting technique, 160 16.8.1 Appearance, 160 16.8.2 Nose, 161 16.8.3 Palate, 161 16.8.4 Conclusions, 162 16.9 The importance of keeping notes, 163 Chapter 17?Appearance, 164 17.1 Clarity and brightness, 164 17.2 Intensity, 165 17.3 Colour, 167 17.3.1 White wines, 167 17.3.2 Rosé wines, 167 17.3.3 Red wines, 168 17.3.4 Rim/core, 170 17.4 Other observations, 171 17.4.1 Bubbles, 171 17.4.2 Legs, 172 17.4.3 Deposits, 173 Chapter 18?Nose, 175 18.1 Condition, 176 18.2 Intensity, 176 18.3 Development, 176 18.3.1 Primary aromas, 177 18.3.2 Secondary aromas, 177 18.3.3 Tertiary aromas, 177 18.4 Aroma characteristics, 178 Chapter 19?Palate, 181 19.1 Sweetness/bitterness/acidity/saltiness/umami, 182 19.2 Dryness/sweetness, 182 19.3 Acidity, 184 19.4 Tannin, 184 19.5 Alcohol, 186 19.6 Body, 187 19.7 Flavour intensity, 187 19.8 Flavour characteristics, 188 19.9 Other observations, 188 19.10 Finish, 191 Chapter 20?Tasting conclusions, 192 20.1 Assessment of quality, 192 20.1.1 Quality level, 192 20.1.2 Reasons for assessment of quality, 192 20.2 Assessment of readiness for drinking/potential for ageing, 193 20.2.1 Level of readiness for drinking/potential for ageing, 194 20.2.2 Reasons for assessment, 195 20.3 The wine in context, 195 20.3.1 Origins/variety/theme, 195 20.3.2 Price category, 195 20.4 Grading wine – the award of points, 196 20.4.1 Grading on a 20?]point scale, 197 20.4.2 Grading on a 100?]point scale, 197 20.5 Blind tasting, 198 20.5.1 Why taste blind?, 198 20.5.2 Blind or sighted?, 199 20.5.3 Tasting for quality, 199 20.5.4 Practicalities, 199 20.5.5 Examination tastings, 199 Chapter 21?Wine faults and flaws, 201 21.1 Chloroanisoles and bromoanisoles, 202 21.2 Fermentation in the bottle and bacterial spoilage, 203 21.3 Protein haze, 204 21.4 Oxidation, 204 21.5 Excessive volatile acidity, 205 21.6 Excessive sulfur dioxide, 205 21.7 Reductivity, 206 21.8 Brettanomyces, 207 21.9 Dekkera, 208 21.10 Geraniol, 208 21.11 Geosmin, 208 21.12 Ethyl acetate, 208 21.13 Excessive acetaldehyde, 209 21.14 Candida acetaldehyde, 209 21.15 Smoke taint, 209 Chapter 22?Quality – assurances and guarantees, 210 22.1 Compliance with PDO and PGI legislation as an assurance of quality?, 210 22.1.1 The EU and third countries, 210 22.1.2 PDO, PGI and wine, 211 22.1.3 The concept of AOP (AC), 213 22.2 Tasting competitions and critical scores as an assessment of quality?, 215 22.3 Classifications as an official assessment of quality?, 216 22.4 ISO 9001 certification as an assurance of quality?, 218 22.5 Established brands as a guarantee of quality?, 219 22.6 Price as an indication of quality?, 221 Chapter 23?The natural factors and a sense of place, 223 23.1 Conceptual styles, 223 23.2 Typicity and regionality, 224 23.3 The impact of climate upon quality wine production, 225 23.4 The role of soils, 226 23.5 Terroir, 226 23.6 The Vintage factor, 231 Chapter 24?Constraints upon quality wine production, 233 24.1 Financial, 233 24.1.1 Financial constraints upon the grower, 234 24.1.2 Financial constraints upon the winemaker, 236 24.2 Skills and diligence, 238 24.3 Legal, 240 24.4 Environmental, 240 Chapter 25?Production of quality wines, 242 25.1 Yield in vineyard, 242 25.2 Density of planting, 243 25.3 Age of vines, 244 25.4 Winter pruning and vine balance, 245 25.5 Stressing the vines, vine and nutrient balance., 246 25.6 Green harvesting, 248 25.7 Harvesting, 248 25.7.1 Mechanical harvesting, 249 25.7.2 Hand picking, 249 25.8 Delivery of fruit, 250 25.9 Selection and sorting, 250 25.10 Use of pumps/gravity, 251 25.11 Control of fermentations and choice of fermentation vessel, 254 25.12 Use of gases, 256 25.13 Barrels, 257 25.14 Selection from vats or barrels, 258 25.15 Storage, 259 Chapter 26?Selection by buyers, 260 26.1 Supermarket dominance, 262 26.2 Price point/margin, 263 26.3 Selecting wines for market and customer base, 264 26.4 Styles and individuality, 264 26.5 Continuity, 265 26.6 The place of individual wines in the range, 267 26.7 Exclusivity, 267 26.8 Specification, 267 26.9 Technical analysis, 268 Appendix?WSET Diploma Systematic Approach to Tasting Wine®, 271 Glossary, 273 Bibliography, 285 Useful websites, 288 Wine and vineyard & winery equipment exhibitions, 291 Index, 000
The 22nd International Gourmand Awards were  held at Yantai, in China’s Shandong province on 27th and 28th May. Wine, drinks, food and cook books from some 211 counties were entered in the competition. The award for No. 1 Best Wine Book in the World for Professionals was given to Circle and AWE members Keith Grainger and Hazel Tattersall for 'Wine Production and Quality'.   The book is a comprehensive guide which explores the techniques of wine production in the vineyard and winery, and considers their impact upon the taste, style and quality of wine in the bottle. At the awards ceremony Edouard Cointreau, president of the awards jury, described the book as, "the one that I will buy  for friends and colleagues." Keith Grainger comments, "It’s great that the book has been universally so well received, and this award really is a fantastic reward for all the work that went into it." Hazel Tattersall says, "Although written primarily for professionals, I am pleased that wine loving consumers are regularly telling me that the book is incredibly readable. I am so happy that this has been recognised by the Gourmand jury." International Gourmand Awards- May 17"Wine Production and Quality brings together previous books that Keith and Hazel had each written separately. Now expanded and revised, it is a modern addition given that the world of wine continues to change rapidly.It also fills a gap in the literature. While there are many books on wine, the connections between winemaking and its resultant quality, price and profit are not always explicit. In so doing, this book is essential reading for anyone undertaking the WSET Diploma wine trade qualification, which is the gold standard for industry professionals worldwide. However, it’s appeal is far broader than an industry textbook. It’s a fascinating read for anyone curious about the wine in their glass. It covers the art, science and business of wine...The writing is clear and concise. Technical jargon is minimal, and there are lots of anecdotes and examples. Hence you can read it as the journey from vineyard to glass, or dip into it for reference and reminder....These days, wine tourism is big business. If you’ve ever visited a winery, then this book explains what winegrowers do, and why each one does it their way. Moreover, it highlights all the factors and decisions which make every winery unique. You’ll get a lot more from a winery visit if you read this book first.....The book divides into easily manageable sections. Part 1 is about wine production. It begins with nature; vines, climate and the soil. Then it covers the impact of terroir and the work undertaken during the vineyard year. You’ll meet different grape varieties, vineyard techniques, pests and diseases and how all these interrelate. From the harvest, it moves on to how the winery processes the grapes into wine. It explains Red, white, rosé and sparkling wine making, then maturation and bottling. It also has some of the main variations used in these processes that create different styles. There’s a real insight into what happens when things go wrong and need intervention.Part 2 discusses how both tasting and analysis evaluates wine quality. Even in these days of hi-tech, tasting is essential. Hence the book uses the WSET Diploma tasting technique to explain how to do it and what it reveals. I believe I can teach you the basics of this tasting technique in an hour, but you’ll spend the rest of your life practising!You’ll see how technically excellent wine can still be dull. It describes how wine faults occur and their remedies. You’ll see how some “flaws” if present in small amounts can add interest and identity. While the best wine communicates a sense of place, that is not always its role. At every stage, producers need to take decisions. Their operating context and the winemakers’ values will constrain what is practicable. The book makes weather, chemistry, tradition, regulation, finance and customer influences easily understandable. Obviously, different sections of the book may have particular appeal depending on personal preference. For example, I am at my happiest in the vineyard because without ripe, healthy grapes the winery faces an uphill struggle. You can’t make a silk purse out of a sow’s ear, though it is amazing what wineries can achieve with manipulation, though at extra cost. As a frequent winery visitor, I sometimes feel that if I’ve seen enough wine presses and bottling lines for one lifetime. This book reminds me that such machinery is not only hugely expensive, but they are also the wineries visible and proud badges of quality. I promise to be more forgiving in future! So in conclusion, this book is scholarly without being dull, it’s fascinating without getting over-technical. It shows that wine quality is really about making a product that has “fitness for function” in its target market. And it never forgets that winegrowing is a business and needs to make a profit to be successful. Making wine is, in essence, a simple activity. However, making quality wines that people will pay for, want to drink and then buy again is anything but....As such this book comes highly recommended, a masterclass in communicating the diversity of wine" (Wine Alchemy- Jan 17)"Apart from being an author, Grainger is one of the founding members of the Association of Wine Educators, a wine consultant, presenter and tutor. Hazel Tattersall has a background in food and beverage education and takes both trade and consumer wine classes. The book has been divided into two parts: wine production and wine quality. The first seven chapters are on all things viticultural, including soil, climate, the vine, the vineyard, pests and diseases, vineyard management and harvest. The next eight chapters move from winery design through to winemaking (red and white), maturation, bottling and then a couple of chapters on other types of wine, eg rosé, sweet, fortified and sparkling.Part 2 starts with wine tasting and proceeds very much along the WSET model of the four-part approach (appearance, nose, palate, conclusions). Each of these steps is discussed in great detail. The language and structure espoused for each also echoes the WSET Systematic Approach to Tasting. After a chapter on tasting conclusions, the authors move on to wine faults and quality assurance (organisations and legislation). They then tackle the less tangible topic of terroir, followed by constraints on and factors affecting quality. The final chapter looks at the wine market, with a UK focus. A lot of information has been assembled in a generally logical and orderly fashion. It's a textbook, first and foremost, designed for students studying wine as they prepare for exams rather than for wine lovers. And for its purpose, it's very good. The language is clear, it is dry but concise, and there are very good quality colour photographs to illustrate some of the chapters. What it lacks (significantly, for me as a visual learner) is graphic illustrations of things such as winemaking processes, pruning and training, grafting, etc. For some students this can be the difference between 'getting it' or not, and thereby pass or fail. Tables, charts, graphs and technical diagrams bring flat text to life and give the learner pegs to hang knowledge on.........MW students could use this as a basic viti/vini refresher, but would need to use other materials for their more in-depth studies" (Jancis Robinson Jan 17)
Since the publication of Wine Production: Vine to Bottle (2005) and Wine Quality: Tasting and Selection (2009), there has been a great deal of change in the wine industry, and the perceptions of critics and expectations of consumers have shifted. Wine Production and Quality, Second Edition brings together its two predecessors in one updated and considerably expanded volume. This comprehensive guide explores the techniques of wine production in the vineyard and winery, and considers their impact upon the taste, style and quality of wine in the bottle. Part 1 of the book provides a structured yet easily readable understanding of wine production, from vine to bottle. The impact of natural factors, including climate and soil, is considered, together with the decisions made and work undertaken in the vineyard and winery.  Part 2 looks at quality in wines: the concepts and techniques of tasting are detailed, along with the challenges in recognising and assessing quality. Also discussed are the steps producers may take, and the limitations they may face, in creating quality wines. The book will prove valuable to beverage industry professionals, wine trade students, wine merchants, sommeliers, restaurateurs , and wine lovers as well as those entering (or thinking of entering) the highly competitive world of wine production. About the authorsKeith Grainger is a wine writer, educator and winemaker.  His book  Wine Quality – Tasting and Selection won the Gourmand Award for Best Wine Education Book in the World 1995 -2014.Hazel Tattersall is an experienced wine educator and consultant. She presents wine courses, seminars and tastings to wine trade professionals, societies  and consumer groups.  Also Available from WileySweet, Reinforced and Fortified Wines: Grape Biochemistry, Technology and VinificationEdited by Fabio Mencarelli and Pietro Tonutti ISBN: 978-0-470-67224-2

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