Cover page

Table of Contents

Handbooks in Communication and Media

Title page

Copyright page

About the Editor

Notes on Contributors

Acknowledgments

1 Corporate Reputation and the Multi-Disciplinary Field of Communication

Overview

Corporate Reputation as an Object of Communication

Section 1: Communication Disciplines of Reputation

2 Corporate Reputation and the Discipline of Public Opinion

Introduction

Conclusions

3 Corporate Reputation and the Discipline of Interpersonal Communication

Introduction

Origins of Interpersonal Communication: A Brief Overview

Conceptualizations of Corporate Reputation

Three Major Approaches to Interpersonal Communication

Limitations of the Alliance

4 Corporate Reputation and the Discipline of Organizational Communication

Introduction

Why Corporate Reputation?

Definition of Corporate Reputation

Definitions of Organizational Communication

Communication as a Phenomenon within Organizations

Communication as a Way to Describe and Explain Organizations

Identity/Image/Identification

Leadership

Conclusion

5 Corporate Reputation and the Discipline of Advertising

Corporate Reputation Dimensions for Consumers

How Advertising Works

Sincerity: Advertiser/Company Credibility

Social Responsibility and Sincerity: CRM

Celebrity Spokespersons

Bringing It All Together: The American Express Members Project

Conclusions

6 Corporate Reputation and the Discipline of Corporate Communication

Introduction

Image and Corporate Identity

Present and Future Research

Conclusion

7 Corporate Reputation and the Discipline of Public Relations

Introduction

The Definitional Terrain: Public Relations and Corporate Reputation

Paradigmatic Shifts: Public Relations

Management Adjustive

Discourse Engagement

Normative/Critical/ Ethical Paradigm

Theoretical Resources

Case Study: Corporate Reputation – A Productivity Perspective

Conclusion

8 Corporate Reputation and the Discipline of Management Communication

What Do Managers Do All Day?

Major Characteristics of the Manager’s Job

What Varies in a Manager’s Job? The Emphasis

Management Skills Required for the Twenty-First Century

Talk Is the Work

The Major Channels of Management Communication Are Talking and Listening

The Role of Writing

Communication Is Invention

Information Is Socially Constructed

Managers’ Greatest Challenge

Managers’ Task as Professionals

9 Corporate Reputation and the Discipline of Communication Management

Introduction

The Context of Communication

The Levels at Which Communication Should Be Managed

The Location and Structure of the Communication Function

Conclusions

10 Corporate Reputation and the Discipline of Integrated Marketing Communications

Definition of IMC

Emergence of IMC as a Reputational Support Process

Development of IMC Brand and Reputation Process

Reputation Management under Pressure

Conclusion

11 Corporate Reputation and the Discipline of Marketing Communication

Introduction

Why Is Corporate Reputation a Marketing Issue?

Corporate Reputation as a (Marketing) Communication Problem

Concepts and Perspectives

Applications

Contemporary Contexts

The Management of Corporate Reputation

Reflection and Projection

12 Corporate Reputation and the Disciplines of Journalism and Mass Communication

Introduction

Four Domains of Mass Communication Research

Conclusions

13 Corporate Reputation and the Discipline of Visual Communication

Origins of Visual Identity

Disciplinary Limitations: Visual Identity and Reputation Defined

Visual Identity +  Associations + Image =  Reputation

Relationship between Visual Identity and Reputation

The Future: Further Empirical Evidence of Visual Identity + Image = Reputation

14 Corporate Reputation and the Discipline of Corporate Communication Law

Corporate Reputation and the First Amendment

Defamation

False Advertising

Privacy

Limitations and Future Directions

Section 2: Theoretical Perspectives

15 Agenda-Building and Agenda-Setting Theory: Which Companies We Think About and How We Think About Them

Agenda-Building and Agenda-Setting Theory

Theoretical Foundation of Agenda Setting

The Mass Media and Corporate Reputation

Building the Media Agenda

Contingent Conditions of Agenda Setting

Paths for Future Research

Conclusion

16 Complexity Theory and the Dynamics of Reputation

The Emergence of Complexity Theory in the Social Sciences

Principles of Complexity Theory and Applications to Reputation

Methods for the Study of Reputation as a Complex System

Implications for Practice

Directions for Future Research

17 Communicatively Constituted Reputation and Reputation Management

The Constitutive Function of Organizational Communication

How Organizational Communication Constitutes of Reputation

Building a Research Agenda on Communicatively Constituted Reputation (CCR)

Conclusions

18 A Strategic Management Approach to Reputation, Relationships, and Publics: The Research Heritage of the Excellence Theory

Symbolic and Behavioral Paradigms of Public Relations

A Strategic Management Role for Public Relations: How Organizational Behavior and Relationships Shape Reputation

Research on Reputation from a Behavioral, Strategic Management Perspective

Managing Reputations

19 Image Repair Theory and Corporate Reputation

History/Origins of Image Repair Theory

The Theory of Image Repair Discourse

Description of Theoretical Relevance to Corporate Reputation

Future Directions of Research

20 The Institutionalization of Corporate Reputation

Institutional Research and Corporate Reputation

To What Extent Is Corporate Reputation Institutionalized?

Conclusion: A Communicatively Inflected Institutional Approach to Corporate Reputation

21 Experiencing the Reputational Synergy of Success and Failure through Organizational Learning

Organizational Legitimacy and Reputation

Reputation Management

Organizational Learning

Proactive Learning Strategies

Organizational Learning and Crisis

Core Values and Organizational Learning

Future Directions for Organizational Learning and Reputation Management

22 Relating Rhetoric and Reputation

Identity, Image, and Reputation

The Western Rhetorical Tradition and its Epistemology

Rhetoric and the Corporation

The Concept of Ethos

Rhetoric as Identification

Conclusion and Research Agenda

23 Situational Theory of Crisis: Situational Crisis Communication Theory and Corporate Reputation

Origins of SCCT

Explication of SCCT

SCCT and Corporate Reputation

Future Research Directions

Conclusion

24 Corporate Reputation and the Theory of Social Capital

Introduction

History/Origins of Social Capital

Theoretical Description

Description of Theoretical Relevance to Corporate Reputation

Future Directions of Research

Section 3: Attributes of Reputation

25 Corporate Attributes and Associations

Introduction

Theoretical Foundation

Stakeholder Company Knowledge

Formation of Corporate Awareness, Attributes, and Associations: The Role of Communication

26 What They Say and What They Do: Executives Affect Organizational Reputation through Effective Communication

Chapter Overview

Individual-Based Executive Actions and Succession

The CEO-TMT Interface and Group-Based Executive Actions

Executive Leadership and Organizational Transformation

The Intertwined Relationship between Leadership and Power

Executive Leadership Behavior and Organizational Culture

From Leadership to Reputation: A Contingent View

27 Corporate Reputation and Workplace Environment

Workplace Environment as an Attribute of Corporate Reputation

Corporate Reputation and Culture

Conceptualization of Corporate Culture

Measurement of Corporate Culture

The Link between Corporate Culture and Reputation

Corporate Reputation and the Ability to Attract, Develop, and Retain Top Talents

Reputation and Job Applicants’ Attraction to Hiring Organizations

Develop and Retain Talented Employees through Strategic HR Practices and Internal Communication

Limitations of Research on Workplace Environment

Concept and Measurement: Future Research on Communication, Reputation, and Workplace Environment

More Research on the Measurement of Corporate Reputation in Studying Workplace Environment and Communication with Employees

Implications for Other Disciplines

28 Corporate Reputation and the Practice of Corporate Governance

Introduction

Background

What Does Corporate Governance Mean?

Theoretical Frameworks

Summary

Corporate Governance and Doing the “Right Thing”

Looking Ahead: Corporate Governance in Corporate Reputation Research and Practice

29 Synthesizing Relationship Dynamics: An Analysis of Products and Services as Components of Corporate Reputation

Introduction

Corporate Reputation

Product and Service Reputation

Relational Reputation

Synthesizing Reputation

Conclusion

30 Corporate Social Responsibility, Reputation, and Moral Communication: A Constructivist View

Introduction

CSR and Reputation: Development, Definitions, Drivers

Instrumental–Functionalist View: Positive Relation between CSR and Reputation

Normative–Political View: CSR as Instrument to Build Legitimacy

Toward a Communicative View: CSR and Reputation as Communicative Events

Discussion and Conclusion

31 Reputation or Financial Performance: Which Comes First?

Financial Performance as an Attribute of Corporate Reputation

The Role of Communications in Evaluating Financial Performance

The Influence of Corporate Reputation on Financial Performance

Conclusions

32 Who’s in Charge and What’s the Solution? Reputation as a Matter of Issue Debate and Risk Management

Issues and Risk Management

Issues Management: Managing in Response to Issues

Issues and Managements’ Response

Risk and Managements’ Response

Reputation and Managements’ Response

Applications: Reputation as Legitimacy Is Always a Bumpy Road Fraught with Contention and Uncertainty

Conclusions

33 Form Following Function: Message Design for Managing Corporate Reputations

Corporate Reputation Messages and Discourse Creation

Recalls as an Example

Discussion

Conclusion

Author Notes

Section 4: Contexts of Reputation

34 Contrabrand: Activism and the Leveraging of Corporate Reputation

The Social Construction of Activism and Its Targets

Activist Networking and Digital Activism

Activism by the Issues

Conclusion

35 Identity, Perceived Authenticity, and Reputation: A Dynamic Association in Strategic Communications

Introduction

Perceived Authenticity

The Dynamic Association

Conclusions

36 Corporate Branding and Corporate Reputation

Introduction

Classical Branding

Corporate Branding and Corporate Reputation

“Waves” of Corporate Branding and Links to Corporate Reputation

The “Third Wave” of Corporate Branding

Critical Approaches to Corporate Branding and Corporate Reputation

Toward a New Agenda for Corporate Branding and Corporate Reputation

Conclusion

37 Corporate Reputation and Corporate Speech

Corporate Political Media Spending and the First Amendment

Careful Adjudication of the Balance of Power

Debating Corporate Reputation and Political Media Spending

Future Directions of Research

38 Corporate Reputation Management and Issues of Diversity

Reputation: A Cocreated Construct

Reputation and Issues of Diversity

Rationale for Diversity and Reputation

The Case of Two Diversity Missteps

Conclusion

39 Corporate Reputation in Emerging Markets: A Culture-Centered Review and Critique

Theoretical Foundations and Definitional Terrains

Emerging Markets and Corporate Reputation Scholarship

Implications for Future Research

Conclusion

40 The Power of Social Media and Its Influence on Corporate Reputation

Why Social Media Matters

Social Media Variables That Impact Corporate Reputation

Corporate Social Media Actions

Today’s Social Media Tools

Conclusion

41 The Reputation of Corporate Reputation: Fads, Fashions, and the Mainstreaming of Corporate Reputation Research and Practice

Management Knowledge and Management Fashion

42 Reputation and Legitimacy: Accreditation and Rankings to Assess Organizations

Legitimacy and Reputation

Accreditations and Rankings: The Signals of Legitimacy and Reputation

Ranking Systems

Strategic Action around Reputation

Scholarly Tensions and Future Research

Conclusion

43 Hidden Organizations and Reputation

Revisiting Reputation

Hidden Organizations

Conclusions and Suggestions for Future Work

Section 5: Communication Research and Evaluation

44 Corporate Reputation Measurement and Evaluation

Defining Reputation

A Historical Overview of the Measurement of Reputation

Contemporary Measurement of Reputation (2000 to Present)

A Process View of Reputation Measures

Online Reputation Management

Conclusion

45 Corporate Reputation and Return on Investment (ROI): Measuring the Bottom-Line Impact of Reputation

Introduction

Communication Evaluation and the Need of ROI Measures

Reputation as the Communication Goal

Reputation and Financial Performance

The Previous Reputation ROI Research and Possible Models

The Prevention Effect as Another Reputation ROI

Replication with Current Data and Applications

Conclusion

Theory Extension and Implications

46 The Future of Communication Research in Corporate Reputation Studies

A Multifaceted Subject and a Multiplicity of Research Approaches

Recommendations for Future Research Topics, Styles, and Approaches

Summary

Author Index

Subject Index

Handbooks in Communication and Media

This series aims to provide theoretically ambitious but accessible volumes devoted to the major fields and subfields within communication and media studies. Each volume sets out to ground and orientate the student through a broad range of specially commissioned chapters, while also providing the more experienced scholar and teacher with a convenient and comprehensive overview of the latest trends and critical directions.

The Handbook of Children, Media, and Development, edited by Sandra L. Calvert and Barbara J. Wilson

The Handbook of Crisis Communication, edited by W. Timothy Coombs and Sherry J. Holladay

The Handbook of Internet Studies, edited by Mia Consalvo and Charles Ess

The Handbook of Rhetoric and Public Address, edited by Shawn J. Parry-Giles and J. Michael Hogan

The Handbook of Critical Intercultural Communication, edited by Thomas K. Nakayama and Rona Tamiko Halualani

The Handbook of Global Communication and Media Ethics, edited by Robert S. Fortner and P. Mark Fackler

The Handbook of Communication and Corporate Social Responsibility, edited by Øyvind Ihlen, Jennifer Bartlett and Steve May

The Handbook of Gender, Sex, and Media, edited by Karen Ross

The Handbook of Global Health Communication, edited by Rafael Obregon and Silvio Waisbord

The Handbook of Global Media Research, edited by Ingrid Volkmer

The Handbook of Global Online Journalism, edited by Eugenia Siapera and Andreas Veglis

The Handbook of Communication and Corporate Reputation, edited by Craig E. Carroll

Forthcoming

The Handbook of International Advertising Research, edited by Hong Cheng

Title page

About the Editor

Craig E. Carroll (PhD, The University of Texas at Austin) is a Visiting Scholar in Corporate Communication at New York University’s Stern School of Business and Senior Research Fellow with the Reputation Institute. He pre­viously taught at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the University of Southern California in the Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism. Carroll teaches on the adjunct faculty at IE Communication School (Madrid, Spain), Università della Svizzera italiana (Lugano, Switzerland), and the University of Florida. Dr. Carroll has been a visiting professor at Northwestern University, University of Amsterdam, Rotterdam School of Management, and the University of Cambridge. Carroll’s research examines the role of communication in facets related to corporate reputation, organizational identity, and corporate social responsibility, including their relationships with the news media and the individual’s role in their construction, meaning and management. His research in these areas has been presented in 16 countries outside of the United States.

Carroll is the editor of Corporate Reputation and the News Media (Routledge, 2011). His research has been published in Communication Research, Corporate Reputation Review, Journal of Business Ethics, Journal of Business Research, Journalism and Communication Monographs (China), Management Learning, Public Relations Journal, and Public Relations Review. He serves on the editorial boards for Corporate Communications: An International Journal, Corporate Reputation Review, Journal of Communication, Journal of Public Relations Research, Public Relations Inquiry, and Public Relations Review. He serves as the executive director of the Observatory on Corporate Reputation, LLC and was named PR News’ Educator of the Year in 2008. Professor Carroll is past chair of the Public Relations division of the International Communication Association. He is a member of the International Association of Business Communicators and the Public Relations Society of America, as well as their local chapters in New York City and Nashville, Tennessee.

Notes on Contributors

Susan Westcott Alessandri (PhD, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2002) is Associate Professor in the Department of Communication and Journalism at Suffolk University. She is the author of Visual Identity: Promoting and Protecting the Public Face of an Organization. Her research has also been published in several textbooks and journals, including Corporate Reputation Review, Corporate Communications: An International Journal, Education Review of Business Communication, Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, Journal of Advertising Education, and Journal of Employee Communication Management. Alessandri serves on the editorial boards of Corporate Reputation Review, Corporate Communications: An International Journal, Jour­nal of Advertising Education, and Newspaper Research Journal. She also serves on the executive committee of the Media Management and Economics Division of Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC).

Kathryn Anthony (MA, University of Kentucky) is a doctoral student in the Department of Communication at the University of Kentucky where she serves as a teaching assistant and a research assistant. Her research interests include risk and crisis communication, health communication, and organizational commu­nication. She has served as a research assistant for the Department of Homeland Security’s National Center for Food Protection and Defense (NCFPD) and for the National Center for Risk and Economic Analysis of Terrorism Events (CREATE). She has published in the Journal of Applied Commu­nication Research and Argumentation and Advocacy. Katie is also a member of the Lexington-Fayette county Community Emergency Response Team.

Jennifer L. Bartlett (PhD, Queensland University of Technology) is a senior lecturer in the School of Advertising, Marketing, and Public Relations at the Faculty of Business at Queensland University of Technology, Australia. Her research has been published in the Public Relations Review, Asia Pacific Journal of Public Relations, Journal of Communication Management, and Australian Journal of Communication. She serves on the editorial boards of Prism: The Online Public Relations Journal in Australia and New Zealand. Bartlett is the previous secretary and incoming vice chair of the International Communication Association’s Public Relations division. She is also a fellow of the Public Relations Institute of Australia (PRIA).

William L. Benoit (PhD, Wayne State University) is Professor of Communication Studies at Ohio University. He developed the image repair theory and applied it in a number of case studies. He has published over 10 books (including Accounts, Excuses, and Apologies) and over 200 articles and book chapters. He has published in such journals as Quarterly Journal of Speech, Communication Monographs, Human Communication Research, Public Relations Review, Journal of Applied Com­munication, Journalism and Mass Commu­nication Review, Communication Education, Critical Studies in Media Communication, and Political Communication. He is currently ranked as one of the most productive scholars in communication.

Bruce K. Berger (PhD, University of Kentucky) is Reese Phifer Professor of Advertising & Public Relations in the College of Communication & Information Sciences at the University of Alabama. His research interests include leadership in public relations practice and education, influence and power relations, and employee and organizational communications. He has coauthored a book about power relations in practice and published more than 40 articles and book chapters in academic and professional publications. He is a member of the Arthur W. Page Society and serves on the board of directors of The Plank Center for Leadership in Public Relations and the Institute for Public Relations. Previously, he was vice president of public relations for Whirlpool Corporation and president of the Whirlpool Foundation. He worked in international public relations for 20 years.

Peggy Simcic Brønn (DBA, Henley Management College) is Professor of Communication and Management in the Norwegian Business School’s Department of Communication, Culture and Languages, and associate dean of the school’s Bachelor in Public Relations. She is also director of the Center for Corporate Communication. Dr. Brønn has conducted research on relationship outcomes, reputation and reputation risk analysis, institutionalization of communication, motives for social engagement, and the strategic role of communication managers. Her works are published in the European Journal of Marketing, Journal of Communication Management, Public Relations Review, Journal of Communication Management (European editor), Corporate Reputation Review (editorial board), Corporate Communication: An International Journal (editorial board), Journal of Business Ethics, and Business and Society Review, among others. She is coeditor of Corporate Communication: A Strategic Approach to Building Reputation (second edition) and is coauthor of the first academic book on reputation in Norwegian. She is Norway’s academic representative to the Reputation Institute and consults in the private, public, and nonprofit sectors in Norway.

Craig E. Carroll (PhD, The University of Texas at Austin) is a Visiting Scholar in Corporate Communication at New York University’s Stern School of Business and Senior Research Fellow with the Reputation Institute. Professor Carroll is editor of the Handbook of Communication and Corporate Reputation.

Clarke L. Caywood (PhD, the University of Wisconsin-Madison) is Full Professor of Integrated Marketing Communications in the Medill School at Northwestern University. He published the second edition of the Handbook of Strategic Public Relations & Integrated Marketing Communications (McGraw-Hill, 2011). He was named by PRWeek as one of the most influential 100 PR people of the twentieth century (PRWeek, October 18, 1999), the top 10 outstanding educators in 2000 (PRWeek, February 7, 2000), and Educator of the Year by the Public Relations Society of America in 2002–2003. He has served as member of the Board of the Chicago Museum of Contemporary Art, the Advisory Board of the Chicago Symphony, the Direct Selling Education Foundation Board, and Co-Chair of the Awards Committee of the Public Relations Society of America. He is also a member and former trustee of the A.W. Page Society. He has worked for two past governors and the attorney general of the state of Wisconsin.

W. Timothy Coombs (PhD, Purdue University) is Full Professor in the Nicholson School of Communication at the University of Central Florida. Coombs is the 2002 recipient of Jackson, Jackson & Wagner Behavioral Science Prize from the Public Relations Society of American for his crisis research. His research has led to the development and testing of the situational crisis communication theory (SCCT). He has published widely in the areas of crisis management including articles in a variety of journals. His research includes the award-winning book Ongoing Crisis Communication. He has coauthored the award-winning books It’s Not Just Public Relations with Sherry J. Holladay and Today’s Public Relations with Robert L. Heath. He is also coeditor of The Handbook of Crisis Communication and coauthor of PR Strategy and Application: Managing Influence. Dr. Coombs had delivered presentations in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hong Kong, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.

Jeffrey L. Courtright (PhD, Purdue University) is Associate Professor of Communication at Illinois State University. With more than 20 years in public relations education and research, he investigates the relationship between corporate reputation and message design across a variety of contexts, from environmental communication to community relations to inter­national public relations. He studies both for-profit and nonprofit organizations and has published multiple research articles, several with Dr. Peter Smudde as coauthor. He also has published with Dr. Smudde the books Inspiring Cooperation and Celebrating Organizations (2012) and Power and Public Relations (2007).

Sally Davenport (PhD, Victoria University of Wellington) is Professor of Management at Victoria University of Wellington and has a background in the physical sciences and research expertise in the areas of strategy, technology, innovation, and research management and policy. In April 2011, she was appointed as a commissioner with the New Zealand Productivity Commission. Her research interests center on organizational and stakeholder strategy and discourse surrounding the management of science, technology, and innovation, with a particular focus on the growth of high-tech firms. She has been a principal investigator/leader on three major research grants. Sally is currently a member of the editorial boards of four international journals and is Deputy Chair of the Advisory Board of the International Society for Professional Innovation Management. Her articles have appeared in journals such as Organization Studies, Human Relations, Research Policy, Discourse Studies, British Journal of Management, European Journal of Marketing, European Planning Studies, R&D Management, Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, and Science & Pubic Policy.

Marcia W. DiStaso (PhD, University of Miami) is an Assistant Professor of Public Relations in the College of Communications at Pennsylvania State University. Her research has been published (or accepted for publication) in the Journal of Public Relations Research, Public Relations Review, Public Relations Journal, Journalism Studies, Mass Communication & Society, in many books and through the Institute for Public Relations. She is an Arthur W. Page Center Senior Research Fellow, chair of the Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) Financial Communications division, chair-elect of the PRSA Educator’s Academy, co-chair of PRSA’s National Research Committee, a board member for the International Public Relations Research Conference, and an associate editor for the Social Science of Social Media Research Center.

Melissa D. Dodd (PhD, University of Miami) is Assistant Professor of Public Relations at the State University of New York in Oswego. She is the (co)author of multiple refereed journal publications and has presented award-winning papers at top-tier academic conferences. Her research interests include social capital theory, individual/interpersonal variables, social media, reputation, ethics, and measurement as they relate to public relations. She serves as an Advisory Board Member for the International Public Relations Research Conference and Book Review Editor for the Journal of the Association for Communication Administration. Dodd has held consulting positions with the Corporate Communication Department of Bacardi USA and the University of Miami’s Emergency Management Department.

Mohan J. Dutta (PhD, University of Minnesota) is Professor and Head of the Department of Communications and New Media at the National University of Singapore and Cour­tesy Professor of Communication at Purdue University. At NUS, he is the Founding Director of the Center for Culture-Centered Approach to Research and Evaluation (CARE), directing research on culturally-centered, community-based projects of social change. He teaches and conducts research in international health communication, critical cultural theory, poverty in healthcare, health activism in globalization politics, indigenous cosmologies of health, subaltern studies and dialogue, and public policy and social change. Currently, he serves as Editor of the “Global Health Communication Book Series” with Left Coast Press and sits on the editorial board of seven journals. Before arriving to NUS, he served as Associate Dean of Research in the College of Liberal Arts at Purdue University, a Service Learning Fellow, and a fellow of the Entrepreneurial Leadership Academy. Also at Purdue, he served as the Founding Director of the Center for Poverty and Health Inequities (COPHI).

Sabine Einwiller (PhD, University of St. Gallen) is Professor of Corporate Communication at the Department of Communication, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany, where she is also responsible for a master’s program in corporate communication. Her current research interests focus on causes and measurement of corporate reputation, integrated communication management, and the effects of negative publicity. Her research has been published in various international journals such as the Corporate Communications: An International Journal, Corporate Reputation Review, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, and Journal of Consumer Psychology.

Magnus Frostenson (PhD, Stockholm School of Economics) is an Associate Professor of Business Administration. His dissertation focused on issues of ethics and culture in newly internationalized Swedish firms. He is currently a researcher with the Department of Business Studies at Uppsala University and is also a senior lecturer at the Örebro University School of Business. He is the author of several journal articles, books, and book chapters, primarily in business ethics and corporate social responsibility. He has published in the Journal of Business Ethics, Philosophy of Management, and Business Ethics: A European Review, among other academic periodicals. In 2011, he published a monograph on business ethics, to be followed in 2012 by a new book on sustainability reporting.

Dawn R. Gilpin (PhD, Temple University) is an Assistant Professor at the Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication at Arizona State University. Her work has been published in the Journal of Public Relations Research, Public Relations Review, Journal of Communication Management, Health Communication, E:CO Complexity & Organization, Studies in Communication Sciences, Global Media Journal, and in several edited volumes. With Priscilla Murphy, she is coauthor of Crisis Management in a Complex World (Oxford University Press, 2008).

Karla K. Gower (PhD, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill) is a Professor in the Department of Advertising and Public Relations and Director of the Plank Center for Leadership in Public Relations at the University of Alabama. She is the author of The Opinions of Mankind: Racial Issues, Press, and Propaganda in the Cold War (with R. Lentz), Legal and Ethical Considerations for Public Relations, PR and the Press: The Troubled Embrace, and Liberty and Authority in Free Expression Law: The United States and Canada. Her research has also been published in Communication Law & Policy, Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, Journal of Public Relations Research, Public Relations Review, Journal of Communication Management, American Journalism, and Journalism History. She serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Public Relations Research and Journalism History.

Robert J. Green (MA, Wake Forest University) is a doctoral student at the Brian Lamb School of Communication, Purdue University. His research has been published in Communication Teacher.

Anne Gregory (PhD, Leeds Metropolitan University) is Professor of Public Relations and Director of the Centre for Public Relations Studies at Leeds Metropolitan University, UK. She has authored over 70 publications publishing in Public Relations Review, Journal of Marketing Management, Journal of Marketing Communications, Corporate Communications, International Journal of Communication Ethics, Journal of Public Affairs and Journal of Communication Management. She is also, editor-in-chief of the Journal of Communication Management, and edits the globally available Chartered Institute of Public Relations (CIPR) series of 17 books, which she initiated. Anne also leads specialist commercial research and consultancy projects from the center working with public and private sector clients. Originally a broadcast journalist, Anne spent 10 years as a senior practitioner before moving on to academia. She was president of the CIPR in 2004, leading it to chartered status and was awarded the CIPR’s Sir Stephen Tallents Medal for her outstanding contribution to public relations in 2010. Anne is a committed internationalist and, in May 2011, was voted chair-elect of the Global Alliance of Public Relations and Communications Management, the umbrella organization of over 60 public relations institutes from around the world.

James E. Grunig (PhD, University of Wisconsin–Madison) is a Professor Emeritus of Public Relations in the Department of Communication at the University of Maryland College Park. He is the coauthor of Relações públicas: Teoria, contexto e relacionamentos (Public Relations: Theory, Context, and Relationships), Excellent Public Relations and Effective Organizations: A Study of Communication Management in Three Countries, Managing Public Relations, Public Relations Techniques, and Manager’s Guide to Excellence in Public Relations and Communication Management. He is editor of Excellence in Public Relations and Communication Management. Excellent Public Relations and Effective Organizations received the 2002 PRIDE award of the Public Relations Division of the National Communication Association as the best book in public relations in the previous two years. In addition to his books, Grunig has written 246 other publications such as book chapters, journal articles, reports, and papers. He has won seven major awards in public relations: the Arthur W. Page Society Distinguished Service Award; the Pathfinder Award for excellence in public relations research of the Institute for Public Relations Research and Education; the Outstanding Educator Award of the Public Relations Society of America (PRSA); the Jackson, Jackson and Wagner Award for behavioral science research of the PRSA Foundation; the Alexander Hamilton Medal for Lifetime Contributions to Professional Public Relations of the Institute for Public Relations; the Lloyd Dennis Award for Distinguished Leadership in Public Affairs (with Larissa A. Grunig) from the Public Affairs and Government Section of PRSA; and the Dr. Hamid Notghi Prize for Career Achievement in Public Relations from the Kargozar Public Relations Institute, Tehran, Iran. He also won the most prestigious lifetime award of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC), the Paul J. Deutschmann Award for Excellence in Research. He was the forty-fifth Annual Distinguished Lecturer of the Institute for Public Relations in 2006. He has been awarded honorary doctorates by the Universidad San Martin de Porres in Peru, the University of Bucharest in Romania, Istanbul University in Turkey, and the University of Quebec at Montreal in Canada.

Kristen Guth (MA, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) is a doctoral student in the Department of Communication at the Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism at the University of Southern California (USC). Her recent scholarly interests include organizational communication and technology. Kristen’s current research examines corporate social responsibility communicated on the Internet, Twitter sentiment analysis, and scenario planning for organizations. In 2012, Kristen researched youth, organizations, and information quality issues on the Internet with the Youth and Media Lab at the Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard University. In addition to prior roles as a journalist for Fox and NBC, she has professional experience in corporate and non-profit public relations for digital and traditional media contexts. She has taught undergraduate courses in public speaking and communication technology and society at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Kristen currently teaches undergraduate and graduate students in the experiential learning center at the USC Marshall School of Business.

Robert L. Heath (PhD, University of Illinois) is Professor Emeritus at the University of Houston, author of many books and articles on issues management, public relations, crisis communication, risk communication, organizational rhetorical theory, and narrative theory. Notable in the list of recent publications is the SAGE Handbook of Public Relations (2010), Handbook of Risk and Crisis Communication (2009, with H. Dan O’Hair), Rhetorical and Critical Approaches to Public Relations II (2009, with Elizabeth Toth and Damion Waymer), Today’s Public Relations (2006, with W. Timothy Coombs), and The Encyclopedia of Public Relations (2005). He is the lead editor and author of the lead article in a special issue of Management Communication Quarterly addressing external organizational rhetoric (2011, 25/3).

Sherry J. Holladay (PhD, Purdue University) is a Professor at the Nicholson School of Communication at the University of Central Florida in Orlando. Dr. Holladay’s research interests include crisis communication, corporate social responsibility, reputation management, activism, and stakeholder relations. Her work appears in the Journal of Public Relations Research, Public Relations Review, Management Communication Quarterly, Journal of Communication Management, and International Journal of Strategic Communication. She is coauthor of It’s Not Just PR: Public Relations in Society, Public Relations Strategies and Applications: Managing Influence, and Managing Corporate Responsibility: A Communication Approach, and coeditor of the Handbook of Crisis Communication.

Alex D. Holt (BA, The George Washington University) was, at the time of this writing, an undergraduate honors student majoring in political communication.

Chun-ju Flora Hung-Baesecke (PhD, University of Maryland at College Park) is the Associate Director of the Center for Media and Communication Research and Assistant Professor of the Public Relations & Advertising Option in the Department of Communication Studies at Hong Kong Baptist University. Her research interests are relationship management, strategic management, reputation management, crisis communication, conflict resolution, negotiation, and corporate social responsibility. Dr. Hung published her research in book chapters and in international refereed journals, for example, Journal of Public Relations Research, Journal of Communication Management, Public Relations Review, and International Journal of Strategic Communication, and has presented research papers in international academic public relations conferences.

Øyvind Ihlen (dr.art., University of Oslo) is Professor at the Department of Media and Communication at the University of Oslo. He was previously Professor of Communication and Management at the Norwegian School of Management and at Hedmark University College. Ihlen has edited, written, and cowritten seven books, among them Public Relations and Social Theory (Routledge, 2009) and Handbook of Com­munication and Corporate Social Responsibility (Wiley Blackwell, 2011). His award-winning research has appeared in numerous anthologies and in journals such as the Journal of Public Relations Research, Public Relations Review, Journal of Public Affairs, International Journal of Strategic Communication, Journal of Communication Management, Corporate Com­munications, Management Com­munication Quarterly, International Journal of Organizational Analysis, Environmental Communication, Sustainable Development, and Business Strategy and the Environment. He is on the editorial board of 9 journals and have reviewed for an additional 12 journals and publishing houses.

Laura Illia (PhD, Università della Svizzera Italiana) is Professor in Corporate Commu­nication at IE University and Academic Director of the Master at the same University (ES). Her current research focuses on how issues of organizational identity, social responsibility, corporate communication and branding are involved in organizational management and change. She has been doing research at the University of Cambridge (UK), London School of Economics and Political Science (UK) and University of Lugano (CH). Her works are published in journals like MIT Sloan Management Review, British Journal of Management, Journal of Business Research, Journal of Applied Behavioural Science, Corporate Reputation Review, Corporate Communication: An International Journal, Journal of Public Relations Research, and others. She currently serves on the Editorial Board of Business & Society (Sage), Corporate Reputation Review (Palgrave) and Corporate Communication: An International Journal (Emerald).

Rajul Jain (MA, University of Florida) is a PhD candidate in Public Relations at the University of Florida. Prior to coming to the United States in 2007, Rajul worked as a business analyst and communication coordinator at a multinational telecommunication firm in India. Rajul is a recipient of the 2011 Ketchum Excellence in Public Relations Research Award. She has several years of professional experience in corporate and nonprofit public relations, as well as teaching experience at the university level, which includes teaching public relations courses at DePaul University. Her research focus is on corporate and transnational public relations.

Pan Ji (PhD, University of South Carolina) is a postdoctoral research fellow at Nanyang Technological University (Singapore), his research interests relate to the effects and antecedents of mediated social connectivity, frame building within media organizations, as well as the behavioral or cognitive effects of media framing. Specifically, Ji examines the coverage of global events such as environmental crises, product safety issues or health perils, as well as the spread of related information and resources within established or emergent social networks. Current studies involve a social network analysis of blog hyperlink networks, framing of made-in-China products in Western media, and the impacts of SNS on job mobility and entrepreneurship among Singaporeans.

Hua Jiang (PhD, University of Maryland at College Park) is Assistant Professor at Towson University. She teaches both undergraduate and graduate public relations courses, including Principles of Strategic Public Relations and Integrated Communication, Public Relations and Integrated Communication Campaigns, Mass Communication Research, Theories of Public Relations and Organizational Communication, and Practice of Public Relations and Organizational Communication. Her research interests include work/life conflict issues in public relations, public relations leadership, relationship management, social media, public diplomacy, activism, and global public relations. Her work has been published or accepted to be published in peer-reviewed academic journals including Journal of Public Relations Research, Journal of Health Communication, Public Relations Review, Asian Journal of Communication, Public Relations Journal, Journal of Public Affairs, and Public Relations Inquiry. Dr. Jiang has also contributed book chapters to Handbook of communication and corporate reputation, Handbook of public diplomacy, and Gender and public relations: Critical perspectives on voice, image and identity.

Esben Karmark (PhD, Copenhagen Business School) is Associate Professor in the Department of Intercultural Communication and Management at Copenhagen Business School in Denmark. His research examines corporate communication, corporate branding (and particularly cultural dimensions and brand retail), organizational and corporate identity, and corporate culture. He has published his research and teaching cases in such edited books as Media, Organizations, and Identity and Corporate Branding Purpose/People/Process.

Robert Kerr (PhD, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill) is Professor at the University of Oklahoma. His First Amendment research focuses on legal and public policy issues involved in maintaining a truly free marketplace of ideas for citizens in an age when corporate and government voices have grown more powerful than ever. He was the most honored participant over the past decade in national research competitions of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, a 2010 Musambira and Nesta study documented. In 2008, he was named a Presidential Professor by OU and the winner of the National Communication Association’s Franklyn S. Haiman Award for Distinguished Scholarship in Freedom of Expression. Kerr’s latest book – The Corporate Free-Speech Movement: Cognitive Feudalism and the Endangered Marketplace of Ideas – foreshadowed the recent economic crisis in global markets, as well as the 2010 US Supreme Court ruling in Citizens United v. FEC that removed virtually all limits on corporate spending in political campaigns.

Jeong-Nam Kim (PhD, University of Maryland at College Park) is Associate Professor in the Brian Lamb School of Communication at Purdue University. His research areas are strategic management of public relations, public behaviors, health/risk communication, and online and offline communicative actions among publics. Jeong-Nam and James Grunig of the University of Maryland developed a situational theory of problem solving (STOPS), a generalized version of the situational theory of publics. Currently, he is conducting research using the new situational theory in the areas of public relations, public opinion, and health, risk, and science communication.

Sookyong Kim (MS, Kansas State University) is a doctoral student in the Department of Advertising, Public Relations & Retailing at Michigan State University. She has worked as a research assistant at Michigan State University for the Advergame project funded by the National Institutes of Health. Sookyong’s work focuses mainly on food marketing to children, social marketing, deceptive product placement in media, and implications for public policy. She is currently teaching social marketing to undergraduate students at Michigan State University.