The Rise of the Network Society
Information Age Series, Band 12 2. Aufl.
This first book in Castells' groundbreaking trilogy, with a substantial new preface, highlights the economic and social dynamics of the information age and shows how the network society has now fully risen on a global scale. Groundbreaking volume on the impact of the age of information on all aspects of society Includes coverage of the influence of the internet and the net-economy Describes the accelerating pace of innovation and social transformation Based on research in the USA, Asia, Latin America, and Europe
List of Figures xii List of Tables xiv Acknowledgments 2000 xvii Acknowledgments 1996 xlv Preface to the 2010 Edition of The Rise of the Network Society lv Prologue: the Net and the Self 1 Technology, Society, and Historical Change 5 Informationalism, Industrialism, Capitalism, Statism: Modes of Development and Modes of Production 13 Informationalism and capitalist perestroika 18 The Self in the Informational Society 21 A Word on Method 25 1 The Information Technology Revolution 28 Which Revolution? 28 Lessons from the Industrial Revolution 33 The Historical Sequence of the Information Technology Revolution 38 Micro-engineering macro-changes: electronics and information 39 The creation of the Internet 45 The 1970s' technological divide 53 Technologies of life 54 Social context and the dynamics of technological change 59 Models, Actors, and Sites of the Information Technology Revolution 61 The Information Technology Paradigm 69 2 The New Economy: Informationalism, Globalization, Networking 77 Productivity, Competitiveness, and the Informational Economy 78 The productivity enigma 78 Is knowledge-based productivity specific to the informational economy? 80 Informationalism and capitalism, productivity and profitability 94 The historical specificity of informationalism 99 The Global Economy: Structure, Dynamics, and Genesis 101 Global financial markets 102 Globalization of markets for goods and services: growth and transformation of international trade 106 Globalization versus regionalization 110 The internationalization of production: multinational corporations and international production networks 116 Informational production and selective globalization of science and technology 124 Global labor? 130 The geometry of the global economy: segments and networks 132 The political economy of globalization: capitalist restructuring, information technology, and state policies 135 The New Economy 147 3 The Network Enterprise: the Culture, Institutions, and Organizations of the Informational Economy 163 Organizational Trajectories in the Restructuring of Capitalism and in the Transition from Industrialism to Informationalism 164 Network technologies and pervasive computing 51 Small business and the crisis of the large corporation: myth and reality 167 "Toyotism": management–worker cooperation, multifunctional labor, total quality control, and reduction of uncertainty 169 Inter-firm networking 172 Corporate strategic alliances 174 The horizontal corporation and global business networks 176 The crisis of the vertical corporation model and the rise of business networks 178 Networking the networks: the Cisco model 180 Information Technology and the Network Enterprise 184 Culture, Institutions, and Economic Organization: East Asian Business Networks 188 A typology of East Asian business networks 189 Japan 190 Korea 191 China 193 Culture, organizations, and institutions: Asian business networks and the developmental state 195 Multinational Enterprises, Transnational Corporations, and International Networks 206 The Spirit of Informationalism 210 4 The Transformation of Work and Employment: Networkers, Jobless, and Flex-timers 216 The Historical Evolution of Employment and Occupational Structure in Advanced Capitalist Countries: the G-7, 1920–2005 217 Post-industrialism, the service economy, and the informational society 218 The transformation of employment structure, 1920–1970 and 1970–1990 224 The new occupational structure 232 The maturing of the informational society: employment projections into the twenty-first century 237 Summing up: the evolution of employment structure and its implications for a comparative analysis of the informational society 243 From mass production to flexible production 166 The Work Process in the Informational Paradigm 255 The Effects of Information Technology on Employment: Toward a Jobless Society? 267 Work and the Informational Divide: Flex-timers 281 Information Technology and the Restructuring of Capital–Labor Relations: Social Dualism or Fragmented Societies? 296 Appendix A: Statistical Tables for Chapter 4 303 Appendix B: Methodological Note and Statistical References 338 5 The Culture of Real Virtuality: the Integration of Electronic Communication, the End of the Mass Audience, and the Rise of Interactive Networks 355 From the Gutenberg Galaxy to the McLuhan Galaxy: the Rise of Mass Media Culture 358 The New Media and the Diversification of Mass Audience 365 Computer-mediated Communication, Institutional Control, Social Networks, and Virtual Communities 371 The Minitel story: l'état et l'amour 372 The Internet constellation 375 The interactive society 385 The Grand Fusion: Multimedia as Symbolic Environment 394 The Culture of Real Virtuality 403 6 The Space of Flows 407 Advanced Services, Information Flows, and the Global City 409 The New Industrial Space 417 Everyday Life in the Electronic Cottage: the End of Cities? 424 The Transformation of Urban Form: the Informational City 429 America’s last suburban frontier 429 The fading charm of European cities 431 Third millennium urbanization: mega-cities 434 The Social Theory of Space and the Theory of the Space of Flows 440 The Architecture of the End of History 448 Space of Flows and Space of Places 453 Is There a Global Labor Force? 247 7 The Edge of Forever: Timeless Time 460 Time, History, and Society 461 Time as the Source of Value: the Global Casino 465 Flex-time and the Network Enterprise 467 The Shrinking and Twisting of Life Working Time 468 The Blurring of the Life-cycle: Toward Social Arrhythmia? 475 Death Denied 481 Instant Wars 484 Virtual Time 491 Time, Space, and Society: the Edge of Forever 494 Conclusion: the Network Society 500 Summary of the Contents of Volumes II and III 510 Bibliography 512 Index 566
Reviews of the Second Edition: "We live today in a period of intense and puzzling transformation, signalling perhaps a move beyond the industrial era altogether. Yet where are the great sociological works that chart this transition? Hence the importance of Manuel Castells' multivolume work, in which he seeks to chart the social and economic dynamics of the information age . . . [It] is bound to be a major reference source for years to come." (Anthony Giddens, The Times Higher Education Supplement) "Adam Smith explained how capitalism worked, and Karl Marx explained why it didn't. Now the social and economic relations of the Information Age have been captured by Manuel Castells." (Wall Street Journal) "So far, the person who has straddled the world of social theory and Silicon Valley most successfully is Manuel Castells. Castells enjoys a growing reputation as the first significant philosopher of cyberspace." (The Economist) "A must-read." (Wired) "This book goes a considerable way to helping us make sense of today's global information economy and our place in it." (Financial Times)
Manuel Castells is Professor Emeritus of Sociology and Planning at the University of California, Berkeley. He is also the Wallis Annenberg Chair in Communication Technology and Society at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, and Research Professor at the Open University of Catalonia in Barcelona. He is Distinguished Visiting Professor of Technology and Society at M.I.T., and Distinguished Visiting Professor of Internet Studies at Oxford University. He is the recipient of numerous academic awards, including the Guggenheim Fellowship, C. Wright Mills Award, the Robert and Helen Lynd Award from the American Sociological Association, and the Ithiel de Sola Pool Award from the American Political Science Association. He is a Fellow of the European Academy, a Fellow of the Spanish Royal Academy of Economics, and a Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy. He has received 14 honorary doctorates from universities around the world. He has authored 22 books, among which is the trilogy The Information Age: Economy, Society, and Culture, first published by Blackwell in 1996–8, and translated into 20 languages.
A little over a decade since its first publication, the hypotheses set out in Manuel Castells' groundbreaking trilogy have largely been verified. In a substantial new preface to the first volume in the series, Castells demonstrates, in the light of major world trends, how the network society has now fully risen on a global scale. The book discusses how the global economy is now characterized by the almost instantaneous flow and exchange of information, capital, and cultural communication. These flows order and condition both consumption and production. The networks themselves reflect and create distinctive cultures. Both they and the traffic they carry are largely outside national regulation. Our dependence on the new modes of informational flow gives enormous power to those in a position to control them to control us. The main political arena is now the media, and the media are not politically answerable. Based on research in the USA, Asia, Latin America, and Europe, Castells, formulates a systematic theory of the information society and details the new social and economic developments brought by the Internet and the 'new economy'.
"A brief review cannot do it justice. No other scholar has approached the subject of the information age in as engaging and innovative a way as this author. Strongly recommended for academic libraries." –M. Perelman, California State University
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