Details

Understanding, Assessing, and Responding to Terrorism


Understanding, Assessing, and Responding to Terrorism

Protecting Critical Infrastructure and Personnel
2. Aufl.

von: Brian T. Bennett

108,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 12.12.2017
ISBN/EAN: 9781119237808
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 512

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Beschreibungen

Preface xiii 1 The Terrorist Threat 1 1.1 What Is Terrorism? 1 1.2 The History of Terrorism 1 1.3 The Motivation for Terrorism 2 1.4 Can the Use of Terrorism be Justified? 3 1.5 The Role of Media in Terrorism 3 1.6 The Role of Social Media in Terrorism 4 1.7 Encryption 4 1.8 Civil Liberty and Terrorism 5 1.9 Terrorism Statistics 5 1.10 Purpose of Terrorism 8 1.11 Goals of Terrorism 8 1.12 Case Study: Economic Effects of a Terrorist Attack 9 1.13 Objectives of Terrorism 9 1.14 The Terrorism Challenge 10 1.15 The Evolution of Terrorism 10 1.16 Terrorist Tactics 10 1.17 Difference between Terrorism and Insurgency 10 1.18 The Difference between a Terrorist Attack, a Criminal Event, and Suspicious Activity 11 1.19 Case Study: Crime versus Terrorism 12 1.20 Common Terms in Terrorism 12 1.21 Types of Terrorist Organizations 14 1.22 International Terrorism 16 1.23 Examples of International Terrorist Groups 18 1.24 Recent International Terrorist Attacks 25 1.25 Domestic Terrorism 30 1.26 Examples of Domestic Terrorist Groups 32 1.27 Recent Domestic Terrorist Attacks 33 References 35 Questions 35 Project 35 2 Critical Infrastructure 37 2.1 Introduction 37 2.2 Evolution of the Definition of Critical Infrastructure 37 2.3 Current Definition of Critical Infrastructure 40 2.4 Definition of Key Resources 41 2.5 Definition of Key Assets 41 2.6 Discussion of Critical Infrastructure 42 2.7 Soft Targets 49 2.8 Hard Targets 49 2.9 Cascading Effects from Interdependencies of Critical Infrastructures 50 2.10 Coordination of Critical Infrastructure Protection 51 2.11 Selection of Critical Infrastructure, Key Resources, and Key Assets 53 2.12 Identification and Selection of Soft Targets by a Jurisdiction 54 2.13 Target Attractiveness 54 2.14 Inventorying and Prioritizing Critical Infrastructure/Key Resources/Key Assets/ Soft Targets 55 References 64 Questions 65 Project 65 Appendix 2.1 Executive Order 13010 by PresidentWilliam J. Clinton 65 Appendix 2.2 Presidential Decision Directive 63 by PresidentWilliam J. Clinton 67 Annex A: Structure and Organization 71 Annex B: Additional Taskings 73 Appendix 2.3 Executive Order 13228 by President GeorgeW. Bush 75 Appendix 2.4 Executive Order 13231 by President GeorgeW. Bush 79 Appendix 2.5 Homeland Security Presidential Directive 7 by President GeorgeW. Bush 85 Appendix 2.6 Presidential Policy Directive 21 by President Barack Obama 90 3 Types of Terrorist Attacks 99 3.1 Introduction 99 3.2 Types of Destructive Events 99 3.3 Who Can Execute an Attack? 100 3.4 Ways inWhich a Critical Asset May Be Attacked 101 3.5 Target Selection 103 3.6 Identifying Lucrative Targets 104 3.7 Characteristics of a Terrorist Attack 106 3.8 Results of a Successful Terrorist Attack 106 3.9 Terrorist Tactics 107 3.10 Case Study of a Terrorist Attack 119 3.11 The Interrupted Terrorist Plots 120 References 120 Questions 121 Project 121 Appendix 3.1 Executive Order 13636 by President Barack Obama Executive Order 13636 of February 12, 2013 121 Appendix 3.2 Presidential Policy Directive 21 by President Barack Obama 126 Appendix 3.3 Presidential Policy Directive 41 by Barack Obama 133 4 Weapons of Mass Destruction 137 4.1 Introduction 137 4.2 History ofWeapons of Mass Destruction 138 4.3 Why Use aWeapon of Mass Destruction? 139 4.4 Limitations of the Use ofWeapon of Mass Destruction Materials 139 4.5 Indicators of a PossibleWeapon of Mass Destruction Attack 140 4.6 Results of aWeapon of Mass Destruction Attack 140 4.7 How a Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Agent Can Enter the Body 140 4.8 Effectiveness of a Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attack 141 4.9 Obtaining aWeapon of Mass Destruction 142 4.10 Questions aboutWeapons of Mass Destruction 142 4.11 Types ofWeapons of Mass Destruction 143 4.12 OtherWeapons Used by Terrorists 178 4.13 Weaponization of Chemical and Biological Agents 179 References 184 Questions 184 Project 185 5 The Terrorist’s Preparation for an Attack 187 5.1 General 187 5.2 Target Considerations 187 5.3 The Terrorist’s Investment 187 5.4 Example of Terrorist Financing 188 5.5 Eight Indicators of Terrorism 189 5.6 Raising Suspicion 200 5.7 Summary of Attack Process 200 References 201 Questions 201 Project 201 6 Risk and Threat Assessment 203 6.1 Introduction 203 6.2 Definitions 203 6.3 The Risk of Attack 203 6.4 Risk 204 6.5 Risk Management 212 6.6 Risk Assessment and Management Approach 216 6.7 Probability of Attack Occurrence 221 6.8 Consequences of a Successful Attack 222 6.9 The CARVER Assessment Tool 222 6.10 Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment Guide (THIRA) 225 References 233 Questions 233 Project 233 Appendix 6.1 Presidential Policy Directive 8 by President Barack Obama 233 7 The Security Vulnerability Analysis 237 7.1 Introduction 237 7.2 What is a Security Vulnerability Analysis? 237 7.3 The Purpose of a Security Vulnerability Analysis 238 7.4 Preparing to Conduct a Security Vulnerability Analysis 240 7.5 The Security Vulnerability Analysis Process 240 7.6 Administrative Functions in the Security Vulnerability Analysis Process 246 7.7 Risk Assessment 248 7.8 Preparing to Conduct a Threat and Risk Analysis 249 7.9 The Buffer Zone Protection Plan 254 7.10 The CARVER Target Analysis Tool 255 Reference 257 Questions 257 Project 257 8 Principles of Protective Security 259 8.1 Introduction 259 8.2 Prevention 259 8.3 Information Collection 260 8.4 Information Sharing 260 8.5 Risk Mitigation 262 8.6 Cost–Benefit Analysis 262 8.7 Situational Awareness 263 8.8 Security 264 8.9 Suspicious Activity 268 8.10 What Can Be Done to Protect People and Facilities 270 8.11 Conclusion 277 8.12 References 278 Questions 278 Project 278 9 Effective Security Countermeasures 279 9.1 Introduction 279 9.2 Counterterrorism Policy: National Security Strategy 279 9.3 Hardening and Strengthening 280 9.4 What Are Security Countermeasures? 281 9.5 Management of Change 285 9.6 Risk Management 285 9.7 Critical Asset Resiliency 285 9.8 Critical Infrastructure Protection 288 9.9 Protecting Building Environments from Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks 289 9.10 All Hazards Protection 291 9.11 Cost–Benefit Analysis 291 9.12 Information Sharing and Analysis Centers 291 9.13 Private Sector’s Responsibility 291 9.14 Protecting Critical Infrastructure, Key Resources, and Key Assets 292 9.15 Standoff Distance 303 9.16 Response to an Active Shooter 303 9.17 Preparing for Attacks on Transportation 306 9.18 Administrative Security Enhancements 306 9.19 Recommendations for Enhanced Security Through Various ISACs 320 References 326 Questions 327 Project 327 Appendix 9.1 Directive on National Continuity Policy, NSPD 51/HSPD 20, by President GeorgeW. Bush 327 Appendix 9.2 Homeland Security Presidential Directive 8 by President GeorgeW. Bush 331 10 General Emergency Response Considerations 335 10.1 Introduction 335 10.2 Definition of First Responder 335 10.3 Emergency Response Plans 335 10.4 Pre-incident Planning 337 10.5 Drills and Exercises 338 10.6 Emergency Response Priorities 341 10.7 Operational Risk Management 342 10.8 Situational Awareness 344 10.9 Homeland Security Presidential Directive 5 344 10.10 The Incident Command System 347 10.11 Determining Potential Outcomes 353 10.12 Approving the Level of Personal Protective Equipment 354 10.13 Developing a Plan of Action 356 10.14 Components of the Incident Command System 359 10.15 Media Relations 366 10.16 Evaluating Progress of the Plan of Action 368 10.17 Terminating the Incident 368 10.18 Critical Incident Stress 370 10.19 Family Preparedness 371 References 371 Questions 271 Project 271 Appendix 10.1 Homeland Security Presidential Directive 5 by President GeorgeW. Bush 372 Appendix 10.2 Incident Command System Form 208 376 11 Emergency Response to aWeapon of Mass Destruction Attack 379 11.1 Introduction 379 11.2 Use of aWeapon of Mass Destruction 379 11.3 The Emergency Scene as a Crime Scene 379 11.4 Size Up 381 11.5 The Secondary Device 381 11.6 Evacuation of Personnel in aWeapon of Mass Destruction Attack 382 11.7 Protecting Building Environments from Airborne Agents 384 11.8 Emergency Response Actions at the Scene of aWeapon of Mass Destruction Incident 384 References 411 Questions 411 Project 411 12 Homeland Security Laws, Regulations, and Standards 413 12.1 What Is Homeland Security? 413 12.2 2002 National Strategy for Homeland Security 413 12.3 The 2007 National Strategy for Homeland Security 421 12.4 Office of Homeland Security 423 12.5 The Department of Homeland Security 423 12.6 The Transportation Security Administration 426 12.7 The Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards 427 12.8 The Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards of 2014 428 12.9 Chemical Terrorism Vulnerability Information 428 12.10 CVI Authorized User Training 430 12.11 Protected Critical Infrastructure Information Program 430 12.12 Chemical Security Assessment Tool 432 12.13 CFATS Top Screen 432 12.14 Enhanced CFATS Tiering Methodology 433 12.15 Security Vulnerability Assessment 435 12.16 Site Security Plan/Alternative Security Plan 435 12.17 CFATS Facility Inspections 437 12.18 CFATS Ongoing Compliance 438 12.19 Regional Resiliency Assessment Program 438 12.20 Maritime Transportation Security Act 439 12.21 US Coast Guard Maritime Security Levels 443 12.22 TransportationWorker Identification Credential 444 References 444 Questions 445 Project 445 Appendix 12.1 Authorizing Statute for the Chemical Facility Anti-terrorism Standards Regulations (6 CFR Part 27) 445 Appendix 12.2 CFATS Appendix A, List of COI, and STQ 447 Appendix 12.3 CFATS Act of 2014 463 Appendix 12.4 US Coast Guard Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary 477 Index 481
BRIAN T. BENNETT, PHD, has more than 30 years of experience in the chemical manufacturing industry dealing with health and safety, emergency response, and security/counter-terrorism. He was Chair of the New Jersey Domestic Security Task Force Infrastructure Advisory Committee for the chemical sector for four years. Dr. Bennett is a certified Firefighter, Fire Officer, Fire Inspector, Fire Instructor, Hazardous Materials Specialist, and Weapons of Mass Destruction Technician. Dr. Bennett holds certifications as an instructor in firefighting, emergency medical, hazardous materials, technical rescue, weapons of mass destruction, and counter-terrorism topics. Dr. Bennett has attained many professional certifications, including Certified Safety Professional (CSP), Certified Hazardous Materials Manager (CHMM), Certified Fire Protection Specialist (CFPS), Registered Environmental Professional (REP), and Certified in Homeland Security (CHS-IV).
A Comprehensive Guide to Understanding, Assessing, and Responding to Terrorism in this Modern Age This book provides readers with a thorough understanding of the types of attacks that may be perpetrated against a critical asset, and how to identify potential targets, conduct a meaningful vulnerability analysis, and apply protective measures to secure personnel and facilities. The new edition of Understanding, Assessing, and Responding to Terrorism updates existing material and includes several new topics that have emerged, including information on unconventional weapons and new international terrorist groups as well as a new chapter on Regulations and Standards. A vulnerability analysis methodology, consisting of several steps—which include the techniques necessary to conduct a vulnerability analysis—is introduced and applied through several sample scenarios. By using easily customized templates for the screening process, valuation of a critical asset as a target, vulnerability analysis, security procedures, emergency response procedures, and training programs, the book offers a practical step-by-step process to help reduce risk. Each different type of terrorism is briefly discussed—however, the book focuses on those potential attacks that may involve weapons of mass destruction. There is a discussion of what physical and administrative enhancements can be implemented to improve a facility's ability to devalue, detect, deter, deny, delay, defend, respond, and recover to a real or threatened terrorist attack—whether it be at a facility, or in the community. Techniques on how personnel safety and security can be improved through the implementation of counter-terrorism programs are also outlined. An overview of the major counter-terrorism regulations and standards are presented, along with the significant governmental efforts that have been implemented to help prevent terrorist attacks and foster preparedness at both private and public sector facilities and for personnel. Understanding, Assessing, and Responding to Terrorism, Second Edition: Updates existing material, plus includes several new topics that have emerged including information on unconventional weapons, new international terrorist groups, new terrorist tactics, cyber terrorism, and Regulations and Standards Outlines techniques for improving facility and personnel safety and security through the implementation of counter-terrorism programs Unites the emergency response/public sector community with the private sector over infrastructure protection, thus allowing for easier communication between them Includes questions/exercises at the end of each chapter to facilitate its use as a textbook Understanding, Assessing, and Responding to Terrorism, Second Edition is a must-have reference for private and public sector risk managers, safety engineers, security professionals, facility managers, emergency responders, and others charged with protecting facilities and personnel from all types of hazards (accidental, intentional, and natural).

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