Details

Success Factors for Fish Larval Production


Success Factors for Fish Larval Production


1. Aufl.

von: Luis Conceicao, Amos Tandler

194,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 09.01.2018
ISBN/EAN: 9781119072133
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 512

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Beschreibungen

A comprehensive and authoritative synthesis on the successful production of fish larvae  Success Factors for Fish Larval Production is a vital resource that includes the most current understanding of larval biology, in the context of larval production. The text covers topics such as how external (environmental and nutritional) and internal (molecular/ developmental/ physiological/ behavioral/ genetic) factors interact in defining the phenotype and quality of fish larvae and juveniles. The expert contributors review broodstock genetics and husbandry, water quality, larval nutrition and feeding, growth physiology, health, metamorphosis, underlying molecular mechanisms, including epigenetics, for development, larval behavior and environmental conditions. Compiled by members of a European Union-funded consortium of top researchers, Success Factors for Fish Larval Production provides a wide-range of authoritative information for the aquaculture industry and academia. In addition to a wealth of information, the authors review research and commercially applicable larval quality indicators and predictors. The successful production of good-quality fish larvae is of vital importance for fish farming and stock enhancement of wild fisheries:  Includes contributions from a consortium of noted researchers and experts in the field Deals with on how to improve egg quality and larval production via broodstock management and nutrition Suggests ways to control the phenotype of juveniles and table-size fish via manipulations of the conditions of larval rearing (e.g., epigenetics) Includes ideas for optimizing diet composition, formulation, and technology Integrates knowledge and practical experience in order to help advancing excellence in aquaculture  Success Factors for Fish Larval Production offers fish biologists, developmental biologists, physiologists and zoologists the most current and reliable information on the topic. All those working in fish aquaculture facilities and hatcheries in particular will find great interest to their commercial operations within this book. 
Acknowledgements xvii 1 Introduction 1 Reference 2 2 Gamete Quality and BroodstockManagement in Temperate Fish 3HerveMigaud, Gordon Bell, Elsa Cabrita, Brendan McAndrew, Andrew Davie, Julien Bobe, Maria Paz Herráez and Manuel Carrillo Introduction 3 Egg and Sperm Quality and Assessment 4 Egg Quality 4 Sperm Quality 6 Germ Cell Preservation 8 Eggs 8 Sperm Storage and Management 8 Other Sources of Germplasm: Undifferentiated Germ Cells and Surrogate Production 9 Knowledge Gaps and Research Needs 10 Broodstock Nutrition 11 Background 11 Salmonids 11 Bass, Bream and Related Sparids 13 Atlantic Cod 15 Flatfish 15 Carp 17 Knowledge Gaps and Research Needs 17 Applications of Genetics and Genomics to Broodstock Management 17 General Considerations and New Advances 17 Selective Breeding Programmes 18 Genetic Markers 22 Functional Genomics 23 Chromosome Set Manipulation 24 Gene Transfer Technologies 26 Knowledge Gaps and Research Needs 27 Broodstock Environmental and Hormonal Manipulations 27 General Concepts 27 Entrainment of Reproduction: Proximate Factors 28 Photoperiod Regimes Used in Aquaculture 30 Temperature as an Ultimate Factor 31 Spawning Induction Techniques 32 Knowledge Gaps and Research Needs 35 Overall Conclusions 35 Acknowledgements 38 References 38 3 Feeding Behaviour and Digestive Physiology in Larval Fish: Current Knowledge, and Gaps and Bottlenecks in Research 55Ivar Rønnestad, Manuel Yúfera, Bernd Ueberschär, Laura Ribeiro, Øystein Sæle and Clara Boglione Introduction 55 Feeding Behaviour and Appetite 56 Detection 56 Capture and Ingestion 59 Feeding Rhythms 61 Neuroendocrine Control of Appetite and Ingestion 61 Adaptation of Feeding Protocols to the Feeding Behaviour 63 Digestive Physiology 63 Ontogeny and Plasticity of the Digestive System 63 Accessory Digestive Organs 66 IntestinalModelling and Remodelling 67 Digestion: An Overview 69 Digestion of Proteins and Peptides 70 Pancreatic Enzymes 70 Enzymes in the Mucosal Layer 75 Exogenous Enzymes 75 Absorption 76 Free Amino Acids 76 Peptides 77 Whole Proteins 78 General Protein-Processing Capacity 79 Gut Transit Rate Versus Dietary Protein Utilization 80 Lipids 82 Preintestinal Digestion of Lipids 82 Intestinal Lipid Digestion 83 Overall Processing Capacity for Lipids 85 Digestion of Carbohydrates 86 Regulatory Systems of Digestion 87 Gastrointestinal Tract Hormones 89 Other Gastrointestinal Tract Hormones 92 Enteric Nervous Systems 92 Future Research Strategies for Studies in Feeding Behaviour and Digestive Physiology to Advance Larval Rearing of Marine Fish 93 Acknowledgements 96 References 96 4 Fish Larval Nutrition and Feed Formulation: Knowledge Gaps and Bottlenecks for Advances in Larval Rearing 123Kristin Hamre, Manuel Yúfera, Ivar Rønnestad, Clara Boglione, Luis E. C. Conceição and Marisol Izquierdo Introduction 123 Larval Nutrition 124 What are the Larval Nutrient Requirements? 124 Direct Measurements of Larval Requirements, for Example Dose–Response 125 Macronutrients 125 Protein and Amino Acids 126 Lipid Class Composition 127 Essential Fatty Acids 129 Vitamins 132 Minerals 133 Indirect Measurements 134 Nutrient Utilization during the Yolk Sac Period 134 Amino Acids 135 Lipids 136 Vitamins 137 Nutrient Composition of Copepods 138 Larval Body Composition 142 Tracer Studies 143 Extrapolation from Juveniles 145 Feed Formulation 147 Live Feed Enrichment 147 Basic Levels of Nutrients in Rotifers and Artemia 147 Opportunities and Limitations in Enrichment of Live Feed 150 Formulated Diets 153 General Characteristics of Formulated Larval Diets 153 Types of Formulated Microdiets 154 Technical Limitations 155 Microdiet Formulation and Nutrition Experiments 156 Gaps and Bottlenecks in Obtaining Knowledge on Nutritional Requirements of Marine Fish Larvae 157 Acknowledgements 158 References 158 5 What Determines Growth Potential and Juvenile Quality of Farmed Fish Species? 177Luísa M.P. Valente, Katerina A. Moutou, Luis E.C. Conceição, Sofia Engrola, Jorge M.O. Fernandes and Ian A. Johnston Introduction 177 Development of SkeletalMuscle 178 Embryonic, Larval and JuvenileMuscle Growth:The Origin and Regulation of Myogenic Progenitor Cell Activity 178 Control of Muscle Mass 185 Protein Synthesis 185 Protein Degradation 186 Genetics of Muscle Growth 187 Environmental Factors and Growth 193 Seawater Temperature 193 Nutrition 194 Available Methodology to Assess Growth and Quality 195 Histology, Histochemistry and Immunohistochemistry 196 In situ Hybridization 196 Real-time PCR 197 Microarrays 197 Transcriptome Analysis and Genome Editing 198 Proteomics 200 Cell Culture 200 Tracer Studies 201 Concluding Remarks 201 Acknowledgements 202 References 202 6 Skeletal Anomalies in Reared European Fish Larvae and Juveniles. Part 1: Normal and Anomalous Skeletogenic Processes 219Clara Boglione, Paulo Gavaia, Giorgos Koumoundouros, Enric Gisbert, Mari Moren, Stéphanie Fontagné and Paul EckhardWitten Introduction 219 Plasticity, Ontogenesis, Remodelling and Resorption of Skeletal Elements in Teleost Fish 225 Teleost Skeletal Tissues 225 The Notochord 227 Regulatory Mechanisms of Skeletal Tissues in Fish 228 Bone Formation and the Replacement of the Cartilaginous Anlage 228 Endochondral Ossification 229 Perichondral Ossification 230 Parachondral Ossification 231 Intramembranous Ossification 231 Modulation and Transformation 233 Dedifferentiation, Transdifferentiation and Metaplasia 233 Late Events in Teleost Skeletal Tissue Modelling and Remodelling 235 Bone Resorption and Remodelling 236 Osteocytic Osteolysis 237 Main Gaps in Scientific Knowledge and Further Research Needs 237 Acknowledgements 238 References 239 7 Skeletal Anomalies in Reared European Fish Larvae and Juveniles. Part 2:Main Typologies, Occurrences and Causative Factors 255Clara Boglione, Enric Gisbert, Paulo Gavaia, Paul E.Witten, Mori Moren, Stéphanie Fontagné and Giorgos Koumoundouros Introduction 255 Early Developmental Anomalies 257 Vertebral Column Anomalies 261 Non-salmonid Group 262 Salmonid Group 265 Vertebrae Anomalies 266 Non-salmonid Group 267 Salmonid Group 268 Anomalies of the Fins 269 Skull Anomalies 271 Effects of Skeletal Anomalies on Fish Biological Performance 273 Causative Factors of Skeletal Anomalies in Reared Fish 274 Genetic Factors 274 Non-genetic Factors: Nutrition 277 Proteins and Amino Acids 278 Lipids and Fatty Acids 279 Vitamins 283 Minerals 294 Non-genetic Factors: Miscellaneous 297 SortingMethods 301 Elements of Solutions 301 Main Gaps in Scientific Knowledge and Further Research Needs 304 Acknowledgements 306 References 306 8 Microbiology and Immunology of Fish Larvae 331Olav Vadstein, Øivind Bergh, François-Joel Gatesoupe, Jorge Galindo-Villegas, Victoriano Mulero, Simona Picchietti, Giuseppe Scapigliati, Pavlos Makridis, Yngvar Olsen, Kristof Dierckens, Tom Defoirdt, Nico Boon, Peter de Schryver and Peter Bossier Introduction 331 The Microbial Environment of Fish Larvae 332 Methodological Aspects of Microbial Community Characterization 334 Pathogens and Challenge Models 338 Immunology of Fish Larvae 339 Evolutionary Aspects of Innate Immunity in Fish 339 Physical Barriers, the First Line of Defence 340 Professional Phagocytes and other Myeloid Cells 340 Signalling in Pattern Recognition 341 PRRs Specificity in Fish 342 Toll-like Receptors 342 TLRs in Larval Fish 343 Inflammatory Cytokines and Antimicrobial Responses 343 Insiders of Immunity in Teleost Fish: The Mast Cells 344 Mast Cell Antimicrobial Peptides: The Piscidins 345 The Ontogeny of the Adaptive Immune System 346 Maternal Transfer of IgM 346 Development of T-cells and T-cell-associated Molecules 347 Steering Larval Microbial Communities to the Benefit of the Host 349 Microbial Contributions to Larval Nutrition and Physiology 349 Steering the Microbial Community Composition and/or Activity 352 Steering Microbial Community Composition 352 Steering Microbial Activity 353 Acknowledgements 354 References 354 9 Fantastically Plastic: Fish Larvae Equipped for a NewWorld 371Karin Pittman, Manuel Yúfera, Michail Pavlidis, Audrey J. Geffen,William Koven, Laura Ribeiro, José L. Zambonino-Infante and Amos Tandler Introduction 371 Mediating Environment – Structural Basis of Plasticity 375 Pineal 375 Thalamus/Hypothalamus 378 The Pituitary 379 Thyroid andThyroactive Compounds 380 The Adrenals (Early Development of the Adrenocortical and Chromaffin Tissues (‘Adrenals‘) in Fish) 381 The Gonads 382 The Acoustic-Lateralis System 385 Structure of the Otolith System and its Components 385 Otolith Formation 385 Otolith Growth – Biomineralization and Control 386 Osmoregulation System 387 Functional Plasticity – Interactions Between the Internal and External Environment Which Define the Phenotype 387 Sex Differentiation 387 Implication of TH in Metamorphic Processes 390 Thyroid Hormone and Metamorphic Transformations 390 Thyroid Hormone Response Genes in the Intestine 391 Environmental Iodine as a TH Precursor 392 Dietary Iodine and the Superiority of Natural Larval Zooplankton Prey 393 Does Dietary Iodine, as a TH Precursor, Drive Metamorphosis? 394 The Cortisol Stress Response 395 Profile of Whole-Body Cortisol Concentrations During Early Ontogeny 395 Onset of the Cortisol Stress Response 396 Digestive Tract Development and Remodelling 398 Pigmentation 399 Consequences of External Factors 403 Environmental Information Content of the Otoliths 403 Adapting to Salinity 405 Effects of Temperature 406 Common Effects of Temperature inMetabolic Rates 406 Effects on Spawning and Embryonic Development 407 Effects on Muscle and Skeletal Development 407 Effect of Dietary Factors 409 Consequences on Skeletal Structures and Anatomy 409 Consequences on Metabolic Pathways 411 Consequences on Cardiovascular Performance 412 Consequences on Reproduction 413 Integrating the Effect of External Factors 413 Conclusions 415 Acknowledgements 418 References 418 10 Quality Descriptors and Predictors in Farmed Marine Fish Larvae and Juveniles 443Giorgos Koumoundouros, Enric Gisbert, Ignacio Fernandez, Elsa Cabrita, Jorge Galindo-Villegas and Luis Conceição Introduction 443 Morphology and Malformations 444 Biochemical and Molecular Biomarkers of Bone Formation and Remodelling 447 Markers for Cell Differentiation and Proliferation 447 Markers of Extracellular Matrix (ECM) Mineralization and Resorption 448 Biomarkers of Bone Resorption 448 Mineralization Ontogenesis and Mineral Content of Skeletal Structures 449 Conclusions and Future Trends 449 Nutritional Condition 452 Growth Potential 455 Immunology and Microbiology 456 Sperm and Oocyte Quality as Predictor of Fertilizing Capacity 459 Conclusions and Perspectives 461 References 463 11 Conclusions 473 Broodstock and Egg Quality 474 Microbiology, Immunology and Larval Health 475 Feeding Biology and Digestive Function 475 Nutritional Requirements 476 Growth Potential and Dispersion 477 Skeletal Deformities and Other Abnormalities 477 Quality Indicators and Predictors 478 Index 483
About the Editors LUÍS E.C. CONCEIÇÃO is a founder of SPAROS, a start-up company that arose from the Centre of Marine Sciences of the University of the Algarve, Portugal. SPAROS is devoted to innovation in fish feeding and nutrition. Luis was Vice-Chair of LARVANET. AMOS TANDLER is based at the National Center for Mariculture in Eilat, Israel, which he directed and which is part of Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research. He was Chair of LARVANET. He and his students pioneered the science behind marine fish larval research, being the foundation for innovations and the development of the sprouting Israeli Mariculture industry.
A comprehensive and authoritative synthesis on the successful production of fish larvae Success Factors for Fish Larval Production is a vital resource that includes the most current understanding of larval biology, in the context of larval production. The text covers topics such as how external (environmental and nutritional) and internal (molecular/ developmental/ physiological/ behavioral/ genetic) factors interact in defining the phenotype and quality of fish larvae and juveniles. The expert contributors review broodstock genetics and husbandry, water quality, larval nutrition and feeding, growth physiology, health, metamorphosis, underlying molecular mechanisms, including epigenetics, for development, larval behavior and environmental conditions. Compiled by members of a European Union-funded consortium of top researchers, Success Factors for Fish Larval Production provides a wide-range of authoritative information for the aquaculture industry and academia. In addition to a wealth of information, the authors review research and commercially applicable larval quality indicators and predictors. The successful production of good-quality fish larvae is of vital importance for fish farming and stock enhancement of wild fisheries. Includes contributions from a consortium of noted researchers and experts in the field Deals with how to improve egg quality and larval production via broodstock management and nutrition Suggests ways to control the phenotype of juveniles and table-size fish via manipulations of the conditions of larval rearing (e.g., epigenetics) Includes ideas for optimizing diet composition, formulation, and technology Integrates knowledge and practical experience in order to help advancing excellence in aquaculture Success Factors for Fish Larval Production offers fish biologists, developmental biologists, physiologists and zoologists the most current and reliable information on the topic. All those working in fish aquaculture facilities and hatcheries in particular will find great interest to their commercial operations within this book.

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