The Wiley Handbook of Entrepreneurship
Written by leading scholars, The Wiley Handbook of Entrepreneurship provides a distinctive overview of methodological, theoretical and paradigm changes in the area of entrepreneurship research. It is divided into four parts covering history and theory, individual differences and creativity, organizational aspects of innovation including intrapreneurship, and macroeconomic aspects such as social entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship in developing countries. The result is a must-have resource for seasoned researchers and newcomers alike, as well as practitioners and advanced students of business, entrepreneurship, and social and organizational psychology.
Preface xv Acknowledgments xxiii Section 1 Entrepreneurship: Theory and Research 1a: Understanding Entrepreneurship 1 1 A Future of Entrepreneurship Research: Domain, Data, Theory, and Impact 3Per Davidsson Introduction 3 Narrowing and Broadening the Field 3 Richer, Better, and More Varied Data 6 The Quest for Increased Theoretical Precision 7 Abstraction, Conceptual Clarity, and Operationalization 9 Sample Size, Data Quality, Statistical Significance, and Practical Relevance 12 Expanding the null hypothesis 13 Stating predictions as comparisons 13 Developing non-nil predictions 13 Specifying other than linear functional forms 13 Recognizing Context 13 Increased Demands for Practical Relevance 14 Conclusion 17 References 17 2 Entrepreneurship as a Process: Empirical Evidence for Entrepreneurial Engagement Levels 25Peter van der Zwan and Roy Thurik Introduction 25 Merits of Entrepreneurship as a Process 27 Three Stylized Facts 28 Latent Entrepreneurship 29 Different Roles Throughout the Process 29 Country Differences 30 Conclusion and Recommendations for Future Research 31 References 33 3 Types and Roles of Productive Entrepreneurship: A Conceptual Study 37Sander Wennekers and André van Stel Introduction 37 Ensuing Research Questions 39 Methodology 39 Typologies and Types 39 From Typologies/Dimensions to Major Types 41 Twelve major types of entrepreneurship 43 Further Reduction to Four Main Types 44 Entrepreneurial Roles 45 General Entrepreneurial Roles 45 Specific Entrepreneurial Roles 46 Intermediary Effects and Final Contributions 50 Intermediate Effects 51 Final Contributions 54 Causal Chains per Main Type of Entrepreneurship: A Synthesis 57 Ambitious Innovators 57 Ambitious Replicators/Adapters 58 Solo Self-Employed 59 Managerial Employers (Rest Group) 60 Discussion and Conclusions 61 Summarizing and Interpreting the Main Findings 61 Implications for Research 62 Implications for Policy 63 Conclusion 65 References 65 4 Toward a Theory of Entrepreneurial Behavior 71Bruce T. Teague and William B. Gartner Introduction 71 The Current State of Entrepreneurial Behavior Scholarship 72 (Re)defining Entrepreneurial Behavior 73 Defining Behavior 73 Defining Entrepreneurial Behavior 74 The Role of Behavior in Existing Theories and Frameworks 76 A Theory of Enterpreneurial Behavior 78 Behavioral Repertoire 80 Sources of Behavioral Variation 81 Level of Mastery 83 Implications of a Theory of Entrepreneurial Behavior 84 Toward an Entrepreneurial Behavior Research Agenda 85 Next Steps 86 Conclusions 87 References 88 Section 2 The Individual: Psychology of Entrepreneurship 95 5 The Psychology of Entrepreneurship: A Selective Review and a Path Forward 97Kelly G. Shaver and Amy E. Davis Introduction 97 Why Ask Why? 97 The Personality Approach 98 Single Traits 98 Achievement Motivation 98 Risk Propensity 99 Broad Sets of Dimensions 100 Inventories of Traits 100 Latent Dimensions 101 The Social Cognition Approach 102 Career Reasons 103 Attribution Processes 104 Social Cognitive Theories 104 Expectancy Theory 105 Theory of Planned Behavior 105 Entrepreneurial Teams 106 Approaches to Teams 106 Team Structure 107 Toward a More Inclusive Future 107 Culturally Inclusive and Specific 108 Gender 108 Race and Ethnicity 108 Life Course and Personal Context 108 Country of Origin 109 Methodologically Inclusive and Specific 109 Theoretically Precise 109 Multiple Dimensions 110 Replication 110 Teams Over Time 110 Conclusion 111 References 111 6 Tools Entrepreneurs Need for Converting Dreams To Reality—And Achieving Success 119Robert A. Baron Introduction 119 Motivation: What Goals Do Entrepreneurs Seek 120 Cognitive Tools: Creativity, Opportunity Recognition, and Avoiding Cognitive Traps 121 Opportunity Recognition of Creation: Recognizing or Creating Practical Uses of Ideas 122 The Personal Side of Entrepreneurial Success: Characteristics and Skills That Contribute to Success 125 Personal Characteristics: Self-Efficacy, the “Big Five,” and Willingness to Improvise 126 From Desire to Achievement: The Role of Self-Regulation 127 Passion: Deep, Emotional Commitment to Entrepreneurship and the Roles it Involves 128 The Social Side of Entrepreneurial Success II: Forming High Quality Social Networks and Getting Along With Others 129 How do Entrepreneurs Build their Social Networks? 130 Dealing with Adversity—and Failure 131 Coping With Stress 132 Psychological Capital 132 Dealing with Business Failure: When One Dream Ends Another (Should) Begin 133 Putting it All Together: The Successful Entrepreneur’s Tool Kit 133 Tools for Changing the World—or at Least Some Corner of it 134 References 136 7 Creativity and Entrepreneurship: A Process Perspective 139Maike Lex and Michael M. Gielnik Introduction 139 Creativity and Entrepreneurship: A Conceptual Differentiation 140 The Effect of Creativity on Entrepreneurship 141 Toward a Cumulative Process Model of Creativity in Entrepreneurship 143 Key Assumptions of the Cumulative Process Model 145 Creativity and its Underlying Components 145 The Entrepreneurial Process and its Constituting Phases 145 An Ambidexterity Perspective on Creativity in the Entrepreneurial Process 147 A Cumulative Process Model on Creativity in Entrepreneurship 149 Prelaunch 149 Launch 151 Postlaunch 154 The Cumulative Process Model: A Summary 157 An Interactionist Perspective on Creativity in Entrepreneurship 157 Practical Implications: Promoting Creativity to Promote Entrepreneurship 159 Future Research 161 Conclusion 162 References 163 8 The Dark Side of the Entrepreneurial Personality: Undesirable or Maladaptive Traits and Behaviors Associated with Entrepreneurs 173Angelo S. DeNisi and Benjamin N. Alexander Introduction 173 Recent Interest and Older Views 174 Entrepreneurial Personality and Entrepreneurship Outcomes 175 Personality and Entrepreneurial Intentions 175 Personality and Entrepreneurial Success 177 Broader Impact 179 Future Research on the Dark Side of the Entrepreneurial Personality 180 Untangling Outcomes and Trait Phenomena 180 Basic Issues 182 Conclusion 183 References 184 9 Female Entrepreneurship and IQ 187R.W. Hafer Introduction 187 Measuring Female Entrepreneurship and IQ 188 The Female Entrepreneurship Index 188 National IQ 190 The Model and Data 191 Regression Results 194 Robustness Tests 195 Caveats 197 Conclusions and Policy Implications 198 References 198 Appendix A 201 Appendix B 204 Acknowledgments 204 10 The Person in Social Entrepreneurship: A Systematic Review of Research on the social Entrepreneurial Personality 205Ute Stephan and Andreana Drencheva Introduction 205 Theoretical Background 206 Social Entrepreneurship 206 Personality 207 Review Approach and Overview of the Reviewed Studies 207 Review Findings 208 Motivation 208 General values, motives, interests 211 Specific motives 213 Traits 216 Identity 217 Leadership and Managerial Skills 218 Discussion and Opportunities for Future Research 220 Building on Strengths and Insights of the Current Research 222 References 223 Acknowledgment 229 11 An Individual Differences Approach to Studying Entrepreneurial Tendencies 231Gorkan Ahmetoglu and Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic Introduction 231 The Pillars of Individual Differences Psychology 232 The Psychological Approach to Entrepreneurship 233 A Critical Evaluation of the Psychological Approach to Entrepreneurship 234 A Critical Evaluation of the Group Differences Approach 234 A Critical Evaluation of Comparisons Between More and Less Successful Entrepreneurs 236 An Individual Differences Approach to Understanding Entrepreneurial Tendencies 236 (Re)defining Entrepreneurial Tendencies 237 The Practical Importance of Theoretical Preciseness 238 Recommendations for Researching Entrepreneurial Tendencies 239 How Do We Assess Entrepreneurial Tendencies? 240 How Do General Entrepreneurial Tendencies Manifest in Contextual Behavior? 242 Classification of Entrepreneurial Behaviors 242 How Do General Entrepreneurial Tendencies and Contextual Behavior Manifest in Entrepreneurial Output? 245 Discussion 247 Implications for Entrepreneurship Research 248 Implications Beyond Business Creation 249 Other Considerations 249 Existing and Future Research 250 Conclusion 251 References 251 Section 2a: Genetics of Entrepreneurship 257 12 Biology and Entrepreneurship 259Ahmed Nofal, Nicos Nicolaou, and Noni Symeonidou Introduction 259 Genetics and Entrepreneurship 260 Quantitative Genetics in Entrepreneurship 260 Tendency to Engage in Entrepreneurship 260 Genetic Influences on Physiology 261 Genetic Covariation with Individual Attributes 261 Gene X Environment Interactions 262 Gene X Environment Correlations 262 Opportunity Recognition 262 Entrepreneurial Intention 262 Entrepreneurial Performance 263 Molecular Genetics in Entrepreneurship 263 Candidate-Gene Studies 263 Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) 264 Hormones in Entrepreneurship 265 Physiology in Entrepreneurship 266 Neuroscience in Entrepreneurship 266 Quantitative Electroencephalogram 267 Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging 267 Conclusion 267 References 268 13 “Born, Not Made” and Other Beliefs About Entrepreneurial Ability 273Daniel P. Forbes Introduction 273 “Born, Not Made”: Beliefs and Evidence 274 Understanding How People Think About Entrepreneurs 277 Essentialist Lay Beliefs 277 Genetic Essentialist Lay Beliefs About Entrepreneurs 278 Born-Not-Made and General Beliefs About Entrepreneurial Ability 280 Implications of Belief in Born-Not-Made 280 Implications for the Judgments People Make About Their Own Entrepreneurial Abilities 281 Implications for the Judgments People Make About Others’ Entrepreneurial Abilities 283 Discussion 284 References 286 Acknowledgments 291 Section 3 The Organization: Corporate Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneurial Teams 3a: The Organization 293 14 Corporate Entrepreneurship & Innovation: Today’s Leadership Challenge 295Donald F. Kuratko Introduction 295 What Constitutes the Domain of Corporate Entrepreneurship? 296 The Importance of a Climate Conducive for Innovative Activity 298 Managerial Levels and Contributions to Entrepreneurial Efforts 300 Ingredients for an Effective Corporate Entrepreneurial Strategy 302 Challenges with Implementation of Corporate Entrepreneurship 304 Future Expectations 305 References 307 Section 3b: Entrepreneurial Teams 313 15 Unraveling the Black Box of New Venture Team Processes 315Ekaterina S. Bjornali, Mirjam Knockaert, Nicolai Foss, Daniel Leunbach and Truls Erikson Introduction 315 The New Venture Team as a Focal Object of Inquiry 316 Internal Factors 316 External Factors 317 Disentangling NVT “Processes” in the Input-Processes-Outcome Framework 318 Toward a Framework for Studying NVT Processes 318 Prefounding Phase 319 Postfounding phase 319 Selected Theories Within the Theoretical Foundations 321 Faultline Theory 321 Future Research Directions 324 Behavioral Integration and Shared Cognition 324 Future Research Directions 325 Shared Leadership 326 Future Research Directions 327 Creativity and Imagination 328 Future Research Directions 329 Organizational and Team Justice 330 Future Research Directions 331 Transactive Memory Systems 332 Future Research Directions 332 Measuring New Venture Team Processes 333 Methodological Issues in NVT Studies 333 Collinearity 334 Dominant Survey Method 334 Cross-Sectional Designs 334 Meeting Methodological Challenges 335 Improving Survey Instruments 335 Simulation Exercises: Agent-Based Modeling 335 Neurostudies 336 Towards a Mixed Methods Approach 337 Concluding Remarks 337 References 338 Section 4 National and International Entrepreneurship 4a: National Entrepreneurship 349 16 The Knowledge Spillover Theory of Entrepreneurship and the Strategic Management of Places 351David B. Audretsch and Erik E. Lehmann Introduction 351 The Challenge of Inequality of Places 353 Globalization and Regionalization 353 The Mediating Role of Entrepreneurship in Transforming Places 353 Transforming Regions to Places 355 The Knowledge Spillover Theory of Entrepreneurship 356 Defining the Knowledge Spillover Theory of Entrepreneurship 356 The Emergence of the Knowledge Spillover Theory of Entrepreneurship 358 Knowledge Spillover Theory and Places 360 The Knowledge Filter and the Strategic Management of Place 363 Absorptive Capacity of Place 366 Emergence of a Strategic Management Approach of Place 368 Conclusions 371 References 372 17 The Effect of New Business Formation on Regional Development 379Michael Fritsch Introduction 379 The Basic Relationships 380 The Magnitude of Direct and Indirect Effects 383 Differences in the Contribution of New Business Formation to Economic Growth Across Industries and Regions 385 The Persistence of Regional Entrepreneurship 389 Policy Implications 391 Avenues for Further Research 392 Final Remarks 396 References 396 18 National Culture and Entrepreneurship 401Gabriella Cacciotti and James C. Hayton Introduction 401 Method 401 Conceptualization of National Culture in Entrepreneurship Research 402 National Culture as Values 403 Definition 403 Measures 403 Outcomes 404 National Culture as Norms and Practices 408 Definition 408 Measures 409 Outcomes 410 Summary 412 Directions for Future Research 414 Conclusion 416 References 416 19 Management of Entrepreneurial Ecosystems 423Erkko Autio and Jonathan Levie Introduction 423 Entrepreneurial Ecosystems: Definitions and Policy Challenges 425 Management of Complex Socioecological Ecosystems 428 Stakeholder Consultation 429 Stakeholder Participation 430 Scottish Innovation-Based Entrepreneurial Ecosystem 431 Method 431 REAP Scotland 432 Field Trial in Scotland 435 Case Reflection 438 Discussion 442 Conclusion 445 References 446 Section 4b: International Entrepreneurship 451 20 International Entrepreneurship and Networks 453Salman Ahmad and Pavlos Dimitratos Introduction 453 International Entrepreneurship: Definition 454 Network Perspective 456 Networks and International Entrepreneurship 457 Important Themes: Intersection of International Entrepreneurship and Networks Research 458 Network Creation and International Entrepreneurship 460 Network Types and International Entrepreneurship 460 Network Structures and International Entrepreneurship 463 Network Dynamics and International Entrepreneurship 464 Network’s Benefits and International Entrepreneurship 465 Theoretical Basis: Intersection of International Entrepreneurship Networks Research 468 Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) 469 Organizational Learning 469 Resource-Based View 470 Social Capital 470 Knowledge-Based View 471 Other Theories 471 Practical Implications 472 Future Research 472 Conclusion 472 References 473 Index 485
Gorkan Ahmetoglu is Lecturer in Business Psychology at University College London (UCL), and co-founder of Meta Profiling Ltd. Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic is Professor of Business Psychology at University College London (UCL), and CEO of Hogan Assessments. Bailey Klinger is Founder and Executive Chairman of the Entrepreneurial Finance Lab, and was previously a Fellow at Harvard University's Center for International Development. Tessa Karcisky is a Business Psychologist with a PhD from the University of Cologne.
A comprehensive resource presenting the state-of-the-art entrepreneurship research With contributions from leading scholars in the field, The Wiley Handbook of Entrepreneurship provides a comprehensive overview of current findings in entrepreneurship research. The text covers a broad range of topics and reviews methodological, theoretical, and paradigm developments in the area. It also reviews core knowledge in this field, including history and theory, and addresses how individual differences in psychology, approach to innovation, and creativity influence entrepreneurs and their work. Chapters discuss organizational aspects of entrepreneurship including intrapreneurship and leadership, explore the global macroeconomics of entrepreneurship in developing countries, and explore aspects of social entrepreneurship. A valuable resource for newcomers to the area and an essential reference for those already familiar with entrepreneurship research and its issues, The Wiley Handbook of Entrepreneurship is also a readable text for anyone in the entrepreneurship community wanting to keep up with the latest research.