Details

Solar and Heat Pump Systems for Residential Buildings


Solar and Heat Pump Systems for Residential Buildings


Solar Heating and Cooling 1. Aufl.

von: Jean-Christophe Hadorn

70,99 €

Verlag: Ernst & Sohn
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 30.06.2015
ISBN/EAN: 9783433604854
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 274

DRM-geschütztes eBook, Sie benötigen z.B. Adobe Digital Editions und eine Adobe ID zum Lesen.

Beschreibungen

The combination of heat pumps and solar components is a recent development and has great potential for improving the energy efficiency of house and hot water heating systems. As a consequence, it can enhance the energy footprint of a building substantially. This work compares different systems, analyses their performance and illustrates monitoring techniques. It helps the reader to design, simulate and assess solar and heat pump systems. Good examples of built systems are discussed in detail and advice is given on how to design the most efficient system. This book is the first one about this combination of components and presents the state of the art of this technology. It is based on a joint research project of two programmes of the International Energy Agency: the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme (SHC) and the Heat Pump Programme. More than 50 experts from 13 countries have participated in this research.
About the editor and the supervisors IX List of contributors XI IEA solar heating and cooling programme XV Forewords XVII Acknowledgments XIX 1 Introduction 1 1.1 The scope 1 1.2 Who should read this book? 1 1.3 Why this book? 1 1.4 What you will learn reading this book?2 Internet sources 4 Part One Theoretical Considerations 5 2 System description, categorization, and comparison 7 2.1 System analysis and categorization 7 2.1.1 Approaches and principles 7 2.1.2 Graphical representation of solar and heat pump systems 8 2.1.3 Categorization 9 2.2 Statistical analysis of market-available solar thermal and heat pump systems 11 2.2.1 Methods 12 2.2.2 Results 14 2.2.2.1 Surveyed companies 14 2.2.2.2 System functions 14 2.2.2.3 System concepts 15 2.2.2.4 Heat pump characteristics – heat sources 15 2.2.2.5 Collector types 17 2.2.2.6 Cross analysis between collector type and system concept 18 2.3 Conclusions and outlook 19 2.4 Relevance and market penetration – illustrated with the example of Germany 19 References 21 3 Components and thermodynamic aspects 23 3.1 Solar collectors 23 3.2 Heat pumps 28 3.3 Ground heat exchangers 34 3.3.1 Modeling of vertical ground heat exchangers 38 3.3.2 Modeling of horizontal ground heat exchangers 40 3.3.3 Combining GHX with solar collectors 41 3.4 Storage 42 3.4.1 Sensible heat storage and storage in general 42 3.4.2 Latent storage 45 3.4.3 Thermochemical reactions and sorption storage 46 3.5 Special aspects of combined solar and heat pump systems. 47 3.5.1 Parallel versus series collector heat use. 47 3.5.2 Exergetic efficiency and storage stratification 50 References 52 4 Performance and its assessment 63 4.1 Introduction 63 4.2 Definition of performance figures 65 4.2.1 Overview of performance figures in current normative documents 65 4.2.1.1 Heat pumps 66 4.2.1.2 Solar thermal collectors 67 4.2.2 Solar and heat pump systems 7 4.2.3 Efficiency and performance figures 68 4.2.4 Component performance figures 70 4.2.4.1 Coefficient of performance 70 4.2.4.2 Seasonal coefficient of performance 70 4.2.4.3 Solar collector efficiency 71 4.2.5 System performance figures 71 4.2.5.1 Seasonal performance factor 71 4.2.6 Other performance figures 72 4.2.6.1 Solar fraction 72 4.2.6.2 Renewable heat fraction 74 4.2.6.3 Fractional energy savings 74 4.3 Reference system and system boundaries 75 4.3.1 Reference SHP system 75 4.3.2 Definition of system boundaries and corresponding seasonal performance factors 77 4.4 Environmental evaluation of SHP systems 87 4.4.1.1 Primary energy ratio 90 4.4.1.2 Equivalent warming impact 91 4.4.1.3 Fractional primary energy savings 91 4.4.1.4 Fractional CO2 emission savings 91 4.5 Calculation example 91 Appendix 4.A Reviewed standards and other normative documents 97 References 102 5 Laboratory test procedures for solar and heat pump systems 103 5.1 Introduction 104 5.2 Component testing and whole system testing 106 5.2.1 Testing boundary and implications on the test procedures 106 5.2.2 Direct comparison of CTSS and WST 109 5.2.3 Applicability to SHP systems 112 5.2.4 Test sequences and determination of annual performance 115 5.2.4.1 Direct extrapolation of results (WST for combi-systems) 116 5.2.4.2 Modeling and simulation 117 5.2.5 Output 119 5.3 Experience from laboratory testing 120 5.3.1 Extension of CTSS test procedure toward solar and heat pump systems 120 5.3.2 Results of whole system testing of solar and heat pump systems 121 5.3.2.1 Excessive charging of the DHW zone 123 5.3.2.2 Exergetic losses in general 123 5.3.3 Extension of DST test procedure toward solar and heat pump systems 123 5.4 Summary and findings 126 References 128 Part Two Practical Considerations 131 6 Monitoring 133 6.1 Background 133 6.2 Monitoring technique 134 6.2.1 Monitoring approach 134 6.2.2 Measurement technology 137 6.2.2.1 Data logging systems 137 6.2.2.2 Heat meters 137 6.2.2.3 Electricity meters 138 6.2.2.4 Meteorological data 139 6.2.2.5 Temperature sensors 139 6.3 Solar and heat pump performance – results from field tests 139 6.4 Best practice examples 145 6.4.1 Blumberg 145 6.4.2 Jona 147 6.4.3 Dreieich 149 6.4.4 Savièse 152 6.4.5 Satigny 154 References 157 7 System simulations 159 7.1 Parallel solar and heat pump systems 159 7.1.1 Best practice for parallel solar and heat pump system concepts 161 7.1.2 Performance of parallel solar and heat pump systems 164 7.1.3 Performance in different climates and heat loads 166 7.1.4 Fractional energy savings and performance estimation with the FSC method 169 7.2 Series and dual-source concepts 171 7.2.1 Potential for parallel/series concepts with dual-source heat pump 171 7.2.2 Concepts with Ground Regeneration 173 7.2.3 Other series concepts: dual or single source 177 7.2.4 Multifunctional concepts that include cooling 183 7.3 Special collector designs in series systems 184 7.3.1 Direct expansion collectors 184 7.3.2 Photovoltaic–thermal collectors 184 7.3.3 Collector designs for using solar heat as well as ambient air 186 7.4 Solar thermal savings versus photovoltaic electricity production 187 7.5 Comparison of simulation results with similar boundary conditions 188 7.5.1 Results for Strasbourg SFH45 189 7.5.1.1 Heat sources 191 7.5.1.2 System classes 191 7.5.1.3 Dependence on collector size and additional effort 192 7.5.1.4 Electricity consumption 193 7.5.2 Results for Strasbourg SFH15 and SFH100 195 7.5.3 Results for Davos SFH45 196 7.6 Conclusions 197 Appendix 7.A Appendix on simulation boundary conditions and platform independence 199 References 204 8 Economic and market issues 209 8.1 Introduction 209 8.2 Advantages of SHP systems 210 8.3 The economic calculation framework 211 8.4 A nomograph for economic analysis purposes 216 8.5 Application to real case studies 219 References 228 9 Conclusion and outlook 229 9.1 Introduction 229 9.2 Components, systems, performance figures, and laboratory testing 229 9.3 Monitoring and simulation results and nontechnical aspects 231 9.4 Outlook 233 9.4.1 Energy storage 233 9.4.2 System prefabrication 234 9.4.3 System quality testing 234 9.4.4 Further component development 234 Glossary 237 Index 241
Jean-Christophe Hadorn is a Civil Engineer (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne) and holds an MBA from HEC University Lausanne. He led the Task 44 Solar and Heat Pump Systems of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme as operating agent from 2010 to 2013, a group of 55 participants that realized the present book. Since 1985, Mr Hadorn has been appointed every year as external manager of thermal solar energy and heat storage research program by the Swiss government. He was asked in 2003-2005 by the French government to set up the new National Institute of Solar Energy (INES) in France, now operating with more than 100 researchers. From 2005 to 2008 he was chairman of the board of a solar PV company listed on the Nasdaq. In 2000, he founded an engineering company dealing with solar energy, environmental and new energy issues. Since 2013 he has led the Pierre Chuard Group, a renowned HVAC engineering company in Switzerland.

Diese Produkte könnten Sie auch interessieren:

Multiphysics Simulation by Design for Electrical Machines, Power Electronics and Drives
Multiphysics Simulation by Design for Electrical Machines, Power Electronics and Drives
von: Marius Rosu, Ping Zhou, Dingsheng Lin, Dan M. Ionel, Mircea Popescu, Frede Blaabjerg, Vandana Rallabandi, David Staton
PDF ebook
120,99 €
Modern Borehole Analytics
Modern Borehole Analytics
von: Wilson C. Chin
EPUB ebook
168,99 €