This practical book combines recent progress with a discussion of the general aspects of catalyst preparation. The first part deals with the basic principles of solid catalyst preparation, explaining the main aspects of sol-gel chemistry and interfacial chemistry, followed by such techniques as co-precipitation and immobilization. New tools for catalyst preparation research, including microspectroscopy and high-throughput experimentation, are also taken into account. The second part heightens the practical relevance by providing six case studies on such topics as the preparation of zeolites, hydrotreating catalysts, methanol catalysts and gold catalysts
PART I: Basic Principles and Tools GENERAL ASPECTS Importance of Solid Catalysts Development of Solid Catalysts Development of Solid Catalyst Synthesis About this book INTERFACIAL CHEMISTRY Introduction Interfacial and Bulk Deposition The Surface of the Oxidic Supports: Surface Ionization Models The Size and the Structure of the Interface The Arrangement of the Ions Inside the Interface and the Deposition Modes Determining the Mode of Interfacial Depostion and the Surface Speciation/Structure of the Deposited Precursor Species A Case Study: The Deposition of Co(H2=)6 2+ Aqua Complex on the Titania Surface ELECTROSTATIC ADSORPTION Introduction Purely Electrostatic Adsorption Electrostatic Adsorption with Metal Respeciation Electrostatic Adsorption and Ion Exchange Electrostatic Adsorption and Deposition-Precipitation Electrostatic Adsorption and Surface Reaction Electrostatics and Dissolution, Reaction, and Redeposition Electrostatics-Based Design IMPREGNATION AND DRYING Introduction Impregnation Drying The Chemistry Impregnation and Drying of an MoOx/Al2O3 Catalyst SOL-GEL PROCESSING Introduction Physicochemical Basis and Principles of Sol-Gel Processing Application of Sol-Gel Processing for the Preparation of Solid Catalysts DEPOSITION PRECIPITATION Introduction Theory and Practice Mechanistic Studies Case Studies COPRECIPITATION Introduction Basic Principles of Precipitation and Nucleation Raw Materials Precipitation Conditions Process Operation Examples New Developments in Process Monitoring CLUSTERS AND IMMOBILIZATION Introduction The Surface of Common Supports Clusters in Catalysis Reaction with Unmodified Surface "Ship-in-a-Bottle" Synthesis Tethering SHAPING OF SOLID CATALYSTS Objectives of Catalyst Shaping Fixed-Bed Reactors - Particle Beds Fixed-Bed Reactors - Monoliths Catalysts for Moving-Bed Reactors Catalysts for Fluidized Beds SPACE AND TIME-RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY OF CATALYST BODIES Introduction Space- and Time-Resolved Methods Applied to Catalyst Bodies Case Studies Future Prospects HIGH-THROUGHPUT EXPERIMENTATION Introduction Synthesis Strategies Catalyst Libraries for Primary Screening Catalyst Libraries for Secondary Screening Catalyst Libraries for Special Reactor Types An Industrial Point of View PART II: Case Studies CONCEPTS FOR PREPARATION OF ZEOLITE-BASED CATALYSTS Introduction and Scope Zeolite Effects in Catalysis Zeolitization ORDERED MESOPOROUS MATERIALS Introduction Mesoporous Silica Organic Group Functionalized Mesoporous Silicates Metal-Substituted Mesoporous Silica Molecular Sieves Carbon Nonsiliceous Oxides Nonoxides HYDROTREATING CATALYSTS Introduction Typical Hydrotreating Catalyst Support Preparation Metal Comixing/Coextrusion and Coprecipitation Routes Impregnation of Metals Presulfiding as the Last Stage in Hydrotreating Catalyst Preparation Industrial Process for the Production of the Oxidic Catalyst METHANOL CATALYSTS Binary Cu/ZnO Catalysts Coprecipitation The Role of Alumina in Ternary Catalysts Alternative Preparation Routes CASE STUDIES OF NOBEL-METAL CATALYSTS Introduction Optimization of Catalyst Preparation GOLD CATALYSTS Introduction Preparations Involving Aqueous Solutions Preparations Involving Organometallic Precursors Deposition of Gold Nanoparticles One-Step Preparations Special Methods
"In short, the volume is precisely what the solid catalysis field needs. It is a convincing and well-written text exploring complex ideas in a coherent and logical way, without simplification. The use of case studies provides valuable contexts for the application of diverse ideas and constructs." (Current Engineering Practice, 2010)
Since 1997 Krijn de Jong is Full Professor of Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis at Utrecht University. Before that he worked in industry for 15 years. His current research interests are catalyst preparation, electron tomography (3D-TEM), diffusion and catalysis with zeolites and mesoporous materials, solid base catalysts, nanostructured carbon materials, Fischer-Tropsch catalysis and hydrogen storage. He has authored over 150 papers and is the inventor for more than 25 patents.
The worldwide market for heterogeneous catalysts amounts to about 12 billion US$ per year. The use of these catalysts in energy conversion, chemicals manufacturing and environmental processes saves time and money, expanding the margin generated by an estimated 100-300 times. Heterogeneous catalysts may be considered the most important nanostructured materials and their preparation is thus of paramount importance. This practical book combines recent progress with a discussion of the general aspects of catalyst preparation. The first part deals with the basic principles of heterogeneous catalyst preparation, explaining the main aspects of sol-gel chemistry and interfacial chemistry, followed by such techniques as co-precipitation and immobilization. New tools for catalyst preparation, including microspectroscopy and high-throughput experimentation, are also taken into account. The second part heightens the practical relevance by providing ten case studies on such hot topics as the preparation of zeolites, hydrotreating catalysts, methanol catalyst and gold catalysts.