Details

The Periglacial Environment


The Periglacial Environment


4. Aufl.

von: Hugh M. French

64,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 27.10.2017
ISBN/EAN: 9781119132813
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 544

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Beschreibungen

The Periglacial Environment, Fourth Edition, is an authoritative overview of the world’s cold, non-glacial environments. First published in 1976 and subsequently revised in 1996 and 2007, the text has been the international standard for nearly 40 years. The Fourth Edition continues to be a personal interpretation of the frost-induced conditions, geomorphic processes and landforms that characterize periglacial environments. Part One discusses the periglacial concept and describes the typical climates and ecosystems that are involved. Part Two describes the geocryology (permafrost science) associated with frozen ground. Part Three outlines the weathering and geomorphic processes associated with cold-climate conditions. Part Four provides insight into the periglacial environments of the Quaternary, especially the Late Pleistocene. Part Five describes some of the problems associated with human occupancy in regions that experience frozen ground and cold-climate conditions.    Extensively revised and updated Written by an expert with over 50 years of field research Draws upon the author’s personal experience from Northern Canada, Alaska, Siberia, Tibet, Antarctica, Svalbard, Scandinavia, southern South America, Western Europe and eastern North America This book is an invaluable reference for advanced undergraduates in geography, geology, earth sciences and environmental sciences programs, and to resource managers and geotechnical engineers interested in cold regions.
Preface to Fourth Edition xv Preface to Third Edition xvii Preface to Second Edition xix Preface to First Edition xxi Acknowledgments xxiii Part I The Periglacial Domain 1 1 Introduction 3 1.1 The Periglacial Concept 3 1.2 Diagnostic Criteria 4 1.3 Periglacial Environments 5 1.4 The Periglacial Domain 6 1.5 The Periglacial Domain and the Cryosphere 9 1.6 Disciplinary Considerations 10 1.6.1 The Growth of Geocryology 10 1.6.2 The Challenge of Quaternary Science 11 1.6.3 Periglacial Geomorphology or Cold-Region Geomorphology? 12 1.7 Societal Considerations 12 1.8 The Growth of Periglacial Knowledge 13 2 Periglacial Climates 17 2.1 Boundary Conditions 17 2.2 Cold Deserts 17 2.3 Regional Climates 19 2.3.1 High Arctic Climates 22 2.3.2 Continental Climates 24 2.3.3 Alpine Climates 24 2.3.4 Montane Climates 25 2.3.5 Climates of Low Annual Temperature Range 25 2.3.6 Antarctica: A Special Case 26 2.4 Snow and Ice 26 2.5 Wind 28 2.6 Ground Climates 28 2.6.1 The ‘n’-Factor 28 2.6.2 TheThermal Offset 29 2.6.3 The Ground Temperature Regime 31 2.7 Periglacial Climates and Global Climate Change 35 2.7.1 Basic Facts 37 2.7.2 Why Climate–Cryosphere Interactions Accelerate ClimateWarming 38 3 Periglacial Ecosystems 41 3.1 General Statement 41 3.2 Biogeographic Zonation and Major Vegetation Types 41 3.3 Adaptations to Cold, Snow,Wind and Aridity 44 3.4 The Effect of Vegetation 44 3.5 The Polar Deserts 47 3.5.1 High Polar Deserts 47 3.5.2 The Polar Semi-Deserts 47 3.6 The Polar Desert–Tundra Transition 49 3.7 The Low-Arctic Tundra 49 3.8 The Forest–Tundra Bioclimatic Boundary (The Tree Line) 53 3.9 The Boreal Forest 56 3.10 The Alpine and Montane Ecosystems 58 3.11 Antarctica – A Special Case 60 3.12 Periglacial Ecosystems and Climate Change 61 Part II Frozen Ground and Permafrost 63 4 Ground Freezing, Permafrost and the Active Layer 65 4.1 Introduction 65 4.2 Ground Freezing 65 4.2.1 Basic Concepts 65 4.2.2 Ice Segregation 67 4.2.3 ‘The Frozen Fringe’ 69 4.2.4 Frost Heave 69 4.3 Perennially-Frozen Ground (Permafrost) 70 4.4 Moisture and IceWithin Permafrost 72 4.5 Thermal and Physical Properties 73 4.5.1 The Geothermal Regime 73 4.5.2 The TTOP Model 76 4.5.3 Physical Properties 77 4.5.4 Thermal Properties 78 4.6 Permafrost Hydrology 78 4.6.1 Aquifers 79 4.6.2 Hydrochemistry 80 4.6.3 Groundwater Icings 81 4.7 The Active Layer 82 4.7.1 Terminology 82 4.7.2 The Active-LayerThermal Regime 83 4.7.3 The Transient Layer 83 4.7.4 The Stefan Equation 84 5 Permafrost Distribution and Stability 87 5.1 Introduction 87 5.2 Controls over Permafrost Distribution 87 5.2.1 Relief and Aspect 87 5.2.2 Rock Type 88 5.2.3 Vegetation 90 5.2.4 Snow Cover 90 5.2.5 Fire 92 5.2.6 Lakes and SurfaceWater Bodies 92 5.3 Spatial Extent of Permafrost and Frozen Ground 93 5.3.1 Latitudinal Permafrost 93 5.3.2 Alpine (Mountain) Permafrost 95 5.3.3 Montane Permafrost 98 5.3.4 Seasonally-Frozen Ground 100 5.4 Sub-Sea and Relict Permafrost 101 5.4.1 Sub-Sea Permafrost 101 5.4.2 Relict (Terrestrial) Permafrost 101 5.5 Permafrost and Ecosystems 102 5.6 Permafrost Monitoring and Mapping 104 5.6.1 CALM and GTN-P (TSP) 104 5.6.2 BTS and Mountain Permafrost Probability Mapping 106 5.7 ClimateWarming and Permafrost 106 5.7.1 Evidence forWarming Permafrost 107 5.7.2 Evidence for Thawing Permafrost 109 6 Ground Ice and Cryostratigraphy 111 6.1 Introduction 111 6.2 Quantitative Parameters 111 6.3 Epigenetic, Syngenetic and Polygenetic Permafrost 112 6.4 Classification 113 6.4.1 The Russian Approach 113 6.4.2 The North American Approach 114 6.5 Main Ground Ice Types 115 6.5.1 Pore Ice 115 6.5.2 Segregated Ice 116 6.5.3 Intrusive Ice 117 6.5.4 Vein Ice 118 6.5.5 Other Types of Ice 118 6.6 Ice Distribution 118 6.6.1 Amounts 118 6.6.2 Distribution with Depth 120 6.6.3 Ice in Bedrock 120 6.6.4 Ice in Poorly-Lithified Sediments 121 6.7 Cryostratigraphy and Cryolithology 124 6.7.1 Cryostructural Analysis 125 6.7.2 Cryostructures of Epigenetic and Syngenetic Permafrost 128 6.7.3 Thaw Unconformities 129 6.7.4 Aggradational Ice 131 6.7.5 Icy Bodies and Ice, Sand and Soil Pseudomorphs 131 6.8 Ice Crystallography 132 6.9 Ice Geochemistry 133 6.10 Massive Ice and Massive-Icy Bodies 133 6.10.1 Nature and Extent 134 6.10.2 Intra-Sedimental Ice 135 6.10.3 Buried Glacier Ice 136 6.11 Cryostratigraphy and Past Environments 136 7 Aggradational Permafrost Landforms 139 7.1 Introduction 139 7.2 How Does Permafrost Aggrade? 139 7.2.1 The Illisarvik Drained-Lake Experiment 139 7.3 Thermal-Contraction-Crack Polygons 141 7.3.1 Coefficients ofThermal Expansion and Contraction 141 7.3.2 Ice, Sand and Soil (‘Ground’)Wedges 144 7.3.3 Development of the Polygon Net 144 7.3.4 Polygon Morphology 145 7.3.5 Controls over Cracking 147 7.3.6 Climatic Significance 150 7.4 Ice and SandWedges 151 7.4.1 EpigeneticWedges 154 7.4.2 SyngeneticWedges 154 7.4.3 Anti-SyngeneticWedges 156 7.4.4 Growth and Deformation ofWedges 156 7.5 Organic Terrain 156 7.5.1 Palsas 157 7.5.2 Peat Plateaus 158 7.6 Frost Mounds 158 7.6.1 Perennial-FrostMounds 158 7.6.2 Hydraulic (Open) System Pingos 159 7.6.3 Hydrostatic (Closed) System Pingos 161 7.6.4 Other Perennial-FrostMounds 165 7.6.5 Seasonal-Frost Mounds 165 7.6.6 Hydrolaccoliths and Other Frost-Induced Mounds 165 8 Thermokarst Processes and Landforms 169 8.1 Introduction 169 8.2 Thawing Ground 169 8.2.1 Thaw Strain andThaw Settlement 169 8.2.2 Potential Depths of Soil Freezing andThawing 170 8.2.3 The Development of Thermokarst 170 8.3 Causes ofThermokarst 171 8.3.1 General Comments 172 8.3.2 Specific Causes 174 8.4 Thaw-Related Processes 176 8.4.1 Thermokarst Subsidence (Thaw Settlement) 176 8.4.2 Thermal Erosion 176 8.4.3 Other Processes 176 8.5 Thermokarst Sediments and Structures 177 8.5.1 Involuted Sediments 177 8.5.2 Retrogressive-Thaw-Slumps and Debris-Flow Deposits 178 8.5.3 Ice-Wedge Pseudomorphs and Composite-Wedge Casts 179 8.5.4 Ice, Silt, Sand and Gravel Pseudomorphs 180 8.6 Thermokarst Landscapes 181 8.6.1 The Alas-Thermokarst Relief of Central Yakutia 182 8.6.2 TheWestern North American Arctic 185 8.6.3 The Ice-Fee Areas of Continental Antarctica 185 8.7 Ice-Wedge Thermokarst Relief 186 8.7.1 Low-Centred Polygons 186 8.7.2 High-Centred Polygons 186 8.7.3 BadlandThermokarst Relief 186 8.8 Thaw Lakes and Depressions 187 8.8.1 Lakes and Táliks 189 8.8.2 Morphology 189 8.8.3 Growth and Drainage 189 8.8.4 OrientedThaw Lakes 191 Part III Periglacial Geomorphology 193 9 Cold-ClimateWeathering 195 9.1 Introduction 195 9.2 GeneralWeathering Facts 195 9.3 Freezing and Thawing Indices 196 9.4 Rock (Frost?) Shattering 197 9.4.1 Frost Action and Ice Segregation 197 9.4.2 Insolation and Thermal Shock 200 9.4.3 Perspective 202 9.5 ChemicalWeathering 204 9.5.1 Karkevagge 204 9.5.2 Solution and Karstification 205 9.5.3 SaltWeathering 208 9.6 CryogenicWeathering 208 9.6.1 Cryogenic Disintegration 210 9.6.2 The Coefficient of Cryogenic Contrast 210 9.6.3 Physico-Chemical Changes 212 9.6.4 Problematic Phenomena 212 9.7 CryobiologicalWeathering 213 9.8 Rates of Cold-Climate BedrockWeathering 214 9.9 Cryosols and Cryopedology 215 9.9.1 Cryosols 215 9.9.2 Classification 216 9.9.3 Cryosolic Micromorphology 216 10 Mass-Wasting Processes and Active-Layer Phenomena 219 10.1 Introduction 219 10.2 Slow Mass-Wasting Processes 219 10.2.1 Solifluction 219 10.2.2 Frost Creep 221 10.2.3 Gelifluction 223 10.2.4 Solifluction Deposits and Phenomena 223 10.3 Rapid Mass-Wasting Processes 226 10.3.1 Active-Layer-Detachment Slides 226 10.3.2 Debris Flows, Slush Flows and Avalanches 226 10.3.3 Rockfall 230 10.4 Snow Hydrology and Slopewash Processes 232 10.4.1 Snow Hydrology and Snowbanks 233 10.4.2 Surface and SubsurfaceWash 233 10.5 Active-Layer Phenomena 235 10.5.1 Frost Heaving 235 10.5.2 Bedrock Heave 235 10.5.3 Upward Heaving of Stones and Objects 235 10.5.4 Stone Tilting 237 10.5.5 Needle Ice 239 10.5.6 Frost Sorting 239 10.5.7 Cryoturbation 240 10.6 Patterned Ground 240 10.6.1 Sorted and Non-Sorted Circles 240 10.6.2 Mud Boils 243 10.6.3 Nets and Stripes 246 11 Azonal Processes and Landforms 247 11.1 Introduction 247 11.2 Fluvial Processes and Landforms 247 11.2.1 Major Rivers 248 11.2.2 Freeze-Up and Break-Up 251 11.2.3 Basin Hydrology 252 11.2.4 Sediment Flow, Surface Transport and Denudation 255 11.2.5 Channel Morphology 256 11.3 Lakes and Lake Ice 259 11.3.1 Lake Ice and Climate Change 259 11.3.2 Perennially-Frozen Lakes 260 11.4 Coastal Processes and Landforms 260 11.4.1 Sea Ice 260 11.4.2 Sea Ice,Wave Generation and Sediment Transport 261 11.4.3 Ice on the Beach and the Near-Shore 262 11.4.4 The Influence of Permafrost 264 11.4.5 Cold-Climate Deltas 266 11.5 Aeolian Processes, Sediments and Landforms 267 11.5.1 Wind Abrasion 268 11.5.2 Wind Deflation 271 11.5.3 Sand Dunes and Sand Sheets 271 11.5.4 Niveo-Aeolian Sediments 273 11.5.5 Loess-Like Silt 274 12 Slope Development and Landscape Evolution 275 12.1 Introduction 275 12.2 Slope Morphology 275 12.2.1 The Free-Face Slope 275 12.2.2 Rectilinear Debris-Mantled Slopes 278 12.2.3 Convexo-Concavo Debris-Mantled Slopes 278 12.2.4 Pediment-Like Slopes and Inselberg-Like Hills 280 12.2.5 Stepped Profiles 281 12.3 Slope and Valley Development 284 12.3.1 Slope Asymmetry 284 12.4 Frozen and Thawing Slopes 287 12.4.1 Frozen Ground (Permafrost) Creep 287 12.4.2 Rock Glaciers 288 12.4.3 Thaw Consolidation and the Stability of Thawing Slopes 290 12.5 Periglacial Slope Evolution 293 12.5.1 The Davisian (Peltier)Model 293 12.5.2 Cryoplanation 295 12.5.3 Richter Denudation Slopes 295 12.6 Landscape Inheritance 296 12.6.1 The Uplands of Northern Interior Yukon 296 12.6.2 A Perspective 298 Part IV Pleistocene Periglacial Environments 299 13 The Pleistocene Periglacial Domain 301 13.1 Introduction 301 13.2 The Time Scale and Climatic Fluctuations 301 13.3 Global (Eustatic) Considerations 304 13.3.1 Sea-Level Changes 304 13.3.2 Uplift of Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau 304 13.4 Past Glaciations, Permafrost and Frozen Ground 305 13.4.1 Extent of Past Glaciations 305 13.4.2 Relict Permafrost 306 13.5 Pleistocene Periglacial Environments 307 13.5.1 General Considerations 307 13.5.2 Problems of Palaeo-Environmental Reconstruction 308 13.5.3 Ice Age Mammals and Ecosystems 309 13.6 The Pleistocene Periglacial Domain in the Northern Hemisphere 312 13.6.1 Extent of LPM Permafrost 313 13.6.2 Western, Central and Southern Europe 313 13.6.3 Eastern Europe and Kazakhstan 315 13.6.4 Southern, Central and Northern Siberia 317 13.6.5 Western and North-Eastern China 317 13.6.6 North America 319 13.7 The Pleistocene Periglacial Domain in the Southern Circumpolar Region 321 14 Previously-Frozen Ground 323 14.1 Introduction 323 14.2 Past Permafrost Aggradation 323 14.2.1 The Palaeo-Active Layer and AssociatedWeathering Characteristics 323 14.2.2 Fragipans and the Palaeo-Permafrost Table 326 14.2.3 Secondary Precipitates and Clay Minerals 326 14.3 Frost-Fissure Pseudomorphs and Casts 327 14.3.1 Terminology Relevant to Pleistocene-Age Structures in Unfrozen Sediments 327 14.3.2 Ice-Wedge Pseudomorphs 329 14.3.3 Sand Veins, Sand-Wedge Casts and Composite-Wedge Casts 331 14.3.4 Frost Cracking: Seasonal or Perennial? 332 14.4 Frost-Mound Remnants 333 14.5 Past Permafrost Degradation 335 14.5.1 Thermokarst Depressions 335 14.5.2 Thermokarst Involutions and ‘Sediment-Filled Pots’ 336 14.5.3 Large-Scale Soft-Sediment Deformations 338 14.5.4 Non-Diastrophic Structures in Bedrock 339 14.6 Summary 341 15 Pleistocene Periglaciation 343 15.1 Introduction 343 15.2 Intense Frost Action 343 15.2.1 Frost-Disturbed Bedrock 343 15.2.2 Mountain-Top Detritus (‘Blockfields’) 344 15.2.3 Tors 347 15.2.4 Stratified Slope Deposits 347 15.2.5 Frost-Disturbed Soils, Periglacial Involutions and Patterned Ground 347 15.3 MassWasting and Aeolian-Linked Sediment Deposition 351 15.3.1 Geological ‘Time Travellers’ 351 15.3.2 Head or Solifluction Deposits 353 15.3.3 ‘Yedoma’ and ‘Muck’ deposits 353 15.3.4 Loess and Aeolian Silt 355 15.4 Wind Abrasion and Aeolian Sediment Transport 358 15.4.1 Wind-Abraded Rocks 359 15.4.2 Aeolian Sand Deposition 360 15.5 DrainageModification 360 15.5.1 Ice-Marginal Drainage 361 15.5.2 River and Valley Incision in Ice-Free Areas 362 15.5.3 Enlargement of the Drainage Network 364 15.5.4 Asymmetrical Valley Development 364 15.6 Planation and Cryopedimentation 366 15.7 A Perspective on Periglaciation 366 15.7.1 The Example of Central and Southern England 367 15.7.2 General Conclusions 369 Part V Human Occupance and The Periglacial Environment 371 16 Urban and Social Infrastructure 373 16.1 Introduction 373 16.2 Human Occupance 373 16.3 Human-Induced Thermokarst 375 16.3.1 Early Siberian and North American Experience 375 16.3.2 The Rapidity of Change 376 16.4 Cold-Regions Engineering 378 16.4.1 General Principles 378 16.4.2 General Solutions 379 16.5 Provision of Municipal Infrastructure in Northern Canada 384 16.5.1 Inuvik, NWT 384 16.5.2 Dawson City, Yukon Territory 384 16.5.3 Yellowknife, NWT 387 16.5.4 Thompson, Northern Manitoba 390 16.6 The Alaskan Experience: The Example of Fairbanks 390 16.7 Water-Supply Problems 392 16.8 Urban Infrastructure and Climate Change 392 16.8.1 The Russian North 392 16.8.2 Other Areas 394 16.8.3 Related Socio-Economic Changes 396 17 Transportation and Resource Development 399 17.1 Introduction 399 17.2 Rivers as Highways 399 17.3 Roads and Highways 401 17.3.1 Winter Roads 401 17.3.2 All-Season Roads 401 17.4 Railways 405 17.4.1 The Hudson Bay Railway, Canada 405 17.4.2 The Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR), China 406 17.5 Bridge Construction 406 17.6 Runways and Airstrips 410 17.7 Oil and Gas Development 411 17.7.1 Exploration Problems 411 17.7.2 Exploratory Drilling andWaste-Drilling-Fluid Disposal Problems 414 17.7.3 Pipelines and Permafrost 415 17.8 Mining Activities 419 17.8.1 Placer Gold Mining Operations 419 17.8.2 Opencast Mining 420 17.8.3 Containment andWaste Disposal 420 References 423 Index 503
HUGH M. FRENCH is now Professor Emeritus, University of Ottawa, and an Adjunct Professor, University of Victoria. He lives on southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada.
The Periglacial Environment, Fourth Edition, is an authoritative overview of the world's cold, non-glacial environments. First published in 1976 and subsequently revised in 1996 and 2007, the text has been the international standard for nearly 40 years. The Fourth Edition continues to be a personal interpretation of the frost-induced conditions, geomorphic processes and landforms that characterize periglacial environments. Part One discusses the periglacial concept and describes the typical climates and ecosystems that are involved. Part Two describes the geocryology (permafrost science) associated with frozen ground. Part Three outlines the weathering and geomorphic processes associated with cold-climate conditions. Part Four provides insight into the periglacial environments of the Quaternary, especially the Late Pleistocene. Part Five describes some of the problems associated with human occupancy in regions that experience frozen ground and cold-climate conditions. Extensively revised and updated Written by an expert with over 50 years of field research Draws upon the author's personal experience from Northern Canada, Alaska, Siberia, Tibet, Antarctica, Svalbard, Scandinavia, southern South America, Western Europe and eastern North America This book is an invaluable reference for advanced undergraduates in geography, geology, earth sciences and environmental sciences programs, and to resource managers and geotechnical engineers interested in cold regions. Hugh French was born in England and educated at The University of Southampton (BA, PhD). He emigrated from the UK in 1967 to accept an appointment with The University of Ottawa, Canada, where he taught in the Departments of Geography (1967-2003), Geology (1980-1992) and Earth Sciences (1998-2003). He has been Dean of the Faculty of Science at The University of Ottawa (1992-1997), President of the International Permafrost Association (1998-2003) and Editor-in-Chief of Permafrost and Periglacial Processes (1990-2005). He has received the Roger Brown Award of the Canadian Geotechnical Society for outstanding contributions to permafrost science and engineering (1989), the Canadian Association of Geographers award for scholarly distinction (1995), and the Lifetime Achievement Award of the International Permafrost Association (2016).

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