Resistive SwitchingFrom Fundamentals of Nanoionic Redox Processes to Memristive Device Applications
With its comprehensive coverage, this reference introduces readers to the wide topic of resistance switching, providing the knowledge, tools, and methods needed to understand, characterize and apply resistive switching memories. Starting with those materials that display resistive switching behavior, the book explains the basics of resistive switching as well as switching mechanisms and models. An in-depth discussion of memory reliability is followed by chapters on memory cell structures and architectures, while a section on logic gates rounds off the text. An invaluable self-contained book for materials scientists, electrical engineers and physicists dealing with memory research and development.
INTRODUCTION TRANSITION METAL OXIDES Atomic Structures of Selected Binary, Ternary Oxides Deposition Techniques Thermodynamics of Oxidation, Ellingham Diagram Electronic Structure and Conduction Correlated Electrons Ionic Conduction RESISTIVE SWITCHING Device Structure Unipolar Switching: Forming, Set/Reset Operations Bipolar Switching: Forming, Set/Reset Operations Coexistence of Unipolar/Bipolar Switching Filamentary Switching and Atomic Force Microscopy Analysis Interface Switching Threshold and Memory Switching Time Dependence of Set/Reset Resistance Dependence of Set/Reset SWITCHING MECHANISMS AND MODELS Unipolar Switching: Set/Reset Mechanisms and Models Bipolar Switching: Set/Reset Mechanisms and Models Modeling of Resistance Dependence (Filament Size and Gap) Modeling of Time Dependence Modeling of Set Current Dependence Overshoot and Parasitic Effects Material Dependence and Universal Switching MEMORY RELIABILITY Read Disturb and The Time-Voltage Dilemma Data Retention 1/f and Random Telegraph Signal Noise Switching Variability and Set/Reset Algorithms Reset Current Reduction Set/Reset Instability Cycling Endurance MEMORY CELL STRUCTURES MIM Structures Bilayered Structures Lighting-Rod Structures Contact RRAM Complementary Resistance Switch (CRS) Multilevel Cells Alternative Materials: OxRRAM, PoRRAM, CBRAM Bottom-Up Approaches: Nanotubes, Nanowires and Self-Assembly MEMORY ARCHITECTURES Crossbar Array Diode Selectors Transistor Selectors 1T1R Architectures CMOL Scaling Issues (Series Resistance, Programming Cross Talk, 3D Stacking Issues) LOGIC GATES The Memristor Crossbar Latch Data Restoration IMP Function STDP in Memristor Gates CONCLUSIONS
Daniele Ielmini is associate professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Science and Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, Italy. He obtained his Ph.D. in Nuclear Engineering from Politecnico di Milano in 2000. He held visiting positions at Intel and Stanford University in 2006. His research group investigates emerging device technologies, such as phase change memory (PCM) and resistive switching memory (ReRAM) for both memory and computing applications. He has authored six book chapters, more than 200 papers published in international journals and presented at international conferences, and four patents to his name. Professor Ielmini received the Intel Outstanding Research Award in 2013 and the ERC Consolidator Grant in 2014. Rainer Waser is professor at the faculty for Electrical Engineering and Information Technology at the RWTH Aachen University and director at the Peter Grunberg Institute at the Forschungszentrum Julich (FZJ), Germany. His research group is focused on fundamental aspects of electronic materials and on such integrated devices as nonvolatile memories, logic devices, sensors and actuators. Professor Waser has published about 500 technical papers. Since 2003, he has been the coordinator of the research program on nanoelectronic systems within the Germany national research centres in the Helmholtz Association. In 2007, he has been co-founder of the Julich-Aachen Research Alliance, section Fundamentals of Future Information Technology (JARA-FIT). In 2014, he was awarded the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the Tsungming Tu Award of the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan.
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