Focusing on the cutting-edge technologies available in the field of photovoltaics, Solar Cell Nanotechnology explores the latest research and development activities related to organic, inorganic, and hybrid materials being used in solar cell manufacturing. Several chapters are dedicated to explaining the fundamentals of photovoltaics and nanomaterials utilized in the manufacturing of solar cells. Other essential subjects, such as microcontact printing, plasmonic light trapping, outdoor and indoor efficiency, luminescent solar concentrators, and photon management in photovoltaics, are comprehensively reviewed. Written for a broad audience, this is an essential book for engineers, nanotechnologists, and materials scientists.
Preface xvii Part 1 Current Developments 1 1 Design Considerations for Efficient and Stable Polymer Solar Cells 3 Prajwal Adhikary, Jing Li, and Qiquan Qiao 1.1 Introduction 4 1.2 Role of Interfacial Layer for Efficient BHJ Solar Cells 11 1.3 Selection of Interfacial Layer for Stable and Longer Lifetime 20 1.4 Materials Used as Interfacial Layer 26 1.5 Conclusion and Outlook 34 Acknowledgement 34 References 35 2 Carbazole-Based Organic Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Role of Carbazole as Donor, Auxiliary Donor and ?-linker 41 A. Venkateswararao and K. R. Justin Thomas 2.1 Introduction 42 2.2 Carbazole as a Donor for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 44 2.3 Carbazole as a ?-Linker 64 2.4 Carbazole as Auxiliary Donor for DSSC 75 2.5 Carbazole as Donor as Well as Linker for DSSC 87 2.6 Conclusion and Outlook 91 Acknowledgements 92 References 92 3 Colloidal Synthesis of CuInS2 and CuInSe2 Nanocrystals for Photovoltaic Applications 97 Joanna Kolny-Olesiak 3.1 Introduction 97 3.2 Synthesis of CuInS2 and CuInSe2 Nanocrystals 99 3.3 Application of Colloidal CuInS2 and CuInSe2 Nanoparticles in Solar Energy Conversion 109 3.4 Conclusion and Outlook 112 References 112 4 Two Dimensional Layered Semiconductors: Emerging Materials for Solar Photovoltaics 117 Mariyappan Shanmugam and Bin Yu 4.1 Introduction 118 4.2 Material Synthesis 119 4.3 Photovoltaic Device Fabrication 122 4.4 Microstructural and Raman Spectroscopic Studies of MoS2 and WS2 124 4.5 Photovoltaic Performance Evaluation 126 4.6 Electronic Transport and Interfacial Recombination 129 4.7 Conclusion and Outlook 132 References 133 5 Control of ZnO Nanorods for Polymer Solar Cells 135 Hsin-Yi Chen, Ching-Fuh Lin 5.1 Introduction 136 5.2 Preparation and Characterization of ZnO NRs 137 5.3 Application of ZnO NR in Polymer Solar Cells 147 5.4 Conclusion and Outlook 154 References 154 Part 2 Noble Approaches 159 6 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 161 Lakshmi V. Munukutla, Aung Htun, Sailaja Radhakrishanan, Laura Main, and Arunachala M. Kannan 6.1 Introduction 161 6.2 Background 163 6.3 DSSC Key Performance Parameters 173 6.4 Device Improvements 174 6.5 DSSC Performance with Different Electrolytes 180 6.6 Conclusion and Outlook 183 References 183 7 Nanoimprint Lithography for Photovoltaic Applications 185 Benjamin Schumm and Stefan Kaskel 7.1 Introduction 186 7.2 Soft Lithography 186 7.3 NIL-Based Techniques for PV 190 7.4 Conclusion and Outlook 198 References 199 8 Indoor Photovoltaics: Efficiencies, Measurements and Design 203 Monika Freunek (Müller) 8.1 Introduction 203 8.2 Indoor Radiation 205 8.3 Maximum Efficiencies 208 8.4 Optimization Strategies 213 8.5 Characterization and Measured Efficiencies 216 8.6 Irradiance Measurements 217 8.7 Characterization 217 8.8 Conclusion and Outlook 219 References 221 9 Photon Management in Rare Earth Doped Nanomaterials for Solar Cells 223 Jiajia Zhou, Jianrong Qiu 9.1 Introduction 223 9.2 Basic Aspects of Solar Cell 224 9.4 Down-Conversion Nanomaterials for Solar Cell Application 232 9.5 Conclusion and Outlook 236 References 238 Part 3 Developments in Prospective 241 10 Advances in Plasmonic Light Trapping in Thin-Film Solar Photovoltaic Devices 243 J. Gwamuri, D. Ö. Güney, and J. M. Pearce 10.1 Introduction 244 10.2 Theoretical Approaches to Plasmonic Light Trapping Mechanisms in Thin-fi lm PV 247 10.3 Plasmonics for Improved Photovoltaic Cells Optical Properties 256 10.4 Fabrication Techniques and Economics 260 10.5 Conclusion and Outlook 263 Acknowledgements 266 References 266 11 Recent Research and Development of Luminescent Solar Concentrators 271 Yun Seng Lim, Shin Yiing Kee, and Chin Kim Lo 11.1 Introduction 272 11.2 Mechanisms of Power Losses in Luminescent Solar Concentrator 274 11.3 Modeling 276 11.4 Polymer Materials 279 11.5 Luminescent Materials for Luminescent Solar Concentrator 280 11.6 New Designs of Luminescent Solar Concentrator 286 11.7 Conclusion and Outlook 287 References 289 12 Luminescent Solar Concentrators – State of the Art and Future Perspectives 293 M. Tonezzer, D. Gutierrez, and D. Vincenzi 12.1 Introduction to the Third Generation of Photovoltaic Systems 294 12.2 Luminescence Solar Concentrators (LSCs) 294 12.3 Components of LSC Devices 299 12.4 Pathways for Improving LSC Efficiency 308 12.5 Conclusion and Outlook 311 Acknowledgments 312 References 312 13 Organic Fluorophores for Luminescent Solar Concentrators 317 Luca Beverina and Alessandro Sanguineti 13.1 Introduction 318 13.2 LSCs: Device Operation and Main Features 321 13.3 Luminophores in LSCs 324 13.4 Conclusion and Outlook 349 References 351 14 PAn-Graphene-Nanoribbon Composite Materials for Organic Photovoltaics: A DFT Study of Their Electronic and Charge Transport Properties 357 Javed Mazher, Asefa A. Desta, and Shabina Khan 14.1 Introduction 358 14.2 Review of Computational Background 379 14.3 Atomistic Computational Simulations: Modeling and Methodology 385 14.4 Results and Discussions 389 14.5 Conclusion and Outlook 398 References 400 15 Analytical Modeling of Thin-Film Solar Cells – Fundamentals and Applications 409 Kurt Taretto 15.1 Introduction 409 15.2 Basics 410 15.3 Fundamental Semiconductor Equations 417 15.4 Analytical Models for Selected Solar Cells 425 15.5 The Importance of the Temperature Dependence of VOC 442 15.6 Conclusions and Outlook 444 Acknowledgements 444 References 444 16 Efficient Organic Photovoltaic Cells: Current Global Scenario 447 Sandeep Rai and Atul Tiwari 16.1 Introduction 448 16.2 Current Developments in OPVs 455 16.3 Economics of Solar Energy 464 16.4 Conclusions and Future Trends in Photovoltaic 468 References 471 17 Real and Reactive Power Control of Voltage Source Converter-Based Photovoltaic Generating Systems 475 S. Mishra and P. C. Sekhar 17.1 Introduction 476 17.2 State of Art 478 17.3 Proposed Solution 479 17.4 Modeling of the PV Generator 480 17.5 Control of the PV Generator 483 17.6 Validation of the Proposed Control Architecture 491 17.7 Conclusion and Outlook 501 References 502 Index 505
Atul Tiwari is a research faculty member in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Hawaii. He received a PhD in polymer materials science and has been designated a Chartered Chemist and Chartered Scientist by the Royal Society of Chemistry, UK. As an organic chemist and mechanical engineer, Dr. Tiwari has sought in his research work to bridge the gap between science and engineering. His area of research interest includes the development of smart materials including silicones, graphene, and bio-inspired biomaterials for industrial applications. He has published more than 60 peer-reviewed research publications and has 6 patents or patents pending. Rabah Boukherroub received a PhD in chemistry from the University Paul Sabatier, France. He is a group leader at the Interdisciplinary Research Institute, University of Lille, France. He is a coauthor of more than 250 research publications and has written several book chapters in subjects related to nanotechnology, materials chemistry, biosensors, and lab-on-chip devices. He has 8 patents or patents pending. Dr. Boukherroub's research interests are in the area of functional materials, surface chemistry, and photophysics of semiconductor nanostructures. Maheshwar Sharon obtained his PhD from University of Leicester, UK, and two postgraduate diplomas in nuclear power and radio chemistry. In 1978, he joined the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, as a Professor in Chemistry, retiring in 2003. He is now a Research Director at the NSNR Centre for Nanotechnology & Bionanotechnology, Ambernath, India. He is a pioneer in developing plant-based precursors like camphor, kerosene, and various non-edible oils for synthesizing almost all forms of carbon: nanobeads, nanotubes, nanofibers, and various new types of carbon nanomaterials. He is the first to successfully develop a homojunction carbon (n-C/p-C) photovoltaic solar cell from camphoric carbon. He has also pioneered a solar-chargeable battery and a concept known as the Sharon-Schottky type solar cell. He has also pioneered the development of a photoactive lead oxide electrode for application in a photoelectrochemical cell. He has published more than 172 publications in national and international journals and has published 4 books.
This important volume details new and developing solar cell nanotechnologies that are not silicon based but with enormous potential for higher energy efficiency Developments in human civilization have revolved around the consumption of energy. Materials scientists and engineers have taken up the dual challenge of reducing our dependence on fossil fuel resources while giving new hope to nations with limited or no natural energy sources. In the last few decades, technologies based on solar cells have become well established and new techniques of materials synthesis and their integration in novel engineering designs have helped the industry produce solar cells with high-energy efficiency. Summarizing the explosion of recent research so that readers are able to draw meaningful practical conclusions, this unique book looks at non-silicon based solar cells which are either in the development phase or likely to be future competitors of silicon solar cells. The book is comprised of seventeen chapters, each written by an expert in their field. Topics are broadly designed to cover dye-sensitized types of solar cells and their related problems, layered types of solar cells, application of lithography in solar cells, and luminescent solar and plasmonic light trapping. One of the most recent discoveries, graphene, a crystalline form of carbon, is covered as well as its application in organic types of solar cells. Finally, analytical modeling and electrical circuit design, another important aspect of solar cell development, are also included. The final section of the book includes a series of articles written on putative future trends in this area. Readership Solar Cell Nanotechnology will enjoy a broad readership including materials science scholars and researchers from diverse backgrounds as well as commercial sectors looking for innovative solar cell materials and related technologies. Readers will gain in-depth knowledge in new areas of solar cell technology, which are not commonly known and for which there is little available literature.