"Times Are Altered with Us"American Indians from First Contact to the New Republic
The American History Series 1. Aufl.
"Times Are Altered with Us": American Indians from Contact to the New Republic offers a concise and engaging introduction to the turbulent 300-year-period of the history of Native Americans and their interactions with Europeans—and then Americans—from 1492 to 1800. Considers the interactions of American Indians at many points of "First Contact" across North America, from the Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific and Atlantic Coasts Explores the early years of contact, trade, reciprocity, and colonization, from initial engagement of different Indian and European peoples—Spanish, French, Dutch, English, and Russian—up to the start of tenuous and stormy relations with the new American government Charts the rapid decline in American Indian populations due to factors including epidemic Old World diseases, genocide and warfare by explorers and colonists, tribal warfare, and the detrimental effects of resource ruination and displacement from traditional lands Features a completely up-to-date synthesis of the literature of the field Incorporates useful student features, including maps, illustrations, and a comprehensive and evaluative Bibliographical Essay Written in an engaging style by an expert in Native American history and designed for use in both the U.S. history survey as well as dedicated courses in Native American studies
List of Illustrations xi List of Maps xiii Introduction 1 1 1492 and Before 8 Before Europeans 8 Invasions of America 12 Rewriting “History” 15 The Bering Strait Theory 15 Culture Areas 17 The Development of Maize 19 The Southwest 19 The Eastern Woodlands 20 Native American Population before 1492 22 Native Americans and Old World Diseases 24 The Columbian Exchange 25 2 Encountering the Spanish 29 Pánfilo de Narváez 29 Cabeza de Vaca 34 The De Soto Expedition 37 Mabila 39 The Death of De Soto 40 Coronado 41 On to Quivera 43 Bartolomé de Las Casas 44 The Black Legend 44 La Florida 45 New Mexico 47 Acoma 48 Converting the Pueblo 48 The Pueblo Revolt 50 3 Encounters with the French 53 Verrazzano’s Voyage 55 Cartier 57 Huguenots in Florida 62 The Fur Trade 63 Champlain 64 War with the Iroquois 66 The Jesuits in Canada 68 Alcohol and Native People 72 La Salle and Louisiana 73 4 English and Native People in the Southeast 77 Ireland, the Foundation of English Colonial Strategy 78 The West Countrymen 79 Roanoke 79 The Powhatan Confederacy 83 Jamestown 85 Opechancanough’s Wars 89 Bacon’s Rebellion 91 The Indian Slave Trade 94 The Yamasee War 98 5 Native Americans in New England 101 English Sassafras Hunters 103 John Smith Explores New England 104 The Separatists 105 Tisquantum 107 Thomas Morton and “Merre-mount” 109 The Pequot War 110 Miantonomi and Uncas 113 John Eliot and the Praying Towns 114 Metacom’s Rebellion 117 6 The Five Nations, the Dutch, and the Iroquois Wars 125 Hudson’s Voyage 126 The Dutch West India Company 129 New Netherland’s Two Indian Policies 130 The Mohawk–Mahican War 132 Dutch and Algonquins at New Amsterdam 134 Iroquois Economic Crisis and the Weakening of the Wendat 136 The Beaver Wars 140 The Grand Settlement of 1701 146 7 Seeking a Middle Ground 148 Pennsylvania 150 The Walking Purchase 153 The Iroquois Become Pennsylvania’s Enforcers 155 Into the Ohio Country 158 The Middle Ground 159 Native Americans as Military Proxies 161 8 The Imperial Wars 166 The Imperial Wars 167 The Treaty of Lancaster 173 Disputing the Ohio Country 175 Braddock’s Defeat 179 Lake George 180 Montcalm Takes Command 180 The Tide Turns against the French 182 The Cherokee War 184 9 Pontiac’s Rebellion 189 Neolin, the Delaware Prophet 189 The French Leave 192 The British Economize 194 Jeffery Amherst’s Indian Policy 195 Pontiac 197 The Siege of Detroit 200 Michilimackinac 202 Bloody Run 204 The Devil’s Hole 205 Bushy Run 206 The End of Pontiac’s Rebellion 208 The Proclamation of 1763 208 The Paxton Boys 209 Pontiac’s Fate 210 Flouting the Proclamation 211 10 The Great Plains and the Far West 212 The Plains 213 The Bison 215 The Arrival of the Horse 216 The Plains before the Horse 218 The Spread of Horses on the Plains 220 The Cultural Impact of Horses and Muskets 222 Smallpox in the West 223 The Plains Migrations 224 War over the Buffalo 226 Women’s Changing Roles and Status 228 The Environmental Impact of the Horse 229 The Russians 230 Spanish Missions in California 232 The English Arrive in the Pacific Northwest 235 11 Native Americans and the American Revolution 238 Appropriating Native Identity 240 Divisions among the Iroquois 241 Neutrality 243 Joseph Brant 244 Oriskany 247 American Allies 249 The Death of Cornstalk 252 A Generational Divide 253 “Monster Brant” 254 The Sullivan Campaign 255 Atrocity at Gnadenhütten 256 12 Coping with the New Republic 259 The Conquest Policy 259 Alliances with Europeans 261 The Northwest Confederacy 262 The End of the Conquest Policy 264 Harmer’s Defeat 265 St Clair’s Defeat 266 British Interference 269 Division in the Northwest Confederacy 271 Fallen Timbers 272 The Treaty of Greenville 273 The “Blessings of Civilization” 274 Spiritual Renewal 276 Bibliographical Essay 278 Index 287
Roger M. Carpenter is Associate Professor of History at the University of Louisiana at Monroe, where he teaches Native American and Early American History. He is the author of The Renewed, the Destroyed, and the Remade: The Three Thought Worlds of the Huron and the Iroquois, 1609-1650 (2004) and American Indian History Day by Day: A Reference Guide to Events (2012).
“Times Are Altered with Us”: American Indians from Contact to the New Republic presents a concise and engaging introduction to the turbulent 300-year-period of history of Native American-European engagement from 1492 until 1800. Historian and Native American expert Roger Carpenter takes the reader on a sweeping narrative journey of the early years of conquest and colonization, showing how American Indians went from being greeted by and engaged in trade with Europeans to an ultimate clash of cultures and civilizations. Carpenter explores the rapid decline in American Indian populations due to epidemic Old World diseases, genocide and warfare by explorers and colonists, tribal warfare, displacement from lands, and other factors. Revealing and at times deeply unsettling, ”Times Are Altered with Us” offers illuminating insights into the history of European settlement and the fate of America’s native population.
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