Cover Page

Contents

Cover

Title Page

Copyright

Dedication

Preface

Part I: Crime Analysis and Investigation

Chapter 1: Crime Classification: Past and Present

Historical Perspective

Crime Characteristics and Crime Classification Today

Crime Classification: The Decision Process

Classification by Type, Style, and Number of Victims

Crime Classification Numbering System

References

Chapter 2: Criminal Investigative Concepts in Crime Scene Analysis

The Assessment

The Modus Operandi

The Signature Aspect

Modus Operandi or Signature?

Linking Cases

Cases Linked by Offender Signature

Serial Killers and Signature Crime

Personation

Staging

Objectivity

Conclusion

References

Chapter 3: The Impact of the Internet, Technology, and Forensics on Crime Investigation

Internet Serial Murder Case: John E. Robinson Sr.

Advances in Technology

Advances in Forensics

Solving Homicides by Virtual Crime Scene Analysis

Conclusion

References

Chapter 4: Local, Federal, and International Agencies

Types of U.S. Law Enforcement Agencies

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)

FBI's Behavior Science Unit

History of VICAP

VICAP'S Mission

VICAP Case Types

VICAP Today

Additional Federal Agencies

International Agencies

Combating Cybercrime

Conclusion

References

Chapter 5: Classifying Crimes by Severity From Aggravators to Depravity

The Crime

The Appeal

Aggravators Relating to the Crime Itself

A Framework for Defining the Worst of Crimes

Toward a Depravity Standard for Criminal Sentencing

Defining the Depravity Standard Items: Implications for Investigators

Using the Depravity Standard

References

Part II: The Classifications

Chapter 6: Criminal Enterprise Homicide

The Uniform Crime Reporting Program

Homicide Classification by Victims, Type, and Style

Investigative Profiling

CCM: A Motivational Model for Classification of Homicide

100: Criminal Enterprise

101: Contract Murder (Third Party)

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

102: Gang-Motivated Murder

Defining Characteristics

Common Forensic Findings

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

103: Criminal Competition

Defining Characteristics

Common Forensic Findings

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

104: Kidnap Murder

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

105: Product Tampering

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

106: Drug Murder

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

107: Insurance-Related Death

107.01: Individual Profit

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

107.02: Commercial Profit

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

108: Felony Murder

108.01: Indiscriminate Murder

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

108.02: Situational Murder

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

References

Chapter 7: Personal Cause Homicide

120: Personal Cause Homicide

121: Erotomania-Motivated Murder

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

122: Domestic Homicide

122.01: Spontaneous Domestic Homicide

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

122.02: Staged Domestic Homicide

Defining Characteristics

122.03: Neonaticide

Defining Characteristics

Common Forensic Findings

Investigative Considerations

123: Argument/Conflict Murder

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

123.01: Argument Murder

123.02: Conflict Murder

124: Authority Murder

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

125: Revenge

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

126: Nonspecific Motive Murder

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

Chapter 8: Sexual Homicide

130: Sexual Homicide

131: Sexual Homicide, Organized

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

132: Sexual Homicide, Disorganized

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

133: Sexual Homicide, Mixed

134: Sexual Homicide, Sadistic

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

135: Elder Female Sexual Homicide

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Considerations

References

Chapter 9: Extremist and Medical Homicide

127: Individual Extremist Homicide

Extremist Typologies

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

127.02: Religion-Inspired Homicide

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

128: Medical Murders

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

128.01: Pseudo-Mercy Homicide

128.02: Pseudo-Hero Homicide

References

Chapter 10: Group Cause Homicide

140: Group Cause Homicide

141: Group Cause Homicide, Cult

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

142: Extremist Homicide

Extremist Groups Using the Internet

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

142.01: Extremist Homicide, Political

Defining Characteristics

143: Group Excitement

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

Chapter 11: Arson/Bombing

11.1 Arson: General Characteristics

Search Warrant Suggestions

200: Vandalism-Motivated Arson

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

210: Excitement-Motivated Arson

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

220: Revenge-Motivated Arson

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

230: Crime Concealment Arson

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

240: Profit-Motivated Arson

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

250: Extremist-Motivated Arson

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

251: Extremist-Motivated Arson, Terrorism

260: Serial Arson

Serial Arsonist and MO

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

270: Serial Bombing

Chapter 12: Rape and Sexual Assault

Victim Contact

Fixation

General Forensic Evidence Collections

300: Criminal Enterprise Rape

301: Felony Rape

301.01: Primary Felony Rape

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

301.02: Secondary Felony Rape

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

310: Personal Cause Sexual Assault

311: Indirect Offenses

311.01: Isolated/Opportunistic Offense

311.02: Preferential Offense

311.03: Transition Offense

311.04: Preliminary Offense

312: Domestic Sexual Assault

312.01: Adult Domestic Sexual Assault

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

312.02: Child Domestic Sexual Abuse

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

313: Opportunistic Rape

Sexualization Motive

Sadistic Types

Nonsadistic Types

Vindictive Motivation

313.01: Social Acquaintance Rape

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

313.02: Authority Rape

Defining Characteristics

Investigation

Search Warrant Considerations

313.02.03: Authority Rape, Child

Defining Characteristics

313.03: Power–Reassurance Rape

Defining Characteristics

313.03.02: Power–Reassurance Rape, Adolescent

313.04: Exploitative Rape

Defining Characteristics

314: Anger Rape

Defining Characteristics

314.01: Anger Rape, Gender

314.02: Anger Rape, Age

314.02.01: Anger Rape, Elderly Victim

314.02.02: Anger Rape, Child Victim

314.03: Anger Rape, Racial

Defining Characteristics

314.04: Anger Rape, Global

Defining Characteristics

315: Sadistic Rape

Comparison of Rapist Types

315.01: Sadistic Rape, Adult

Defining Characteristics

315.02: Sadistic Rape, Adolescent

315.04: Sadistic Rape, Elder

319: Abduction Rape

330: Group-Cause Sexual Assault

331: Formal Gang Sexual Assault

332: Informal Gang Sexual Assault

333: Military Sexual Trauma

333.01: Military Sexual Harassment

333.02: Military Sexual Assault/Rape

390: Sexual Assault Not Classified Elsewhere

References

Chapter 13: Nonlethal Crimes

400: Nonlethal Crimes

401: Communication Threats

Defining Characteristics

Search Warrant Suggestions

401.01: Direct Threats

401.02: Indirect Threats

401.03: Conditional Threats

401.04: Nonspecific Threats

402: Threat Delivery

402.01: Threat Delivery, Visual Communication

402.02: Threat Delivery, Verbal Communication

402.03: Threat Delivery, Written Communication

402.03.01: Letter Threat

402.03.02: Symbolic Threat

402.04: Physical Communication Threats

410: Stalking Crimes

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

411: Domestic Stalker

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

412: Nondomestic Stalker

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

413: Erotomania Stalker

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

420: Robbery

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

421: Bank Robbery

422: Home Invasion Robbery

Criminal Profile

Dangerous Trends

Method of Operation

430: Burglary

Defining Characteristics

Investigation Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

440: Assault

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

450: Battery/Abuse

Reference

Chapter 14: Computer Crimes

500: Computer Crimes

510: Computers as the Target

511: Malignant Software

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

512: Computer Data as the Target

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

513: Denial of Service

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

520: The Computer User as the Target

521: Identity Theft

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

522: Invasion of Privacy

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

523: Cyberstalking

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

524: Crimes

524.1: Online Solicitation of Children

524.2: Child Pornography

524.2.1: Possession of Child Pornography

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

524.2.2: Distribution of Child Pornography

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

524.2.3: Production of Child Pornography

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

530: Criminal Enterprise

White-Collar Crime

531: Money Laundering

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

532: Child Pornography

533: Internet Fraud

533.01: Bank Fraud

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

533.02: Fraudulent Internet Transactions

540: Threats via the Internet

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

541: Internet-Initiated Homicide

543: Cybergangs

References

Chapter 15: Increased Globalization of Crime

600: Global Crimes

601: Illegal Migration

601.01: Autonomous Migrant Entries

601.01: Human Trafficking

Exploitation

Types of Trafficking Operations

Process of Trafficking Migrants

601.01.01: Trafficking Migrants

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

Human Smuggling

601.01.02: Human Smuggling

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

601.02: Visa Overstayer

602: Cross-Border Organized Crime

602.01: Cigarette Smuggling

602.02: Cross-Border Smuggling of Weapons

602.03: Trafficking of Narcotics

603: Biological Attacks and Bioterrorism

603.01: Biological Attacks

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

604: Chemical Attacks and Terrorism

604.01: Chemical Attacks

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

605: Hostage Taking

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

606: Bombings and Explosive Attacks and Terrorism

606.01: Explosive Attacks and Terrorism

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

607: Aerial Hijackings

Defining Characteristics

Investigative Considerations

Search Warrant Suggestions

References

Chapter 16: Mass and Serial Homicide

Mass Murder

Serial Murder

References

Chapter 17: Poison and Biological Agents as Weapons

Poisoning

Biological Agents as Weapons

Moving Forward

References

Part III: Legal Issues

Chapter 18: Interviewing, Interrogation, and Criminal Confessions

The Prosecution's Arsenal

Preparing for the Prescriptive Interview

Challenges to Confessions (FBI, 2002)

Category 1: Behavior

Category 2: Traits

Category 3: Statements

Category 4: Options

Category 5: Consequences

Personal Dignity

Conclusion

References

Chapter 19: Wrongful Convictions: Causes, Solutions, and Case Studies

False Confessions

Junk Science

Overzealous Prosecution

Conclusion

References

About the Editors

About the Contributors

Citation Index

Name Index

Subject Index

Title Page

We dedicate this edition to chapter contributors

Peter Shellem, B. S. (1960–2009)
award-wining crime investigative reporter
in Pittsburgh, PA

Arthur E. Westveer, M.L.A. (1936–2010)
retired FBI supervisory special agent

Preface

Criminal trials in 2012 saw former Penn State assistant football coach Jerry Sandusky convicted of child sexual abuse and sanctions brought against the university. Drew Peterson was charged and convicted of killing his third wife, Kathleen Savio with no physical evidence linking Peterson to Savio's death, relying instead on a heavily circumstantial case on hearsay statements that Peterson threatened to kill Savio. Joran van der Sloot, a 23-year-old Dutchman, confessed to the slaying of a 21-year-old Peruvian business student Stephany Flores on May 30, 2010, after she used his laptop to find out about his involvement in the case of Natalee Holloway, an 18-year-old Alabama student who vanished in Aruba in May 2005. van der Sloot said he did not want to do it but the girl intruded into his private life.

The year 2012 also witnessed horrific mass shootings in the United States. Just minutes into a midnight showing on opening day of the latest Batman movie on July 20, 2012, a man dressed in tactical gear with bright dyed orange hair opened fire inside the Century 16 movie theater in Aurora, Colorado. Some initially thought it was a prank—smoke filled the theater, but then, shots were fired. Twelve people were killed and 58 injured. 24-year-old James Holmes was arrested minutes later outside. But right after the arrest, police went to his apartment, which they'd found rigged with explosives.

On August 6, 2012, there was a mass shooting by 40-year-old Wade Michael Page at the Sikh Temple in Oak Creek, Wisconsin. Six people died, and three people were injured before the gunman took the 9-millimeter handgun he had purchased just one week earlier to himself.

On December 14, 2012 a 20-year-old gunman, Adam Lanza, murdered his mother at home first, and then went into Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut where he shot 20 children and six adults, and finally, killed himself before police arrived.

This textbook is about classifying crime. Professions develop and advance their science, as they are able to organize and classify their work. The nature of science started when organisms began to generalize, to see similarities between themselves and members of their own species or to see differences and other similarities between other species and themselves. Thus, the nature of science requires that one first observe and then attempt to categorize, compare and classify observations. Classification is a process in data collection and analysis in which data are grouped according to previously determined characteristics.

The past four decades have witnessed the major advancement in investigative science. A series of FBI studies conducted in the 1980's on sexual murderers, rapists, child molesters and abductors, and arsonists described and identified critical characteristics of these crimes. These characteristics were initially used for profiling techniques. An additional use of the research findings has now been compiled into a crime classification manual. The advent of technology and forensic science has also strengthened the investigative skills for solving crime.

This is the third edition of the Crime Classification Manual, better known simply as CCM-III. The development of this manual over the years has received notice from FBI investigative profilers, law enforcement officers, corrections and parole staff, mental health staff and students in forensic studies and criminal justice studies.

The purpose of this manual is fourfold:

1. To standardize terminology within the criminal justice field;
2. To facilitate communication within the criminal justice field and between criminal justice and mental health;
3. To educate the criminal justice system and the public at large to the types of crimes being committed; and
4. To develop a database for investigative research.

In the development of the manual, a decision was made to base the classification on the primary intent of the criminal. The intent categories include: (1) criminal enterprise, (2) personal cause, (3) sexual intent, and (4) group cause.

Task force groups chaired by supervisory special agents at the FBI's National Center for the Analysis of Violent crime worked on refining the crime categories for the first edition. The preliminary draft of the manual was presented to an Advisory Committee who provided additional comments and suggestions for refinement of the manual.

The second edition of the CCM includes three new classifications contributed by experts in their field. Michael Welner, MD contributed the classification of Religion-Inspired Homicide and Neonaticide, Mark Safarik contributed Elder Sexual Homicide classification and Allen G. Burgess classified Computer Crimes.

The third edition includes three new chapters on the Impact of Internet, Technology & Forensics, Local, Federal and International Agencies, and Global Crimes.

Definitions

For the purposes of this book, the crime definitions are as follows:

Murder is the willful (nonnegligent) killing of one human being by another. The classification of this offense, as for all other Crime Index offenses, is based solely on police investigation as opposed to the determination of a court, medical examiner, coroner, jury, or other judicial body. Not included in this classification are deaths caused by negligence, suicide, or accident; justifiable homicides; and attempts to murder or assaults to murder, which are scored as aggravated assaults.

In December 2011, FBI Director Robert S. Mueller III, approved revisions to the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program's 80-year-old definition of rape. As approved, the UCR Program's definition of rape is the penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim. In January 2013 the FBI began collecting data using the new definition of rape.

Arson, as defined by UCR, is any willful or malicious burning or attempt to burn, with or without intent to defraud, a dwelling house, public building, motor vehicle or aircraft, personal property of another. Bombing has been added to the classification.

Computer crimes include crimes whereby the computer is the target or the mechanism for committing the crime or the computer user is the target. It also includes crimes committed over the Internet or whereby the Internet plays a role in the commission of the crime.

Organization of the Manual

This third edition of the Crime Classification Manual is divided into three major sections. The first section of the manual contains five chapters on Crime Analysis and Investigation. Part II includes the classification categories of Homicide, Arson/Bombing, Rape and Sexual Assault, Nonlethal Crimes, Computer Crimes, Global Crimes, Mass and Serial Homicide and Poisoning and Biological Agents as Weapons. Part III includes Legal Issues of Interviewing, Interrogation and Confessions, and Wrongful Convictions.

Our results have implications not only for law enforcement personnel who are responsible for the investigation of a crime, but for professionals in other disciplines who address the crime problem. These groups include criminal justice professionals directly involved with the legal aspects of crime; correction institution administrators and staff personnel, who not only have custody of criminals but also are responsible for decisions regarding these individuals' return to society; for mental health professionals, both those involved with offender treatment and those assisting victims and families affected by these crimes; for social service personnel working with juveniles, as they detect early signs and characteristics of violent individuals and seek to divert these individuals from criminal activity; for criminologists who study the problem of violent crime; and for public policymakers who attempt to address the problem through their decisions. It is our hope that this book will advance the knowledge base of these professionals as they seek increased understanding of the nature of crime and of the individuals who commit such crime.

Acknowledgments

Many people have helped with this project over the years. We wish to acknowledge past FBI Director William H. Webster and Executive Assistant Director John E. Otto for their early support of the criminal investigative research project efforts of the Behavioral Science Unit, as well as Director William S. Sessions for his continued support. We also wish to acknowledge Anthony Daniels, Assistant Director of the FBI Training Division, and Deputy Assistant Director of Training for their encouragement of the crime classification project.

We are especially appreciative for the grant monies received from the Department of Justice. We are indebted to many Department of Justice officials, including Robert W. Sweet, Jr., Administrator, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention for the release of monies to study serial child molesters, abductors and murderers of children; Robert O. Heck for his belief in the criminal profiling concept and the Violent Criminal Apprehension Program.

In particular our thanks are extended to major contributors to the first edition, especially Corinne M. Munn, the Classification Coordinator and Research Associate and Classification Committee chairmen SA James Wright, SA Judson Ray, SA Greg McCrary, and Dr. David Icove.

And we wish to acknowledge the people who assisted with this 3rd edition: Stefan Treffers for his research of crime statistics and contributions to three new chapters, Sarah Gregorian for her assistance with the preparation of the manuscript and study guides, and the contributors of cases who are acknowledged with the case.

Part I

Crime Analysis and Investigation