Static ElectricityUnderstanding, Controlling, Applying
Written by world-renowned experts on the topic with many years of research and consultancy experience, this invaluable book provides the practitioners' perspective, outlining the dangers and benefits of static electricity in industry. The first chapter reviews the fundamentals of understanding fires and explosions in general and electricity-induced ignition in particular, while the following chapter is dedicated to the origins of static electricity in industrial settings, such as in flowing gases and the transport of disperse systems. The major part of the text deals with measuring static electricity, elimination of unwanted charges and hazard prevention under different conditions. It concludes with an overview of practical applications in chemical and mechanical engineering. Throughout the book, real-life case studies illustrate the fundamental aspects so as to further an understanding of how to control and apply static electricity and thus reduce material damages as well as increase occupational safety. Plus additional movie sequences on the dedicated website showing static electricity in action.
About the Authors xiiiOpening Remark xvPreliminary Remark xviiPreface xix1 Basics of Fire and Explosion: Risk Assessment 11.1 Basic Considerations on Fire and Explosion (T1) 11.2 Explosive Atmosphere 31.3 Hybrid Mixtures ( P7) 61.4 Allocation of Explosion-Endangered Areas and Permissible Equipment ( P6) 71.5 Permissible Equipment (Equipment Protection Level) 71.6 Ignition Sources 91.7 Minimum Ignition Energy (MIE) 111.8 Imaginary Experiment to Assess the Hazardous Potential of Flammable Liquids 15PowerPoint Presentations 18References 182 Principles of Static Electricity 192.1 Basics 192.2 Electrostatic Charging of Solids ( T2) 212.3 Triboelectric Series 242.4 Surface Resistivity 242.5 Electrostatic Charging of Liquids ( T2, T8) 282.6 Charging by Gases 312.7 Electric Field 332.8 Electric Induction ( T3) 362.9 Capacitance and Capacitor 38PowerPoint Presentations 38References 393 Metrology 413.1 Basics ( T7) 413.2 Appropriate Metrology for Electrostatic Safety Measures 443.3 Comparison: Electrostatics/Electrical Engineering 443.4 Selecting the Suitable Measurement Methods 453.5 Assignment and Summary 493.6 Conductivity of Liquids 513.7 Bulk Materials 523.8 Concerning the Use of Insulating Material in Endangered Areas 523.9 Measurement of Electrostatic Charges 523.10 Other Measurement Applications 683.11 Capacitance 773.12 Themes around Air Humidity 81PowerPoint Presentations 87Picture Credits 87References 884 Gas Discharges 894.1 Mechanisms of Gas Discharges ( T5) 894.2 Electrostatic Gas Discharges 904.3 Types of Gas Discharges 944.4 Consequences of Gas Discharges 1024.5 Listing of Traces Caused by Gas Discharges ( P11; T8) 1024.6 How Can Dangerous Gas Discharges Be Avoided? 103PowerPoint Presentations 111Picture Credits 111Video Credits 111References 1115 Preventing Electrostatic Disturbances 1135.1 Electrostatics:When Sparks Fly 1135.2 Dielectric Strength 1175.3 Discharging Charged Surfaces 1185.4 Potential Hazards Posed by Discharge Electrodes 134 Picture Credits 136Video Credits 137References 137Further Reading 1376 Description of Demonstration Experiments 1396.1 Preliminary Remarks 1406.2 Static Voltmeter 1416.3 Field Meter 1426.4 Van de Graaff Generator 1426.5 Explosion Tube 1426.6 Electrostatic Force Effects 1446.7 Charges Caused by Separating Process 1496.8 Charging of Particles 1506.9 Electric Induction 1536.10 Dissipating Properties 1576.11 Experiments with the Explosion Tube 1586.12 Gas Discharges 1606.13 Fire and Explosion Dangers 168Reference 1757 Case Studies 1777.1 Strategy of Investigation 1777.2 Ignitions Due to Brush Discharges 1807.3 Case Studies Related to Propagating Brush Discharges 1927.4 Case Histories Related to Spark Discharges 2047.5 Ignition Caused by Cone Discharges 2127.6 Doubts with Electrostatic Ignitions 2137.7 Act with Relevant Experience 219PowerPoint Presentations 220Video 221References 2218 Targeted Use of Charges 2238.1 Applications 2238.2 Examples of the Creative Implementation of Applications 2268.3 Summary 251Picture Credits 251Video Credits 252References 252M Mathematics Toolbox 253M1 Energy W of a Capacitance 255M1.1 Minimum Ignition Energy WMIE 255M1.2 Power P 255M1.3 Electrical Efficiency ? 256M2 Field E; Field Strength E? 256M2.1 Homogeneous Field between Plane Plates 256M2.2 Field of Point Charge 256M2.3 Permittivity ? 257M2.4 Field of Rod (Wire) Charge 257M3 Flux Density D (Earlier: Dielectric Displacement) ? 257M4 Frequency f 258M4.1 Wavelength ? 258M4.2 Circular Frequency ? 258M5 Inductance L 258M5.1 Inductance Ls of an Air Coil 259M6 Capacitance C 259M6.1 Rod (Wire) across a Conductive Area 259M6.2 Coaxial Cable/Cylinder Capacitance 260M6.3 Conductive Sphere in Space 260M6.4 Sphere Across a Conductive Area 260M6.5 Shunt of Single Capacitors 261M6.6 Plate Capacitor 261M6.7 Series of Single Capacitors 261M7 Force F, F? 262M7.1 Force between 2 Point Charges (Coulomb’s law) 262M8 Charge Q 263M8.1 Moved Charge Qm 263M8.2 Charge of Electron Beam Qe 263M8.3 Surface Charge Density ? 263M8.4 Mass Charge Density Q 264M8.5 Volume Charge Density ? 264M9 Potential ? 264M10 Voltage U 265M11 Resistance R (Universal) 267Annex 2751 Videos for download from www.wiley-vch.de 2752 PowerPoint Presentations 2752.1 Theory of Electrostatics (Visualized by Experiments) 2752.2 Practical Examples with “Freddy” (Electrostatic Hazards in Plant areas) 276Index 277
Gunter Luttgens was born in Berlin, 1933, and holds a master's degree in electrical engineering. Since graduation he mainly worked in the chemical industry in the field of electrostatics. He was primarily responsible for laboratory research, as well as plant safety, in the area of fire and explosion prevention. In 1998 he was nominated by IEC as an expert for electrostatic test methods. Since more than twenty five years he carried out lectures on static electrification and safety measures together with his wife Sylvia. He published several articles and specialist books. In 2013 he received the International Fellow Award by the European Working Party (EFCE) as a researcher and teacher in the field of "Static Electricity in Industry". Sylvia Luttgens was born in Geroda, 1946, was graduated a teacher and tried to direct the interest of her students to Music and English. Then she learned about static electrification and that it could be the cause for many a fire or an explosion. So she has been working together with her husband Gunter, carrying out experimental lectures (up to 2015) in seminars about electrostatics, giving practical proof of the theory. Besides she is publishing articles and writing specialist books on this topic. Together with Gunter she compiled the first encyclopaedia on static electricity fifteen years ago and the third edition was published in 2013. Wolfgang Schubert was born in 1952. He studied print technology in Leipzig and is a trained printer. He became self-employed in 1997 having previously worked in various managerial roles in the print industry and in sales and marketing for manufacturers of roll fed and sheet fed printing presses. Since then he has also been working in the specialised field of electrostatics, in sales and marketing and also in further education. He has co-authored the specialist publication Static Electricity. In May 2016 he was publicly appointed and inaugurated by the Leipzig Chamber of Commerce and Industry (IHK) as an expert in the fields of printing processes, printing presses, printability, runnability, and packaging printing. He also works as an expert in the field of electrostatics.
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