Reconnecting the CityThe Historic Urban Landscape Approach and the Future of Urban Heritage
Historic Urban Landscape is a new approach to urban heritage management, promoted by UNESCO, and currently one of the most debated issues in the international preservation community. However, few conservation practitioners have a clear understanding of what it entails, and more importantly, what it can achieve. Examples drawn from urban heritage sites worldwide – from Timbuktu to Liverpool Richly illustrated with colour photographs Addresses key issues and best practice for urban conservation
Acknowledgements xi Preface xiii Contributors xix About the Companion Website xxix Introduction: Urban Conservation and the End of Planning 1 Francesco Bandarin Post-War Attempts to Reconnect the City 3 Contemporary Views on Urbanism and Landscape 7 Repositioning Urban Conservation, Reconnecting the City 11 SECTION 1 The Layered Dimension of Urban Conservation 17 1. Archaeology: Reading the City through Time 19 Tim Williams Introduction 19 Problems and Issues 21 Challenges to Presenting Archaeological Sites in Modern Urban Landscapes 25 Preservation in situ and Mitigation Strategies 30 Approaches and Potential 35 Archaeological Knowledge and Its Potential Impact on Urban Communities 37 Conclusion 44 2. How Geology Shapes Human Settlements 47 Claudio Margottini and Daniele Spizzichino Introduction 47 Clay-Based Human Settlements 49 Soft Rock-Based Human Settlements 59 Hard Rock-Based Human Settlements 67 Time Variability and Complex Urban Environments 79 Conclusions 84 3. Morphology as the Study of City Form and Layering 85 Stefano Bianca Introduction 85 Origins and Implications of the Term Morphology 86 The Scope of Urban Morphology 87 Methodology and Procedures 88 Advantages and Problems of the Urban Morphology Approach 94 Relevance within the Historic Urban Landscape Concept 98 Interview – Searching for a Chinese Approach to Urban Conservation 103 Wang Shu Case Study – Bologna: From Urban Restoration to Urban Rehabilitation 107 Patrizia Gabellini 4. Historic Cities and Climate Change 113 Anthony Gad Bigio The Emerging Challenges 113 Exposure of World Heritage Cities to Multiple Hazards 115 Historic Cities and Urban Resilience 119 Historic Cities and Climate Change Mitigation 121 Historic Cities and Climate Action Plans: The Case of Edinburgh, Scotland 122 Risks 123 Actions 123 Interview – Looking at the Challenges of the Urban Century 126 Filipe Duarte Santos 5. The Intangible Dimension of Urban Heritage 129 Rohit Jigyasu Introduction 129 Defining Intangible Values in Historic Urban Landscapes 130 Urbanisation Processes and Impacts on Intangible Values 135 Recognition of Intangible Values in Existing Urban Management Systems 136 Documentation and Impact Assessment of Intangible Heritage Values 138 ‘Heritage’ – Elitist or Inclusive? 139 Role of Intangible Heritage in Building Disaster Resilience of Cities 142 Integrating Intangible Heritage Values in Urban Planning and Management 142 Mainstreaming Intangible Heritage Through Sustainable Livelihoods and Cultural Tourism 143 Redefining the Role of Professionals 144 Interview – Interpreting Cultural Landscapes as Expressions of Local Identity 145 Lisa Prosper Case Study – The Traditional Chinese View of Nature and Challenges of Urban Development 148 Feng Han 6. Planning and Managing Historic Urban Landscapes 161 Francesco Siravo Integrated Planning 161 Key Aspects of Analysing and Planning Historic Urban Landscapes 163 Governance: The Case for Public Management in Historic Urban Areas 168 What Kind of Public Institution? 169 Organisational Framework of the Conservation Agency 170 Participatory Planning and Implementation Strategies 171 Conclusion 172 Interview – The Challenge of Urban Transformation 176 Mohsen Mostafavi 7. Cities as Cultural Landscapes 179 Ken Taylor Reflections 179 A Paradigm Shift 180 The Cultural Landscape Model: Landscape as History and Expression of Human Values and Identity 183 Bangkok and the Chao Phraya River 186 Canberra 187 Cultural Landscape Characteristics 187 Urban Identity, Plurality, Sustainable Development Tools for Urban Landscape Planning and Conservation Practice 190 Tools 192 Conclusion 202 SECTION 2 Building the Toolkit 203 8. Evolution of the Normative Framework 205 Jukka Jokilehto Introduction 205 Early Appreciation of Historic Townscape 205 The Development and Impact of Modern City Planning 206 Development of Instruments for Urban Conservation 209 International Recognition of Historic Urban Areas 211 How Normative Frameworks Respond to the Challenges of Change Caused by Urban Development 213 New Tools for the Management of the Historic Urban Landscape 216 9. Civic Engagement Tools for Urban Conservation 221 Julian Smith Introduction 221 Ways of Seeing 222 Cultural Mapping 224 The Concepts of Equilibrium and Resilience 226 Sustainable Diversity 229 Influences of Civic Engagement: Towards Community-Based Design and Development 231 Conclusion 235 Interview – Listening to the People, Promoting Quality of Life 240 His Highness the Aga Khan Case Study – Valuing Cultural Diversity 245 Richard A. Engelhardt 10. Knowledge and Planning Tools 249 Jyoti Hosagrahar Introduction 249 Mapping, Measuring, and Visualising the Urban Landscape 250 Reading and Interpreting the Urban Landscape 251 Protecting, Enhancing, and Improving the Urban Landscape 257 Traditional and Customary Systems of Management 260 Contextualising the Historic Urban Landscape Approach 260 Case Study – Reading the City of Tokyo 261 Hidenobu Jinnai 11. The Role of Regulatory Systems 269 Patricia O’Donnell Defining Regulatory Systems 269 Legal Regulations Directly Addressing Public and Private Lands 270 Legal Regulations with Indirect Infl uence on Urban Heritage 275 Conclusion 278 Interview – Constructing Cultural Significance 279 Rahul Mehrotra 12. Devising Financial Tools for Urban Conservation 283 Donovan Rypkema Introduction 283 Why are Financial Tools Required? 284 What Do Financial Tools Do? 286 What are the Characteristics of the Most Effective Financial Tools? 287 What are Some Examples of Financial Tools and How Do They Work? 288 Conclusion 290 Case Study – A User’s Guide for Heritage Economics 291 Christian Ost Case study – The World Bank’s Tools for Urban Conservation 297 MV Serra 13. Researching and Mapping the Historic Urban Landscape 301 Michael Turner and Rachel Singer Introduction 301 The Diverse City 303 Methodologies and Tools 305 The Role of University Research 309 The Role of UNESCO Chairs 310 The Role of Category 2 Centres (C2C) 310 Conclusion 311 Interview – Heritage and the Metropolis 313 Rem Koolhaas Conclusion: The Way Forward: An Agenda for Reconnecting the City 317 Ron van Oers Managing the City as a Living Heritage 317 Identity and Sense of Place 318 Local Heritage and Corporate Image 319 The City as Repository of Urban Experiences 321 Integrating Disciplines and Professional Practices 322 Future Challenges of Urban Conservation 324 The Critical Path: Historic Urban Landscape Action Plan 326 Historic Urban Landscape: A Stepped Approach 326 Interdisciplinary Context and Operational Coordination 328 A 20-Point Research Agenda for Planners and Designers 329 Index 333
“I highly recommend the comprehensive and landmark book The Historic Urban Landscape: Managing Heritage in an Urban Century by Francesco Bandarin and Ron Van Oers, to any architects, urban planners, surveyors, engineers, policy makers, business leaders, and urban conservation societies who are seeking a complete overview of the intellectual developments in urban conservation. This book provides a thoughtful and practical approach that will benefit the urban conservation efforts around the world in the twenty-first century.” (Blog Business World, 29 May 2012)
Francesco Bandarin was UNESCO’s Assistant Director-General for Culture from 2010 to 2014 and is now Professor of Urban Planning at the University Institute of Architecture of Venice. He was formerly Director of the UNESCO World Heritage Centre and the Secretary of the World Heritage Committee. He is trained as an Architect (Venice 1975) and Urban Planner (UC Berkeley 1977) and has pursued an academic career as Professor of Urban Planning at the University of Venice (IUAV) and a professional career as consultant for international organizations in the field of urban conservation and development. He has been actively involved in the Venice Safeguarding Project and in the preparation of Rome for the year 2000 Jubilee. As Director of the World Heritage Centre he has promoted the revision of the UNESCO recommendations on historic cities and has contributed to development of the debate on the role of contemporary architecture in historic cities, on the management of their social and physical changes and on the role of communities in the conservation of historic values. Ron van Oers is Vice Director, World Heritage Institute of Training and Research for Asia and the Pacific (WHITRAP). He was formerly Programme Specialist for Culture at the UNESCO World Heritage Centre, coordinating the World Heritage Cities Programme and the international effort to develop new guidelines for urban conservation, which were adopted as the 2011 Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape. He is trained as an Urban Planner (Delft 1993) and received his doctorate (PhD, Delft 2000) on a research into the principles of Dutch colonial town planning (published as book). He is the Founding Editor (together with Dr. Ana Pereira-Roders) of the Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development (JCHMSD), published by Emerald Group Publishing (UK) and a Member of the Editorial Advisory Board of Change Over Time: International Journal of Conservation and the Built Environment, published by Penn Press, University of Pennsylvania’s School of Design (USA).
Historic Urban Landscape is a new approach to urban heritage management, promoted by UNESCO, and currently one of the most debated issues in the international preservation community. However, few conservation practitioners have a clear understanding of what it entails, and more importantly, what it can achieve. Following the publication of The Historic Urban Landscape: Managing Heritage in an Urban Century, the approach is now further elaborated with a more practical slant and translates the notion into an operational set of management practices. In this follow-up book, the editors pull together specially commissioned chapters on best practice in urban heritage management from established professionals in the field. Drawn from a variety of disciplines related to urban management and conservation these authors present and discuss methodologies and practices to consider in the implementation of the Historic Urban Landscape approach as advocated by UNESCO. The contributors are selected from professionals who have written, argued or debated about the role of historic cities in contemporary society. As well as their chapters, there are interviews with six high-profile people from different regions of the world giving their critical reflections on the UNESCO approach in relation to their own ideas on urban heritage conservation and city management. Reconnecting the City: the Historic Urban Landscape Approach and the Future of Urban Heritage provides a thorough discussion, structured by themes on issues related to key topics in the field of urban management, from changing demographics and increasing urbanisation to the pressures of economic development and decentralisation; social interaction; and economic feasibility and financing of heritage conservation. By presenting a range of methodologies and tools to support urban conservation in a way that is sensitive to cultural differences, the editors encourage a departure from the compartmentalized approaches of today’s urban heritage management. The book includes contributions from HH The Aga Khan, Rem Koolhaas, Stefano Bianca and Julian Smith – and many other internationally respected figures. The book’s companion website www.wiley.com/go/Bandarin/Historic_Urban_Landscape offers invaluable resources from UNESCO relating to the Historic Urban Landscape Approach, as well as additional illustrations and web-links.
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