A general introduction to surface and interfacial forces, perfectly combining theoretical concepts, experimental techniques and practical applications. In this completely updated edition all the chapters have been thoroughly revised and extended to cover new developments and approaches with around 15% new content. A large part of the book is devoted to surface forces between solid surfaces in liquid media, and while a basic knowledge of colloid and interface science is helpful, it is not essential since all important concepts are explained and the theoretical concepts can be understood with an intermediate knowledge of mathematics. A number of exercises with solutions and the end-of-chapter summaries of the most important equations, facts and phenomena serve as additional tools to strengthen the acquired knowledge and allow for self-study. The result is a readily accessible text that helps to foster an understanding of the intricacies of this highly relevant topic.
1 INTRODUCTION 2 VAN DER WAALS FORCES 2.1 Van der Waals Forces Between Molecules 2.2 The Van der Waals Force Between Macroscopic Solids 2.3 The Derjaguin Approximation 2.4 Retarded Van der Waals Forces 2.5 Measurement of Van der Waals Forces 2.6 The Casimir Force 2.7 Summary 2.8 Exercises 3 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS 3.1 Surface Forces Apparatus 3.2 Atomic Force Microscope 3.3 Optical Tweezers 3.4 Total Internal Re?ection Microscopy 3.5 Magnetic Tweezers 3.6 Summary 3.7 Exercises 4 ELECTROSTATIC DOUBLE-LAYER FORCES 4.1 The Electric Double Layer 4.2 Poisson?Boltzmann Theory of the Diffuse Double Layer 4.3 Beyond Poisson?Boltzmann Theory 4.4 The Gibbs Energy of the Electric Double Layer 4.5 The Electrostatic Double-Layer Force 4.6 The DLVO Theory 4.7 Electrostatic Forces in Nonpolar Media 4.8 Summary 4.9 Exercises 5 CAPILLARY FORCES 5.1 Equation of Young and Laplace 5.2 Kelvin Equation and Capillary Condensation 5.3 The Young?s Equation 5.4 Capillary Forces Calculated with the Circular Approximation 5.5 In?uence of Roughness 5.6 Kinetics of Capillary Bridge Formation and Rupture 5.7 Capillary Forces in Immiscible liquid Mixtures and Other Systems 5.8 Lateral Forces Between Particles at a Fluid Interface 5.9 Summary 5.10 Exercises 6 HYDRODYNAMIC FORCES 6.1 Fundamentals of Hydrodynamics 6.2 Hydrodynamic Force between a Solid Sphere and a Plate 6.3 Hydrodynamic Boundary Condition 6.4 Gibbs Adsorption Isotherm 6.5 Hydrodynamic Forces Between Fluid Boundaries 6.6 Summary 6.7 Exercises 7 INTERFACIAL FORCES BETWEEN FLUID INTERFACES AND ACROSS THIN FILMS 7.1 Overview 7.2 The Disjoining Pressure 7.3 Drainage 7.4 Thin Film Balance 7.5 Interfacial Forces Across Foam and Emulsion Films 7.6 Thin Wetting Films 7.7 Summary 7.8 Exercises 8 CONTACT MECHANICS AND ADHESION 8.1 Surface Energy of Solids 8.2 Contact Mechanics 8.3 In?uence of Surface Roughness 8.4 Adhesion Force Measurements 8.5 Summary 8.6 Exercises 9 FRICTION 9.1 Macroscopic Friction 9.2 Lubrication 9.3 Microscopic Friction: Nanotribology 9.4 Summary 9.5 Exercises 10 SOLVATION FORCES AND NON-DLVO FORCES IN WATER 10.1 Solvation Forces 10.2 Non-DLVO Forces in an Aqueous Medium 10.3 The Interaction Between Lipid Bilayers 10.4 Force Between Surfaces with Adsorbed Molecules 10.5 Summary 10.6 Exercises 11 SURFACE FORCES IN POLYMER SOLUTIONS AND MELTS 11.1 Properties of Polymers 11.2 Polymer Solutions 11.3 Steric Repulsion 11.4 Polymer-Induced Forces in Solutions 11.5 Bridging Attraction 11.6 Depletion and Structural Forces 11.7 Interfacial Forces in Polymer Melts 11.8 Summary 11.9 Exercises 12 SOLUTIONS TO EXERCISES
Hans-Jurgen Butt studied physics in Hamburg and Gottingen, Germany. Then he went to the Max-Planck-Institute of Biophysics in Frankfurt. After receiving his Ph.D. in 1989 he went as a post-doc to Santa Barbara, California, using the newly developed atomic force microscope. From 1990-95 he spent as a researcher back in Germany at the Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysics. In 1996 he became associate professor for physical chemistry at the University Mainz, three years later full professor at the University of Siegen. Two years later he joined the Max-Planck-Institute of Polymer Research in Mainz and became director for Experimental Physics. Michael Kappl received his PhD thesis from the Max-Planck-Institute of Biophysics in Frankfurt and worked at the University of Mainz and Siegen. Since 2002 he is a project leader at the Max-Planck-Institute for Polymer Research in Mainz. He concentrates his research activities on Surface Forces and the Interactions of Particle Bubbles as well as Monolayer Particles.
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