Spaniards in the Colonial EmpireCreoles vs. Peninsulars?
Viewpoints / Puntos de Vista 1. Aufl.
Spaniards in the Colonial Empire traces the privileges, prejudices, and conflicts between American-born and European-born Spaniards, within the Spanish colonies in the Americas from the sixteenth to early nineteenth centuries. • Covers three centuries of Spanish colonial power, beginning in the sixteenth century • Explores social tension between creole and peninsular factions, connecting this friction with later colonial bids for independence • Draws on recent research by Spanish and Spanish-American historians as well as Anglophone scholars • Includes some coverage of Brazil and British colonies
List of Illustrations viii Series Editor’s Preface ix Preface xi Maps xvi 1 Spain and Its Early Empire in America 1 2 Native Sons and Daughters in the Church 28 3 Native Sons in Office 59 4 The Heyday of Native Sons and Daughters, circa 1630–1750 84 5 Reforms, Commentaries, and Officials, 1750–1808 110 6 The Church, Complaints, and Social Change, 1750–1808 129 7 From Abdications to Independence 149 Glossary 172 Notes 178 Suggestions for Further Reading 184 Index 193
“This process, too, is explained with admirable clarity in this authoritative, sophisticated overview of a key issue in Latin American history.” (Journal of Latin American Studies, 1 October 2013) “Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division undergraduates and above.” (Choice, 1 September 2013)
Mark A. Burkholder is Professor of History at the University of Missouri-St. Louis. His books include Biographical Dictionary of Audiencia Ministers in the Americas, 1687–1821 (with D. S. Chandler, 1982), Biographical Dictionary of Councilors of the Indies, 1717–1808 (1986), and Colonial Latin America, Eighth Edition (with Lyman L. Johnson, March 2012).
Spaniards in the Colonial Empire: Creoles vs. Peninsulars? introduces students to the relationships between Spaniards born in the Americas and those born in Spain. Creoles, those born in the Americas, believed that their families’ sacrifices made them especially qualified to fill administrative positions in the new territories; however, Iberian-born Spaniards frequently filled these posts. Directly addressing the Americans’ complaint of discrimination in appointments to offices of church and state, the book examines why holding these positions was so important to creoles from the sixteenth century to independence. Spaniards in the Colonial Empire argues that patriot leaders in the wars of independence in the early nineteenth century quickly identified peninsulars as the enemy and shattered colonial elites long comprised of Spaniards born in both the Old World and the New.
“This innovative and beautifully written Atlantic history traces the conflicts, friendships, and marriages of immigrants and locals in rich detail. Succinct and thorough, the book is for students and specialists alike.” - Christoph Rosenmüller, Middle Tennessee State University “This splendid work of synthesis, written by a major scholar, examines the ongoing struggles in the Indies among groups of Spaniards (both creoles and peninsulars) to claim political or clerical offices for services rendered to the crown. It is thoughtful, well written work that will prove an invaluable classroom text.” - Kenneth J. Andrien, Southern Methodist University “A well written and welcome discussion of the changing policies of the Spanish Crown, policies that caused widespread animosity between the native-born and those who migrated from Spain, and ultimately led to Independence movements throughout the colonies.” - Susan M. Socolow, Emory University “Mark Burkholder provides a unique and revisionist lens: a gendered history that focuses on those processes of conflict and accommodation that shaped relations between Spaniards (peninsulars) and creoles in the Americas over the sweep of three centuries.” - Ann Twinam, University of Texas at Austin