Cover Page

Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables

Notes on Editor and Contributors

Preface

Note

References

Part I Historical and Methodological Underpinnings

1 International Advertising Research

Introduction

International Advertising Practice and Knowledge

The Support of International Advertising Research by Industry Organizations

The Influence of Educator Organizations on International Advertising Research

Academic Research Contributions to Knowledge of International Advertising

Past Research Suggests Needed Future Research

Summary and Conclusions

References

2 Research Methods for International Advertising Studies

Introduction

Issues of Conceptualization

Methodological and Analytical Issues

Conclusion

References

Part II International Advertising Industry

3 The Economic Effects of Advertising

Introduction

Basic Concepts

The Influence of Advertising on Consumer Prices

Macroeconomic Effect of Advertising

A Summary of How Much Advertising Works

Pointers for International Research

Striking a Balance

References

4 Research on Transnational Advertising Agencies

Introduction

Overview of TNAAs and Their Major/Emerging Markets

State of Research on Transnational Advertising Agencies

Conclusion

References

5 Account Planning

Introduction

Current State of Planning-related Research

Future Research Directions

References

6 The State of Research on Media Planning, Buying, and Selling

Introduction1

Issues in Media Planning Research

Approaches to Media Planning Research

Conclusion

References

Part III International Advertising Audience and Media

7 International and Cross-Cultural Consumer Behavior

Introduction

Topics from Consumer Behavior Theory

Cultural Models Applied to Advertising Research

The Hofstede Dimensional Model of National Culture

Applying Cultural Models to Consumer Behavior and International Advertising

Implications of Varying Concepts of Self and Personality for Global Branding and Advertising

Social Processes: Motivation and Emotion

The Implications of Varying Mental Processes for International Advertising

Culture and Communication

Conclusion

Notes

References

8 Magazines and International Advertising

Magazines as Global Media

Magazine Advertising and Culture

Theories and Methods That Guide International Magazine Advertising Research

International Magazine Advertising and Gender Studies

Conclusion and Direction for Future Research

References

9 New Media and International Advertising

Introduction

A Review and Critique of International Advertising Research

Conclusion: The Future of Research in International Advertising on New Media

References

10 Viral Advertising

Introduction

Viral Marketing versus Viral Advertising

Viral Advertising: A Definition

Historical Background

Past Scholarship and Future Directions on Viral Advertising

Conclusion

References

Part IV International Advertising Creativity and Strategy

11 International Advertising Creativity

Introduction

Review of Existing Theories, Methods, and Movements

Major Trends and Future Directions in International Creativity Research

References

12 Visual Rhetoric and International Advertising

Introduction

Theories of Visual Rhetoric

Applying Visual Rhetoric Theory in an International Advertising Context

Cross-Market Segments and Polysemy

Unified Global Brand Identity through Visual Rhetoric

Summary and Conclusion

References

13 International Advertising Strategy

A Polarizing Debate: Standardization versus Adaptation

Major Themes and Trends

Future Research Paths to Follow

References

Part V International Advertising Content

14 Cultural Messages in International Advertisements

Introduction

Consumer Values and Advertising Content

Cultural Messages (Values, Themes, and Appeals) in International Advertisements

Methods

Cultural Messages in International Advertisements

Research Accomplishments and Challenges in Theory and Methodology

Recommendations for Future Research

Note

References

15 Gender-Role Portrayals in International Advertising

Introduction

Content-analytic Approaches for Studying Gender Roles in Advertising

Findings from Comparative Content-analytical Studies

Summary of Findings and Outlook

Note

References

Part VI International Advertising Effects

16 Attention and Memory Effects of Advertising in an International Context

Introduction

How Advertising Attention and Memory Effects Are Measured

Advertising Effects on Attention and Memory

Memory Effects in Cross-cultural and International Research

Discussion, Conclusion, and Research Agenda

References

17 A Close Look at Research on Sex Appeal Advertising

Introduction

Sex Appeal Advertising

Sex Appeal in a Global Context

Future Research Agenda

Summary

References

18 Celebrity Endorsement and International Advertising

Introduction

Celebrity and Celebrity Endorsement

Theoretical Explanations of Celebrity Endorsement

Cultural Factors in Celebrity Endorsement

The Practice of Celebrity Endorsement

The Risks of Celebrity Endorsement

Summary and Suggestions for Future Research

References

19 International Branding

Introduction

Literature Review: Research Domains

Discussion: Shifts and Challenges

References

Part VII International Advertising Law, Regulation, and Ethics

20 International Advertising Law and Regulation

Introduction

Conceptual Model of Advertising Law

Level of Consumer Protection

Deceptive Advertising

Unfair or Aggressive Advertising

Conclusions and Directions for Future Research

References

21 International Research on Advertising and Children

Introduction

Importance of Research on Advertising and Children: An International Perspective

Background Information about China

Theoretical Framework

A Study of Advertising and Children in China

Recent Trends in Research on Advertising and Children

Conclusion

References

22 Social Responsibility in International Advertising

Corporate Social Responsibility: An Overview

Cause-Related Marketing

Cause Promotion or Cause Sponsorship

Green Marketing

Major Trends and Issues

Future Directions for Research

Concluding Remarks

Note

References

Part VIII Beyond International Commercial Advertising

23 Integrated Marketing Communication Research

Introduction

Existing Research – Where IMC Has Been

A Summary and Some Preliminary Suggestions

Consolidating What We Know to Provide a Way Forward

Some Concluding Thoughts

References

24 Sibling Rivalry

Introduction

Defining Public Relations

Four Decades of Public Relations Research

The Growth of International Public Relations Research

DeSanto Strategic Communication Model

Public Relations’ Relationship to Advertising and Marketing

Professional Public Relations Resources

The Future: Personal and Wired, Integrated and Unique, Global and Local

References

25 Now Starring Brand X

Introduction

Existing Knowledge and Trends in Research on Product Placement

Discussion and Future Research

Conclusion

References

26 International Sponsorship Research

Introduction

Sponsorship Objectives

How Sponsorship Works

Conclusions

References

27 Political Advertising in International Comparison

Introduction

The Regulation of Political Advertising1

Scholarly Research on Political Advertising in the International Arena

Conclusion and Suggestions for Future Research

Notes

References

28 International Advertising Education

Introduction

Accreditation

History of International Advertising Education

Curriculum

Pedagogy

Conclusions and Future Directions

References

Name Index

Subject Index

Handbooks in Communication and Media

 

This series aims to provide theoretically ambitious but accessible volumes devoted to the major fields and subfields within communication and media studies. Each volume sets out to ground and orientate the student through a broad range of specially commissioned chapters, while also providing the more experienced scholar and teacher with a convenient and comprehensive overview of the latest trends and critical directions.

 

The Handbook of Children, Media, and Development, edited by Sandra L. Calvert and Barbara J. Wilson

The Handbook of Crisis Communication, edited by W. Timothy Coombs and Sherry J. Holladay

The Handbook of Internet Studies, edited by Mia Consalvo and Charles Ess

The Handbook of Rhetoric and Public Address, edited by Shawn J. Parry-Giles and J. Michael Hogan

The Handbook of Critical Intercultural Communication, edited by Thomas K. Nakayama and Rona Tamiko Halualani

The Handbook of Global Communication and Media Ethics, edited by Robert S. Fortner and P. Mark Fackler

The Handbook of Communication and Corporate Social Responsibility, edited by Øyvind Ihlen, Jennifer Bartlett and Steve May

The Handbook of Gender, Sex, and Media, edited by Karen Ross

The Handbook of Global Health Communication, edited by Rafael Obregon and Silvio Waisbord

The Handbook of Global Media Research, edited by Ingrid Volkmer

The Handbook of Global Online Journalism, edited by Eugenia Siapera and Andreas Veglis

The Handbook of Communication and Corporate Reputation, edited by Craig E. Carroll

The Handbook of Media and Mass Communication Theory, edited by Robert S. Fortner and P. Mark Fackler

The Handbook of International Advertising Research, edited by Hong Cheng

Image

In memory of my mother who always inspired me to pursue my dreams,
including my endeavors in international advertising research

List of Figures

3.1

Shift in demand curve for Andrex

3.2

Shift in demand curve from elastic to inelastic

3.3

Shift in demand curve from inelastic to elastic

3.4

Long-term movements in the avocado market

3.5

The advertising-intensiveness curve

3.6

Short-term effects of advertising (STAS deciles)

3.7

Medium-term effects of advertising (deciles)

7.1

Understanding cultural values of consumers through international advertising research

9.1

Individuals using the Internet per 100 inhabitants

9.2

Mobile phone subscriptions per 100 inhabitants

9.3

Worldwide online advertising spending, 2009–2013

9.4

US and global social media advertising spending, 2011–2013

10.1

Timeline of viral marketing and key advertisements

11.1

Left brain and right brain

11.2

Origami birds

21.1

Drawings by a Chinese girl in the age group

21.2

A proposed framework for research on international advertising and children

23.1

Interplay of levels and pillars of IMC

24.1

Moss nested model. The role of public relations in the strategic management of organizations

24.2

DeSanto strategic communication model

List of Tables

3.1

Advertising as percentage of sales, 2009

3.2

Prices of leading Unilever brands adjusted for inflation

3.3

Price of eyeglasses with and without advertising, 1963

3.4

Ten British product categories: Manufacturers’ sales and advertising (both at 1990 prices)

4.1

Global advertising spending by regions in 2009

4.2

Top 15 advertising markets ($ in billions)

4.3

World’s top 10 advertising groups from 2001 to 2009

4.4

World’s top five advertising groups in 2009 ($ in millions)

4.5

Top 10 advertising agencies in the world from 2001 to 2009

5.1

List of account planning studies by country, focus, framework, and method

6.1

Two approaches to media planning

7.1

Relationship between buying intention and actual buying of environmentally friendly products

7.2

Textual orientation: Power distance, individualism, and uncertainty avoidance

7.3

Use of Internet for various purposes

10.1

Scholarly research on viral advertising

15.1

Summary of coding schemes by Courtney and Lockeretz (1971); McArthur and Resko (1975); and Goffman (1979)

15.2

Comparative studies on gender roles in advertising

15.3

Classification of countries along MAS and GEM

16.1

Attention and memory effects studies in international advertising

21.1

Model of children’s responses to advertising

23.1

IMC research topics in journals

23.2

Reliability of the content analysis

23.3

Articles by journal and period

23.4

IMC journal articles by author

23.5

Research topics by period

23.6

Research topics by journal

23.7

Research method by topic

23.8

Statistical methods by period

23.9

Sample changes by period

23.10

Author profiles by period

23.11

Top 17 authors by research topic

23.12

Research topics on IMC, 1990–2006

23.13

Evolution of IMC concepts

23.14

Transactional models of IMC

24.1

Public relations definitional word meanings

24.2

Most published public relations authors

24.3

International public relations articles in Journal of Public Relations Research, 2002–2012

24.4

International public relations articles in Public Relations Review, 2002–2012

24.5

Influential public relations textbooks

24.6

Selected international public relations textbooks

24.7

Traditional comparison of marketing, advertising, and public relations from selected public relations textbooks

24.8

Definitional differences among public relations, advertising, and marketing

24.9

Journal of Advertising articles including public relations, 2002–2012

24.10

Journal of Advertising Research articles including public relations, 2002–2012

24.11

Representative public relations publications

24.12

Public relations professional associations and organizations

26.1

Sponsorship objectives and theory

27.1

Regulation of political advertising across the world

Notes on Editor and Contributors

Hong Cheng (Editor) (PhD, Pennsylvania State University) is Professor and Director of the Richard T. Robertson School of Media and Culture (formerly the School of Mass Communications) at Virginia Commonwealth University. He came to VCU in summer 2013 after teaching at Ohio University for nine years. His research interests center on cross-cultural advertising, global branding, and social marketing. His works have appeared in Asian Journal of Communication, International Journal of Advertising, International Marketing Review, Journal of Advertising Research, Journal of Communication, Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, Mass Communication and Society, and Sex Roles, among others, and as a number of book chapters. He co-authored (with G. Wan, 2004) Becoming a Media Savvy Student, and co-edited (with K. Chan, 2009) Advertising and Chinese Society: Issues and Impacts and (with P. Kotler & N. Lee, 2011) Social Marketing for Public Health: Global Trends and Success Stories. He is a former associate editor of the Asian Journal of Communication, a former head of the Advertising Division and the International Communication Division of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, and a former secretary of the American Academy of Advertising. Currently, he is an associate editor of Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, the chair-elect of the National Education Executive Committee of the American Advertising Federation, and a chair professor of Xiamen University in China.

 

Ellen L. Bloxsome took her undergraduate degrees in Sociology and Marketing at Murdoch University in Australia and received her PhD from Queensland University of Technology in 2012.

 

Mark R. Brown completed his PhD in Marketing at Griffith University in Australia. He is a regular co-author with Nigel Pope and Kevin Voges. Their work has appeared in the Journal of Advertising and the European Journal of Marketing. His major research interest is advertising.

 

Kara Chan (PhD, City University of Hong Kong) is Professor at the Department of Communication Studies at Hong Kong Baptist University. Her research interests include cross-cultural advertising, media discourse, and consumer behavior. She is co-author of the book Advertising to Children in China (2004), editor of Advertising and Hong Kong Society (2006), co-editor of Advertising and Chinese Society: Issues and Impacts (2009), and author of Youth and Consumption (2010). She has worked for more than 10 years in the advertising and public relations industry and as a statistician for the Hong Kong Government before joining academia.

 

Yunjae Cheong (PhD, The University of Texas at Austin) is an Associate Professor in the School of Media Communication at Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Seoul, South Korea. Her research interests focus on advertising media planning with an emphasis on the media exposure model and the evaluations of advertising media spending efficiency. Her work has appeared in such journals as the Journal of Advertising, Journal of Advertising Research, and the International Journal of Advertising, among others.

 

Marieke de Mooij, PhD, lives in the Netherlands and is a consultant in cross-cultural communications. She advises both companies and advertising agencies on international branding, research, and advertising. As a profesora asociada she has been teaching international advertising at the University of Navarra, Spain. She is the author of several publications on the influence of culture on marketing, advertising, and consumer behavior. Her book Global Marketing and Advertising, Understanding Cultural Paradoxes (4th ed., 2014) is used by practitioners and universities worldwide. Another book, Consumer Behavior and Culture (2nd ed., 2011), focuses on consumer behavior.

 

Patrick De Pelsmacker (PhD, Ghent University) is Professor of Marketing at the University of Antwerp, Faculty of Applied Economics, Marketing Department and at Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Marketing Department. His research interests include advertising effectiveness, advertising in new media, consumer behavior, branding, and ethical marketing. His publications have appeared in, amongst others, International Journal of Research in Marketing, Journal of Advertising, International Journal of Advertising, Journal of Interactive Marketing, Psychology & Marketing, Marketing Letters, Journal of Business Research, Journal of Business Ethics, Journal of Consumer Affairs, Cyberpsychology and Behavior, and Accident Analysis & Prevention. He is currently an associate editor of Journal of Advertising and Journal of Marketing Communications. He is also on the editorial boards of International Journal of Advertising and Journal of Public Policy and Marketing.

 

Nathalie Dens (PhD, University of Antwerp) is Assistant Professor of Marketing at the University of Antwerp, Faculty of Applied Economics, Marketing Department. Her research focuses on advertising effectiveness for different marketing communication formats and branding strategies. Her doctoral dissertation was an examination of effective advertising and branding strategies for new product introductions. Currently, she is working on a series of studies on different communication formats, such as online reviews, social media, and brand placements. She has published in internationally peer-reviewed journals such as Accident Analysis & Prevention, Health Communication, International Journal of Advertising, Journal of Brand Management, Journal of Business Research, Journal of Marketing Communications, Marketing Letters, and Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. She serves as an ad hoc reviewer for a number of journals and is a member of the editorial boards of the International Journal of Advertising and Journal of Business Research.

 

Barbara DeSanto, APR, Fellow PRSA, teaches and writes in the A. Q. Miller School of Journalism and Mass Communications at Kansas State University. DeSanto’s research areas include public relations management, public relations curriculum development, and public relations management roles. DeSanto earned her doctorate from Oklahoma State University in 1995 and has recently published Public Relations: A Managerial Perspective with co-author Dr. Danny Moss, University of Chester, UK. DeSanto is active in the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC) and the Public Relations Society of America (PRSA).

 

Petya Eckler (PhD, University of Missouri) is a Lecturer in Journalism in the School of Humanities at the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow. Her research interests include health communication, electronic word of mouth and social media, and international communication. Lately, Eckler has examined how peer-to-peer communication about health through interactive online platforms and social media influences health attitudes and outcomes, as well as how healthcare institutions use social media. Her work has appeared in the Journal of Interactive Advertising, PM&R, Communication Yearbook, Journalism, Communication Studies, and in two books, Health Communication in the New Media Landscape and Media Psychology.

 

Martin Eisend is Professor of Marketing at European University Viadrina in Frankfurt (Oder), Germany. He earned a doctoral degree at Free University Berlin, Germany. His research activities center on marketing communication and methods of empirical generalization. His research has been published in Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, International Journal of Research in Marketing, Marketing Letters, Journal of Advertising, and other journals.

 

John B. Ford (PhD, University of Georgia) is Eminent Scholar and Professor of Marketing and International Business at Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia. He is Past President of the Academy of Marketing Science. His research focuses on cross-cultural advertising strategy issues. In particular, he has specialized in viewer perceptions of sex role portrayals in international advertising, and more recently he has focused on problems inherent in cross-cultural advertising research. His work has been published in a wide variety of journals, including Journal of Advertising Research, Journal of Advertising, International Journal of Advertising, Journal of Marketing Communications, Journal of Business Research, and Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science.

 

Katherine Frith is Professor in the School of Journalism at Southern Illinois University Carbondale. She came to SIU after teaching in Singapore for 8 years at Nanyang Technological University. She received her Doctorate in Education from the University of Massachusetts in Amherst and served as the Chair of the Advertising and Public Relations Program in the College of Communications at the Pennsylvania State University from 1988 to 1994. Her teaching areas include international advertising, social and cultural impacts of advertising, advertising in Asia, and the growth of women’s magazines in China. Dr. Frith has published four books on advertising, 15 book chapters, and over 30 scholarly articles in communications journals. Her books include Advertising in Asia: Communication, Culture and Consumption (1996), Undressing the Ad: Reading Culture in Advertising (1998), Advertising and Societies: Global Issues (2010), and Commercializing Women: Images of Asian Women in the Media (2008). Dr. Frith has also received two Fulbright Awards to teach and research in Malaysia and Indonesia.

 

Frauke Hachtmann, PhD, is Associate Professor of Advertising and Public Relations in the College of Journalism and Mass Communications at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, where she is the head of the advertising and public relations sequence. Her research focuses on cross-cultural value differences, the impact of advertising on the economy and society, assessment, and the scholarship of teaching. Her work has been published in the Journal of Advertising Education, Advertising & Society Review, the Journal of General Education, and the International Journal of Learning. She received the Journal of Advertising Education “Best Article of the Year Award” for her research on the effectiveness of advertising-focused, short-term, study-abroad programs.

 

Christina Holtz-Bacha studied communication, political science, and sociology. She received her PhD from the University of Münster and completed her postdoctoral dissertation in Hanover. She is Professor in Communication at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. Her main research interests are in political communication and European media policy. Among her recent publications are: Handbook of Political Advertising (2006, with L. L. Kaid); Encyclopedia of Political Communication (2008, with L. L. Kaid); Medienpolitik für Europa [Media Policy for Europe] (2006); Medienpolitik für Europa II: Der Europarat [Media Policy for Europe II: The Council of Europe] (2011).

 

John Philip Jones is Emeritus Professor at the Newhouse School of Public Communications, Syracuse University, New York. He was born and educated in Britain and graduated with the Economics Tripos from Cambridge University (BA with Honors and MA). He spent 27 years working in the advertising agency business, mainly in branches of the J. Walter Thompson Company in Europe. He was a market researcher and manager of the advertising for major international clients. Afterwards he taught for 27 years at Syracuse University. During this time he developed new research techniques and published 15 books and more than 70 papers on advertising in most of the leading professional and academic journals in the world. His books have been published in 10 foreign languages. He has also carried out a vast amount of consulting work for major clients in all continents and received a number of professional and university awards.

 

Kyoungsoo Kang holds a PhD from Chuo University in Japan with his dissertation titled A study of integrated marketing communications (IMC) strategy: The case study and perception survey of advertising practitioners in Japan and South Korea (2007). Kang is now Assistant Professor at Dongmyung University in Busan, Korea. His teaching and research are focused on IMC and its related topics. His research has been published both in Japan and Korea. He serves as a Research Director for the Korean Academy of IMC.

 

Kavita Karan is Professor and Deputy Director of the School of Journalism at the Southern Illinois University Carbondale. She received her PhD degree from the London School of Economics and Political Science. She is the former head of the Department of Communication and Journalism, Osmania University, Hyderabad, India. She has extensively investigated issues related to advertising, women’s magazines, political communication, Indian cinema, health communication, new media technologies, and rural communities in Asia. She teaches courses in research methods, marketing, and advertising. She has presented papers at various international conferences and contributed several papers for journals and chapters for books. Her edited and co-edited books include Cyber Communities in Rural Asia: A Study of Seven Asian Countries (2006), Commercializing Women: Images of Asian Women in the Media (2008); Singapore General Elections 2001: Study of the Media, Politics, and Public, Information Policies in Asia; and Development of Indicators.

 

Ilchul Kim holds a BA and PhD degree from Hanyang University and an MA degree from Korea University in Seoul, Korea. He is Professor of Dongeui University in Busan, Korea, as well as Chairperson of the Korean Academy of IMC since its founding in 2003. Prior to joining Dongeui University, Kim had more than 20 years of marketing and communication experience including with LG electronics, Tupperware Korea, and Rexall Showcase Korea, as a Manager, Director, President, and CEO. Dr. Kim wrote and translated 17 books about marketing, advertising, and IMC. He also has more than 20 articles published in the Journal of Advertising Research, Journal of Advertising Education, and Journal of Marketing Communication, among others. Kim was a Visiting Professor at Northwestern University in the United States, Peking University, and Shenzhen University in China.

 

Kwangmi Ko Kim (PhD, Pennsylvania State University) is a Professor in the Department of Mass Communication and Communication Studies, Towson University, Maryland. Her research is focused on the globalization of the advertising industry, particularly that in the Asia-Pacific region; gender representations in advertising; and the development of US cigarette trade talks with Asian countries. Her articles and book chapters in International Journal of Advertising, Asian Journal of Communication, Mass Communication and Society, Advertising in Asia: Communication, Culture and Consumption, Terrorism, Globalization and Mass Communication, Communications Media Globalization and Empire, and Commercializing Women reflect those interests. She is currently working on social media and the fast-food industry’s global campaigns. She is an Associate Editor of the Asian Journal of Communication.

 

Wei-Na Lee (PhD, Communications, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) is F. J. Heyne Centennial Professor in Communication and Professor of Advertising at the University of Texas at Austin. Her research examines the role of culture in persuasive communication. Specifically, she has investigated topics such as consumer acculturation, country-of-origin effects, consumer ethnocentrism, cross-cultural comparison of communication messages, portrayal of ethnic groups in the media, and multicultural marketing communication. Her work has been published in various conference proceedings, book chapters, and the Journal of Advertising, Journal of Advertising Research, Psychology and Marketing, Journal of International Marketing, Journal of Business Research, International Journal of Advertising, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, among others. She is a three-time recipient of the American Academy of Advertising Research Fellowship. She chaired American Academy of Advertising’s 2010 annual conference while serving as its Vice President. She was a Visiting Professor at DDB Needham, Chicago and at D’Arcy Masius Benton and Bowles in New York City. Between 1998 and 2001, she served as the Executive Director of the Office of Survey Research at the University of Texas at Austin. She is currently the Editor of the Journal of Advertising.

 

Fengru Li obtained a PhD in communications from the University of Washington in Seattle. She is Associate Professor in the Department of Management and Marketing, School of Business Administration of the University of Montana and dean of the International Business School at Guizhou University of Finance and Economics in China. Her research efforts and publications include the sociolinguistic aspects of global brand naming; Sino-US business negotiations; and international branding of US higher education in emerging markets such as China and Brazil. Since 2011, she has directed and taught in a faculty-led, study-abroad program in China by multiple universities in the northwestern United States and China. Her teaching subjects, at the undergraduate and MBA levels, include organizational behaviors, international business negotiation, and communication of innovation.

 

Fang Liu (PhD, University of Western Australia) is Associate Professor of Marketing in the Business School of the University of Western Australia (UWA). Her teaching, research, and consulting areas center on international advertising, corporate communication strategies and public relations, online and mobile communication, cross-cultural consumer behavior, and brand management. Dr. Liu is the author of dozens of refereed articles, plus book chapters. She has taught a variety of marketing and advertising subjects in countries such as Australia, China, and Singapore. In 2008, Dr. Liu’s student team was the global winner of the inaugural Google Online Marketing Challenge (GOMC), which involved 8,500 students in 47 countries with 1,650 teams competing. In 2009, one of her student teams won again as the top five of the Asia-Pacific Region at the GOMC. Prior to her academic career, Dr. Liu worked for some of the largest international trade companies in China.

 

Stephen W. Marshall, PhD, is Associate Professor at East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, USA. Dr. Marshall earned his doctorate from the University of Florida in 2006. Prior to academe, he worked extensively in the mass communication industry including work in the client service divisions at Nielsen as well as in creative advertising production. Dr. Marshall’s teaching and research interests include advertising effectiveness of message strategies and creative elements, media and culture, audience analysis, digital brand communication, and mass communication pedagogy. Notable publications include Television Advertising That Works: An Analysis of Commercials from Effective Campaigns (co-authored with Marilyn Roberts); Cultural Differences Reflected in Advertising Appeals: A Study of Print Magazines in the U.S. and France (co-authored with Ciprian Begu); and The Status of Public Relations in Russia: A Country in Transition (co-authored Inga L. Ragozina).

 

Curtis B. Matthews is Assistant Professor of Advertising and Public Relations in the A. Q. Miller School of Journalism and Mass Communications at Kansas State University. Matthews earned his doctorate from Texas Tech University in 2011 following 15 years of industry experience in integrated marketing communications, and coupled with teaching stints at Southern Methodist University and Texas Tech. His long-term research interests include the cognitive and emotional processing of television and online narratives, and the impact storytelling has on memory. Current research projects include the duration of cross-media effects, and the role creativity, familiarity, and novelty play in overcoming one’s brand schematicity.

 

Edward F. McQuarrie (PhD in Social Psychology, University of Cincinnati) is Professor of Marketing in the Leavey School of Business at Santa Clara University. His research program has a dual focus: qualitative market research, and indirect persuasion via narrative and rhetoric. He is the author of Customer Visits: Building a Better Market Focus and The Market Research Toolbox: A Concise Guide for Beginners; and editor, with Barbara J. Phillips, of Go Figure! New Directions in Advertising Rhetoric. His research has also appeared in the Journal of Consumer Research, Journal of the Market Research Society, Journal of Advertising Research, International Journal of Advertising, Journal of Advertising, Marketing Theory, and elsewhere.

 

Gordon E. Miracle (BBA, MBA, PhD, University of Wisconsin) is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Advertising and Public Relations at Michigan State University. His research interests include international advertising and marketing management, regulation and self-regulation of international advertising, and cross-cultural research methods. He has worked, taught, lectured, consulted, and conducted research in 17 countries, while living a total of more than seven years abroad. His major publications include more than 125 published articles, books, conference papers, research reports, cases for classroom use, and other publications, of which more than 70% are international or cross-cultural in nature. In his “working retirement,” he strives through his international research, writing, mentoring, and administrative activities to achieve peace, justice, and affluence for all. He is proud of his successful students in business and universities in many countries. He has received many research grants from funding organizations in Korea, Japan, and the USA. He was a Fulbright Research Scholar at Waseda University in Tokyo. For his contributions to international advertising research he was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Advertising; received the S. Watson Dunn “Excellence in Advertising Award” from the University of Illinois; and was awarded the “Viktor Mataja Medaille” from the Austrian Advertising Research Association.

 

Xiaoli Nan (PhD, University of Minnesota) is Associate Professor in the Department of Communication and Director of the Center for Health and Risk Communication at the University of Maryland, College Park. Her research is focused on persuasion processes and media effects, particularly in the domains of health and risk communication, and social marketing. Dr. Nan has published in top communication and advertising journals such as Communication Research, Human Communication Research, Health Communication, Journal of Health Communication, Journal of Advertising, and Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising. Dr. Nan’s research has been recognized with awards from the International Communication Association and the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. Dr. Nan has been Principal Investigator on research projects funded by several US federal agencies, including the National Cancer Institute, the National Science Foundation, the Department of Agriculture, the Department of Homeland Security, and the Food and Drug Administration. Dr. Nan currently serves on the editorial review boards of several refereed journals including the Journal of Advertising, Human Communication Research, Health Communication, Communication Studies, and Communication Quarterly.

 

Michelle R. Nelson (PhD, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1997) is Associate Professor of Advertising at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Nelson’s research, professional marketing communication experience, and teaching focus on intra-cultural (including gender) and international advertising and consumer behavior. She has researched and worked in Denmark and England before assuming academic responsibilities in the United States. Nelson has published more than 40 book chapters and articles in journals such as Journal of Advertising, International Journal of Advertising, Journal of Advertising Research, Journal of Consumer Psychology, Sex Roles, and Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. She is Associate Editor for the International Journal of Advertising and serves on the editorial board of the Journal of Advertising.

 

Hye-Jin Paek (PhD, University of Wisconsin-Madison) is Associate Professor in the Department of Advertising and Public Relations at Hanyang University in South Korea. Prior to her academic career she had extensive work experience in major media and advertising industries in Korea as a news reporter, copywriter, political campaign consultant, advertising columnist, and account executive. Her research interests include corporate social responsibility, health and risk communication, and social marketing. Her theoretical interests concern the ways social perception and social norms are influenced by, or interact with, communication to promote individuals’ health. Her research on antismoking campaigns has earned several scholarly awards and received attention in various local, national, and international media outlets. Her research has been published widely in major advertising, communication, and consumer journals, such as Communication Research, Health Communication, International Journal of Advertising, Journal of Advertising, Journal of Advertising Research, Journal of Communication, Journal of Consumer Affairs, and Journal of Health Communication. Her research has been funded by the American Academy of Advertising, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute of Health, the US Department of Agriculture, Georgia Department of Human Sources, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan, and Michigan’s Children Trust Fund, among others.

 

Hemant Patwardhan (PhD, Southern Illinois University Carbondale) is Associate Professor of Marketing at Winthrop University, Rock Hill, South Carolina. His research interests are in branding, advertising, and product placement. He has published in (among others) Journal of Advertising, International Journal of Advertising, Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, Journal of Product and Brand Management, and Journal of Promotions Management.

 

Padmini Patwardhan (PhD, Southern Illinois University Carbondale) is Professor of Mass Communication at Winthrop University, Rock Hill, South Carolina. Her research interests are in consumer and industry issues in international advertising, media dependency effects, online advertising, and social media. She has published in (among others) International Journal of Advertising, Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, Journal of Interactive Advertising, International Gazette, Journal of Communication Management, and Asian Journal of Communication.

 

Ross D. Petty (BA, MBA, University of Rochester; MPA, Harvard University; JD, University of Michigan) is Professor of Marketing Law and Research Scholar, Babson College, Babson Park, Massachusetts. Professor Petty is the author of The Impact of Advertising Law on Business and Public Policy (1992) and has published numerous articles about marketing law and policy in both marketing and law journals. His research encompasses the broad area of marketing law with specific interests including legal aspects of brand strategy, obtaining competitive advantage through government regulation, and advertising law. Professor Petty is currently writing a book entitled Branding Law for Entrepreneurs: Legal Aspects of Strategic Brand Management.

 

Barbara J. Phillips (PhD in Advertising, University of Texas at Austin) is Rawlco Scholar in Advertising and Professor of Marketing in the Edwards School of Business at the University of Saskatchewan. Dr. Phillips’ research program focuses on visual images in advertising and their influence on consumer response. She has published more than 20 articles in peer-reviewed journals, books, and conference proceedings, such as the Journal of Consumer Research, Journal of Advertising, and Marketing Theory. With Edward F. McQuarrie, she has received the “Best Article” award in the Journal of Advertising twice and the Dunn Award from the University of Illinois for “excellence in advertising research.”

 

Nigel K. Ll. Pope completed his PhD in Marketing at Griffith University in Australia. He is a regular co-author with Mark Brown and Kevin Voges. Their work has appeared in the Journal of Advertising and the European Journal of Marketing. His major research interest is advertising.

 

Mahdi Rajabi (MBA, University of Mysore) is a researcher and PhD candidate at the University of Antwerp, Faculty of Applied Economics, Marketing Department. His research interests focus on global marketing and branding strategies and cross-cultural consumer reactions to advertising. Specifically, he is studying effects of brand globalness, celebrity endorsement, emotional appeals, and so on in different countries toward a global framework of consumer reactions to brands. The chapter in this handbook is one of his first publications. He recently also had a chapter accepted for publication in a Liber Amicorum at the University of Antwerp.

 

Marilyn S. Roberts is Dean and Professor of the College of Communication and Media Sciences at Zayed University, UAE. Dr. Roberts earned her PhD from the University of Texas at Austin. She was a faculty member in the University of Florida’s College of Journalism and Communications’ Department of Advertising from 1994 until 2009. Her major research interests include international and cross-cultural advertising, global branding, media agenda setting and issue framing, and strategic campaign planning. Over her academic career, she authored and co-authored research that appeared in Communication Research, Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, Mass Communication Review, Journal of Advertising, Harvard International Journal of Press and Politics, International Journal of Political Communication, Journal of Advertising Education, Journal of Interactive Advertising, Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, Taiwan Journal of Advertising Research, International Journal of Sport Communication, Proceedings of the American Academy of Advertising, Proceedings of the American Association of Political Science, and the International Journal of Strategic Communication, as well as numerous book chapters and competitive research presentations both in the United States and internationally.

 

Shelly Rodgers (PhD, University of Missouri) is Professor of Strategic Communication in the Missouri School of Journalism. She focuses on strategic communication and its relationship to health communication. She is an expert on Internet health advertising, marketing, and communication. Specifically, Rodgers’ research examines the effects of interactive communications on audience processing, with an emphasis on how to use the Internet to promote healthy behaviors. She has examined cancer communication, smoking cessation/prevention, and tobacco control. Her research on interactive advertising has appeared in numerous journals including the Journal of Advertising, Journal of Communication, Journal of Advertising Research, Journal of Interactive Advertising, Marketing Research, Social Marketing Research, and Journal of Health Communication. Rodgers is nationally ranked as one of the most productive Internet advertising scholars and is among the top 10 most-cited Internet advertising researchers. In addition, she is a former President of the American Academy of Advertising (2010) and a co-editor of Advertising Theory (2012).

 

Sheila L. Sasser, PhD, is Professor of Marketing, International Advertising Creativity, and IMC at Eastern Michigan University College of Business, holding a dual appointment as a Visiting Professor at University of Michigan Ross School of Business in Ann Arbor. Dr. Sasser was editor of the Journal of Advertising Special Issue on Advertising Creativity Research. She has also served for many years on the editorial boards for the Journal of Advertising, Journal of Advertising Research, International Journal of Advertising, International Journal of Integrated Marketing Communications, and the Global Advances in Business Communication Journal and is a frequent reviewer for the Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science and other journals. She is widely published in such top-ranked journals in her field, with over 150 scholarly publications, proceedings, texts, book chapters, and special topics. Sasser served as an ARF 2013 David Ogilvy Award Judge and has worked with the Cannes Lions Festival of Creativity for many years. Her interest areas include international advertising creativity, IMC, social media, and cross-cultural research. Honors include the Ronald Collins Distinguished Faculty Research Award, Gold Medallion Service Award, and several best article awards. Dr. Sasser is also a frequent visiting Professor at Stockholm School of Economics, Imperial College London, Michigan State University, and University of Waikato. Prior to completing her PhD at Wayne State University, Dr. Sasser held senior managing directorships and senior vice presidencies in international advertising and has worked with many global agency networks and Fortune 500 clients across several continents.

 

Don E. Schultz is Professor (Emeritus-in-Service) of Integrated Marketing Communications at Northwestern University, Evanston, IL. He holds a BBA from University of Oklahoma and MA and PhD from Michigan State University. He is President of Agora, Inc., a global marketing, communication, and branding consulting firm. Schultz lectures, conducts seminars and conferences, and consults on five continents. He is the author/co-author of 24 books and over 150 trade, academic, and professional articles. He is a featured columnist in Marketing News and Marketing Management. He was the founding editor of the Journal of Direct Marketing and the associate editor of the Journal of Marketing Communications. He is the editor of the International Journal of Integrated Marketing Communication and is on the editorial review board for a number of trade and scholarly publications. Schultz holds visiting professorships at Cranfield University in the UK, Queensland University of Technology, Australia, and Tsinghua University, Beijing.

 

Ping ShawJournal of CommunicationSex RolesAsian Journal of Communication