Seascape Ecology provides a comprehensive look at the state-of-the-science in the application of landscape ecology to the seas and provides guidance for future research priorities. The first book devoted exclusively to this rapidly emerging and increasingly important discipline, it is comprised of contributions from researchers at the forefront of seascape ecology working around the world. It presents the principles, concepts, methodology, and techniques informing seascape ecology and reports on the latest developments in the application of the approach to marine ecology and management. A growing number of marine scientists, geographers, and marine managers are asking questions about the marine environment that are best addressed with a landscape ecology perspective. Seascape Ecology represents the first serious effort to fill the gap in the literature on the subject. Key topics and features of interest include: The origins and history of seascape ecology and various approaches to spatial patterning in the sea The links between seascape patterns and ecological processes, with special attention paid to the roles played by seagrasses and salt marshes and animal movements through seascapes Human influences on seascape ecology—includes models for assessing human-seascape interactions A special epilogue in which three eminent scientists who have been instrumental in shaping the course of landscape ecology offer their insights and perspectives Seascape Ecology is a must-read for researchers and professionals in an array of disciplines, including marine biology, environmental science, geosciences, marine and coastal management, and environmental protection. It is also an excellent supplementary text for university courses in those fields.
Contributors xiii Foreword xix Preface xxiii Part I Spatial Patterning in the Sea 1 1 Introducing Seascape Ecology 3Simon J. Pittman 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Landscape Ecology and the Emergence of Seascape Ecology 4 1.3 What is a Seascape? 6 1.3.1 The Patch-Matrix and Patch-Mosaic Models of Seascape Structure 8 1.3.2 The Spatial Gradient Model of Seascape Structure 11 1.3.3 Combining Spatial Gradients and Patch Mosaics 12 1.3.4 Chemical Seascapes and Ocean Soundscapes 13 1.4 Why Scale Matters in Seascape Ecology 14 1.5 Seascape Ecology can Inform Marine Stewardship 16 1.6 Conclusions and Future Directions 18 References 19 2 Mapping and Quantifying Seascape Patterns 27Bryan Costa, BrianWalker and Jennifer A. Dijkstra 2.1 Introduction 27 2.2 Defining Seascape Applications 30 2.3 Identifying Scales for Seascape Mapping 31 2.4 Sensor Selection for Seascape Mapping 33 2.4.1 Passive and Active Sensors 34 2.4.2 Environmental Conditions Limiting Passive and Active Sensors 36 2.5 Representing Patterns in Seascape Maps 37 2.5.1 The Continuous Gradient Concept 37 2.5.2 The Patch-Mosaic Model 39 2.5.3 Spatial Surrogates (Proxies) 42 2.6 Quantifying Seascape Structure 43 2.6.1 Sensitivity to Scale 45 2.7 Applications of Seascape Maps and Spatial Pattern Metrics 45 2.7.1 Understanding Uncertainty in Seascape Maps 47 2.8 Conclusions and Future Research Priorities 48 References 49 3 Pelagic Seascapes 57Kylie L. Scales, Diego Alvarez-Berastegui, Clare Embling and Simon Ingram 3.1 Introduction 57 3.2 Pattern and Process in the Pelagic Realm 58 3.2.1 Broad-scale Biogeographic Provinces 60 3.2.2 Finer Scale Patchiness and Patch Dynamics 61 3.2.3 Ecoclines and Ecotones in Pelagic Seascapes 62 3.2.4 Beneath the Surface: the Vertical Dimension of Pelagic Seascapes 64 3.3 Spatial Pattern Metrics for Pelagic Seascapes 66 3.3.1 Patch Mosaic Metrics 67 3.3.2 Surface Model Metrics – Identifying Ecoclines and Ecotones 67 3.3.3 Lagrangian Approaches 69 3.4 Spatial Ecoinformatics in the Pelagic Realm: from Physics to Predators 71 3.4.1 Broad-scale Migrations across Pelagic Seascapes 71 3.4.2 Linking AnimalMovements to the Spatial Patterning of Pelagic Seascapes 72 3.4.3 Incorporating the Vertical Dimension in Spatial Ecoinformatics 73 3.5 Conclusions and Future Research Priorities 74 3.6 Glossary 75 References 76 4 Scale and Scaling in Seascape Ecology 89David C. Schneider 4.1 Introduction 89 4.1.1 The Development of the Concept of Scale in the Twentieth Century 90 4.1.2 Prevalence and Usage of ‘Scale‘ in the Scientific Literature 91 4.1.3 Definition of Scale 94 4.2 Expressions of Scale 95 4.2.1 Graphical Expression of Scale 95 4.2.2 Graphical Expression of Scale in Research Planning 98 4.2.3 Formal Expression of Scale: Scope, Similarity and Power Laws 98 4.2.4 Scaling Manoeuvres 101 4.2.5 Ratio of Rates in Research Planning 104 4.3 Spatial and Temporal Scaling in Estimating Uncertainty 107 4.4 Spatial and Temporal Scaling in the Pelagic and Benthic Realms 107 4.5 Looking to the Future: Scaling Concepts and Practice in Seascape Ecology 108 4.5.1 From Useful Fictions to Calculation 108 4.5.2 From Comparative to Confirmatory Modes of Investigation 109 4.5.3 From Hypothesis Testing to Likelihood 110 4.5.4 From Scaling on a Mosaic to Scaling on the Continuum 111 4.6 From Ceteris Paribus to DimensionalThinking 112 4.7 Acknowledgements 112 References 113 Part II Linking Seascape Patterns and Ecological Processes 119 5 Ecological Consequences of Seagrass and Salt-Marsh Seascape Patterning on Marine Fauna 121Christoffer Bostrom, Simon J. Pittman and Charles Simenstad 5.1 Introduction 121 5.1.1 Seagrasses and Salt Marshes: Global Distributions and Ecosystem Functions 122 5.2 Structural Processes and Change in Coastal Seascapes 122 5.2.1 Processes Creating and Maintaining Seagrass Seascapes 125 5.2.2 Processes Creating and Maintaining Salt-Marsh Seascapes 125 184.108.40.206 Tidal Channel Networks in Salt Marshes 128 5.3 Ecological Consequences of Seascape Structure 128 5.3.1 Seagrass Patch-size Effects on Epifauna and Fish 128 5.3.2 Patch Edges: Conceptual Framework and Application 130 220.127.116.11 Seagrass Edge Effects on Faunal Recruitment and Distribution 132 5.3.3 Effects of Salt-Marsh Patch Size, Edges and Connectivity on Faunal Patterns and Processes 133 5.3.4 Faunal Linkages between Salt Marshes and Seagrass Meadows 135 5.4 Challenges and Opportunities in Seascape Ecology 138 References 140 6 Seascape Patch Dynamics 153Emma L. Jackson, Rolando O. Santos-Corujo and Simon J. Pittman 6.1 Introduction 153 6.2 From Patch Dynamics to Seascape Ecology 155 6.3 Scale 158 6.4 Factors Influencing Seascape Patchiness 160 6.5 Mapping and Quantifying Seascape Change 163 6.5.1 Habitat Mapping for Change Analysis 164 6.5.2 Characterization of Spatial Patterns 166 18.104.22.168 Continuous metrics and surface analysis 167 22.214.171.124 Metrics, Scale and Sensitivity Analysis 168 126.96.36.199 Quantifying Seascape Change 168 6.5.3 Seascape Habitat Loss versus Fragmentation 170 6.5.4 Seascape Modelling 173 6.6 The Future of Seascape Dynamics Research 175 References 177 7 AnimalMovements through the Seascape: Integrating Movement Ecology with Seascape Ecology 189Simon J. Pittman, Benjamin Davis and Rolando O. Santos-Corujo 7.1 Introduction 189 7.1.1 Why AnimalMovement is Central to Seascape Ecology 191 7.1.2 Advances in Movement Ecology and its Application in Marine Systems 193 7.1.3 Tracking and Mapping Capabilities 194 7.2 Using Animal Movements to Scale Ecological Studies 196 7.2.1 Building Movement Scales into Conceptual and Operational Frameworks 199 188.8.131.52 Component 1: Build a ConceptualModel 199 184.108.40.206 Component 2: Selecting Scale 199 220.127.116.11 Component 3: Tools Identification 201 7.3 Advances in the Visualization and Quantification of Space-use Patterns 201 7.3.1 Estimating and Mapping Utilization Distributions 201 7.3.2 Analysing Spatiotemporal Utilization Patterns 204 7.3.3 VisualizingMovement Patterns across Three Spatial Dimensions 206 7.4 Linking AnimalMovement Patterns to Seascape Patterns 208 7.4.1 Linking IndividualMovement Trajectories to Seascape Structure 209 7.4.2 IndividualMovement and Seascape Connectivity 211 7.4.3 Linking Species Interactions and Physiology with Movements across Seascapes 212 7.4.4 Experimental Seascapes to Investigate Animal Response to Seascape Patterns 214 7.4.5 Mechanistic Models 215 7.5 Implications of Animal-Seascape Understanding for Marine Stewardship 215 References 217 8 Using Individual-based Models to Explore Seascape Ecology 229Kevin A. Hovel and Helen M. Regan 8.1 Introduction 229 8.1.1 What are IBMs? 229 8.2 Why use IBMs to Study Seascape Ecology? 231 8.2.1 The Effects of Habitat Structure on Populations are Consequences of Organismal Behaviour 231 8.2.2 IBMs Allow for Extensive Manipulation of Seascapes 235 8.2.3 IBMs can be Used to Test for Ecological Effects of Habitat Configuration versus Habitat Amount 239 8.2.4 IBMs Allow Tests of How Seascape Change Influences Ecological Processes 241 8.2.5 IBMs Allow the Coupling of Processes Operating over Different Scales 245 8.3 Data for Parameterizing Seascape Ecology IBMs 246 8.3.1 Parameterization 246 8.3.2 Movement and Habitat Selection 247 8.3.3 Seascape and Habitat Structure 248 8.3.4 Other Factors 249 8.4 Challenges and Future Directions in Using IBMs to Explore Seascapes 249 References 251 Part III Seascape Connectivity 259 9 Connectivity in Coastal Seascapes 261Andrew D. Olds, Ivan Nagelkerken, Chantal M. Huijbers, Ben L. Gilby, Simon J. Pittman and Thomas A. Schlacher 9.1 Introduction 261 9.2 Global Synthesis of Connectivity Research 261 9.2.1 ResearchTheme 263 9.2.2 Geographical Distribution 264 9.2.3 Biological and Functional Consequences 266 9.2.4 Connectivity is Scale Dependent 267 9.3 Quantifying Connectivity: Advances in Key Tools and Techniques 268 9.3.1 Tags and Telemetry 268 9.3.2 Ecogeochemical Markers 269 9.3.3 Genetics 269 9.4 Application of Seascape Connectivity to Coastal Seascapes: Focal Topics 270 9.4.1 Focal Topic 1: Fish Movements Connecting Tropical Coastal Seascapes 270 9.4.2 Focal Topic 2: Connectivity across the Land-Sea Interface 273 9.5 Integrating Connectivity into Marine Spatial Planning 275 9.6 Conclusions and Future Research Priorities 279 References 280 10 Networks for Quantifying and Analysing Seascape Connectivity 293Eric A. Treml and Johnathan Kool 10.1 Introduction 293 10.1.1 Structural Connectivity 295 10.1.2 Functional Connectivity 296 10.1.3 Realized Connectivity 296 10.2 Network Models of Connectivity: Representing Pattern and Process 297 10.2.1 Defining Nodes and Links 297 10.3 Modelling Marine Population Connectivity 300 10.3.1 Empirical Estimates of Marine Population Connectivity 301 10.4 Network Analysis of Marine Population Connectivity 303 10.4.1 Node and Neighbourhood-level Metrics 305 10.4.2 Components, Subgraphs and Clusters 306 10.4.3 Graph-level Metrics 306 10.4.4 Insights from Classic Networks 307 10.4.5 Planar Networks 308 10.4.6 Random Networks 308 10.4.7 Scale-free Networks 308 10.4.8 Small-world Networks 309 10.5 Case Study in Marine Connectivity: Hawaiian Islands 309 10.6 Conclusions and Future Research Priorities 312 10.7 Acknowledgements 313 References 313 11 Linking Landscape and Seascape Conditions: Science, Tools andManagement 319Kirsten L. L. Oleson, Kim A. Falinski, Donna-marie Audas, Samantha Coccia-Schillo,Paul Groves, Lida Teneva and Simon J. Pittman 11.1 Introduction 319 11.2 Landscape Ecology as a Guiding Framework for Integrated Land-sea Management 322 11.3 Modelling and Evaluating the Connections between Land and Sea 324 11.3.1 Measuring Threat Exposure from Land-based Sources 324 11.3.2 SpatialModelling of Land-Sea Processes 325 18.104.22.168 Spatial Proxies 325 22.214.171.124 Hydrological Models 325 126.96.36.199 Nearshore Dynamics 326 188.8.131.52 Ecological Response and Social-ecological Systems Models 327 11.3.3 Decision Analysis and Support 329 11.4 Case Studies 330 11.4.1 Hawai’i 330 184.108.40.206 Estimating Spatial Patterns of Erosion from Land Cover Change and Exposure of Reefs in Maui 331 11.4.2 Caribbean 334 220.127.116.11 Summit to Sea Runoff Modelling for St John, US Virgin Islands 334 18.104.22.168 Land-sea Decision Support Modelling for the Northeast Marine Corridor, Puerto Rico 336 11.4.3 Australia 339 22.214.171.124 Edgecumbe Bay ReceivingWaters (Gregory and Eden Lassie Creek Sub-basins) 342 11.5 Towards Applying Landscape Ecology to Land-Sea Modelling and Management 347 References 350 Part IV People and Seascapes 365 12 Advancing a Holistic Systems Approach in Applied Seascape Ecology 367Simon J. Pittman, Chris A. Lepczyk, Lisa M.Wedding and Camille Parrain 12.1 Introduction 367 12.1.1 What can Landscape Ecology Offer? 369 12.1.2 A Shift towards a more Holistic Systems Approach for Marine Stewardship 370 12.2 People as Part of the Seascape 373 12.3 How Holistic Systems Science can Help Seascape Ecology 375 12.3.1 Properties of an Ecological Systems Approach 376 12.3.2 The Rise ofWhole-of-System Modelling 377 12.4 Connecting Seascape Patterns to Human Health, Livelihoods and Wellbeing 379 12.5 Conclusions and Future Research Priorities 381 References 384 13 Human Ecology at Sea:Modelling andMapping Human-Seascape Interactions 391Steven Saul and Simon J. Pittman 13.1 Introduction 391 13.2 Seascape Ecology, Spatial Patterns and Scale 393 13.2.1 Scale and Scaling 395 13.3 Human Use Data Types and Geographical Information Systems 396 13.3.1 Mapping Human Behaviour across the Seascape 397 126.96.36.199 Remote Sensing 398 188.8.131.52 Participatory Mapping and Spatial Analysis 401 184.108.40.206 Social Sensing 402 220.127.116.11 Mapping Ecosystem Services 402 13.4 Modelling Human-Seascape Interactions with a Systems Approach 403 13.4.1 Custom-built StatisticalModels 405 13.4.2 Predefined Statistical Routines 406 13.4.3 Discrete Choice Models 407 13.4.4 Simulation Modelling 408 13.4.5 Agent-based Models 411 13.4.6 Pattern-orientedModelling 412 13.5 Conclusions and Future Research Priorities 415 References 418 14 Applying Landscape Ecology for the Design and Evaluation of Marine Protected Area Networks 429Mary A. Young, Lisa M.Wedding and Mark H. Carr 14.1 Introduction 429 14.2 Applying Landscape Ecology Principles in the Marine Environment 430 14.3 Case Study: Applying Landscape Ecology to Evaluate a Network of MPAs in California 438 14.3.1 California Seafloor Data Sets 439 14.3.2 MPA Goal: Habitat Replication and Representativeness 441 14.3.3 MPA Goal: Protect Diversity and Abundance of Marine Life 442 14.3.4 MPA Goal: Reduce Movement across Boundaries 444 14.4 Synthesis 448 14.4.1 Mapping Technologies 448 14.4.2 MPA Effects on Biodiversity and Populations 449 14.4.3 Scale of Interaction between Species and Environment 449 14.4.4 Across-system Interactions 450 14.4.5 Population Connectivity 450 14.5 Conclusions and Future Research Priorities 451 References 452 15 Seascape Economics: Valuing EcosystemServices across the Seascape 465Edward B. Barbier 15.1 Introduction 465 15.2 Habitat Connectivity and Seascape Goods and Services 467 15.3 Valuing Seascape Goods and Services 468 15.4 Example of a Mangrove-Coral Reef Seascape 472 15.5 Conclusions and Future Research Priorities 476 References 478 Part V Epilogue 483 16 Landscape Ecologists’ Perspectives on Seascape Ecology 485Simon J. Pittman, JohnA. Wiens, Jianguo Wu and Dean L. Urban 16.1 Introduction 485 16.2 From Landscapes to Seascapes (and Back Again) 485 16.3 Seascape Ecology and Landscape Ecology: Distinct, Related and Synergistic 487 16.3.1 Landscape Ecology 488 16.3.2 Seascape Ecology 488 16.3.3 How can Landscape and Seascape Ecology Interact with Each Other? 489 16.4 Seascape Ecology 491 References 493 Index 495
Simon J. Pittman is a marine ecologist with a Ph.D. in Geographical Sciences from the University of Queensland, Australia. As a scientist with one foot in academia and the other in government, he has taught and mentored graduate students, managed research projects informing management, as well as writing for marine science journals, academic books, and scientific reports. He is Director of Seascape Analytics Ltd., working as a senior scientist for the Biogeography Branch of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Dr. Pittman is an Associate Researcher at Plymouth University's Marine Institute, and Affiliate Faculty of Oregon State University and the University of the Virgin Islands.
Seascape Ecology provides a comprehensive look at the state-of-the-science in the application of landscape ecology to the seas and provides guidance for future research priorities. The first book devoted exclusively to this rapidly emerging and increasingly important discipline, it is comprised of contributions from researchers at the forefront of seascape ecology working around the world. It presents the principles, concepts, methodology, and techniques informing seascape ecology and reports on the latest developments in the application of the approach to marine ecology and management. A growing number of marine scientists, geographers, and marine managers are asking questions about the marine environment that are best addressed with a landscape ecology perspective. Seascape Ecology represents the first serious effort to fill the gap in the literature on the subject. Key topics and features of interest include: The origins and history of seascape ecology and various approaches to spatial patterning in the sea The links between seascape patterns and ecological processes, with special attention paid to the roles played by seagrasses and salt marshes and animal movements through seascapes Human influences on seascape ecology—includes models for assessing human—seascape interactions A special epilogue in which three eminent scientists who have been instrumental in shaping the course of landscape ecology offer their insights and perspectives Seascape Ecology is a must-read for researchers and professionals in an array of disciplines, including marine biology, environmental science, geosciences, marine and coastal management, and environmental protection. It is also an excellent supplementary text for university courses in those fields.