Cover Page
Image described by caption.

Cornea Clear, front part of the eye
Iris Colored diaphragm that regulates amount of light entering
Aqueous Clear fluid in front part of the eye
Ciliary body Produces aqueous and focuses lens
Lens Clear, refracting media that focuses light
Vitreous Clear jelly filling the back of the eye
Sclera Rigid, white outer shell of the eye
Conjunctiva Mucous membrane covering sclera and inner lids
Retina Inner lining of the eye containing light-sensitive rods and cones
Macula Avascular area of the retina responsible for the most acute vision
Fovea A pit in the center of the macula corresponding to central fixation of vision
Choroid Vascular layer between retina and sclera
Optic nerve Transmits visual stimuli from retina to brain
Zonule Fibers suspending lens from ciliary body

Cover images: Diabetic Retinopathy © Julia Monsonego, CRA, Wills Eye Hospital and Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc.

Upper left corner: Normal OCT angiogram

Upper right corner: Diabetic OCT angiogram showing microaneurysms and capillary dropout (non-profusion)

Main image: cotton-wool spots, exudates, microaneurysms, flame hemorrhages, silver-wire arterial narrowing with dot and blot hemorrhages

Manual for Eye Examination and Diagnosis


Mark W. Leitman, MD

Clinical Assistant Professor
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences
Montefiore Hospital
Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Bronx, NY, USA


Attending Physician
St. Peter's Medical Center
New Brunswick, NJ, USA



NINTH EDITION







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A serious student is like a seed:
with so much potential it will grow
almost anywhere it lands.



Image described by caption.

Fig. I A seed introduced into the eye of an 8 year-old boy through a penetrating corneal wound became imbedded in the iris. Many months later, the seed became visible when it began germinating. Courtesy of Solomon Abel, MD, FRCS, DOMS, and Arch. Ophthalmol., Sept. 1979, Vol. 97, p. 1651. Copyright 1979, American Medical Association. All rights reserved.