Cover Page

Contents

Cover

Title Page

Copyright

Preface

List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Practical Notes

List of Conversion Factors

Chapter 1: Design of Thermo-Fluids Systems

1.1 Engineering Design—Definition

1.2 Types of Design in Thermo-Fluid Science

1.3 Difference between Design and Analysis

1.4 Classification of Design

1.5 General Steps in Design

1.6 Abridged Steps in the Design Process

Chapter 2: Air Distribution Systems

2.1 Fluid Mechanics—A Brief Review

2.2 Air Duct Sizing—Special Design Considerations

2.3 Minor Head Loss in a Run of Pipe or Duct

2.4 Minor Losses in the Design of Air Duct Systems—Equal Friction Method

2.5 Fans—Brief Overview and Selection Procedures

2.6 Design for Advanced Technology—Small Duct High-Velocity (SDHV) Air Distribution Systems

References and Further Reading

Chapter 3: Liquid Piping Systems

3.1 Liquid Piping Systems

3.2 Minor Losses: Fittings and Valves in Liquid Piping Systems

3.3 Sizing Liquid Piping Systems

3.4 Fluid Machines (Pumps) and Pump–Pipe Matching

3.5 Design of Piping Systems Complete with In-Line or Base-Mounted Pumps

Chapter 4: Fundamentals of Heat Exchanger Design

4.1 Definition and Requirements

4.2 Types of Heat Exchangers

4.3 The Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

4.4 The Convection Heat Transfer Coefficients—Forced Convection

4.5 Heat Exchanger Analysis

4.6 Heat Exchanger Design and Performance Analysis: Part 1

4.7 Heat Exchanger Design and Performance Analysis: Part 2

4.8 Manufacturer's Catalog Sheets for Heat Exchanger Selection

Chapter 5: Applications of Heat Exchangers in Systems

5.1 Operation of a Heat Exchanger in a Plasma Spraying System

5.2 Components and General Operation of a Hot Water Heating System

5.3 Boilers for Water

5.4 Design of Hydronic Heating Systems c/w Baseboards or Finned-Tube Heaters

5.5 Design Considerations for Hot Water Heating Systems

References and Further Reading

Chapter 6: Performance Analysis of Power Plant Systems

6.1 Thermodynamic Cycles for Power Generation—Brief Review

6.2 Real Steam Power Plants—General Considerations

6.3 Steam-Turbine Internal Efficiency and Expansion Lines

6.4 Closed Feedwater Heaters (Surface Heaters)

6.5 The Steam Turbine

6.6 Turbine-Cycle Heat Balance and Heat and Mass Balance Diagrams

6.7 Steam-Turbine Power Plant System Performance Analysis Considerations

6.8 Second-Law Analysis of Steam-Turbine Power Plants

6.9 Gas-Turbine Power Plant Systems

6.10 Combined-Cycle Power Plant Systems

References and Further Reading

Appendix A: Pipe and Duct Systems

Appendix B: Symbols for Drawings

Appendix C: Heat Exchanger Design

Appendix D: Design Project— Possible Solution

D.1 Fuel Oil Piping System Design

Appendix E: Applicable Standards and Codes

Appendix F: Equipment Manufacturers

Appendix G: General Design Checklists

G.1 Air and Exhaust Duct Systems

G.2 Liquid Piping Systems

G.3 Heat Exchangers, Boilers, and Water Heaters

Index

Title Page

Preface

Design courses and projects in contemporary undergraduate curricula have focused mainly on topics in solid mechanics. This has left graduating junior engineers with limited knowledge and experience in the design of components and systems in the thermo-fluids sciences. ABB Automation in their handbook on Energy Efficient Design of Auxiliary Systems in Fossil-Fuel Power Plants has mentioned that this lack of training in thermo-fluids systems design will limit our ability to produce high-performance systems. This deficiency in contemporary undergraduate curricula has resulted in an urgent need for course materials that underline the application of fundamental concepts in the design of thermo-fluids components and systems.

Owing to the urgent need for course materials in this area, this textbook has been developed to bridge the gap between the fundamental concepts of fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and thermodynamics and the practical design of thermo-fluids components and systems. To achieve this goal, this textbook is focused on the design of internal fluid flow systems, coiled heat exchangers, and performance analysis of power plant systems. This requires prerequisite knowledge of internal fluid flow, conduction heat transfer, convection heat transfer with emphasis on forced convection in tubes and over cylinders, analysis of constant area fins, and thermodynamic power cycles, in particular, the Rankine and Brayton cycles. The fundamental concepts are used as tools in an exhaustive design process to solve various practical problems presented in the examples. For junior design engineers with limited practical experience, use of fundamental concepts of which they have previous knowledge will help them to increase their confidence and decision-making capabilities.

The complete design or modification of modern equipment and systems will require knowledge of current industry practices. While relying on and demonstrating the application of fundamental principles, this textbook highlights the use of manufacturers' catalogs to select equipment and practical rules to guide decision-making in the design process. Some of these practical rules are included in the text as Practical Notes, to underline their importance in current practice and provide additional information. While great emphasis is placed upon the use of these rules, an effort was made to ensure that the reader understands the fundamental concepts that support these guidelines. It is strongly believed that this will also enable the design engineer to make quick and accurate decisions in situations where the guidelines may not be applicable.

The topics covered in the text are arranged so that each topic builds on the previous concepts. It is important to convey to the reader that, in the design process, topics are not stand-alone items and they must come together to produce a successful design. There are three main topical areas, arranged in six chapters.

Introductory material on the design process is presented in Chapter 1. Since the book focuses on the detailed, technical design of thermo-fluids components and systems, the chapter ends with an abridged version of the full design process.

Chapters 2 and 3 deal with the design of air duct and liquid piping systems, respectively. It is in these initial chapters that a brief review of internal fluid flow is presented. System layout, component sizing, and equipment selection are also covered.

An introduction to heat exchanger design and analysis is presented in Chapter 4. This chapter presents the most fundamental material in the textbook. Extensive charts are used to design and analyze the performance of bare-tube and finned-tube coiled heat exchangers. The chapter ends with a description of excerpts from a manufacturer's catalog used to select heating coil models that are used in high-velocity duct systems.

Chapter 5 continues the discussion of heat exchangers by focusing on the sizing and selection of various heat exchangers such as boilers, water heaters, and finned-tube baseboard heaters. Various rules and data are presented to guide the selection and design process.

Chapter 6 focuses on the analysis of power plant systems. Here, the reader is introduced to a review of thermodynamic power cycles and various practical considerations in the analysis of steam-turbine and gas-turbine power generation systems. Combined-cycle systems and waste heat recovery boilers are also presented.

There are seven Appendices at the end of this book. They contain a wide variety of charts, tables, and catalog sheets that the design engineer will find useful during practice. Also included in the appendices are: a possible solution of a design project, the names of organizations that provide applicable codes and standards, and the names of some manufacturers and suppliers of equipment used in thermo-fluids systems.

The writing of this textbook was inspired, in part, by the difficulty to find appropriate textbooks that presented a detailed practical approach to the design of thermo-fluids components and systems in industrial environments. It is hoped that the readers and design engineers, in particular, will find it useful in practice as a reference during design projects and analysis.

The authors have made no effort to claim complete originality of the text. We have been motivated by the work of many others that have been appropriately referenced throughout the textbook.

While we feel that this textbook will be a valuable resource for design engineers in industry, it is offered as a guide, and as such, judgement is required when using the text to design systems or for application to specific installations. The authors and the publisher are not responsible for any uses made of this text.

We express our deepest gratitude to and acknowledge the advice, critiques, and suggestions that we received from, our advisory committee of professors, professional engineers, and students. These individuals include Dr. Roger Toogood, P. Eng.; Mr. Mark Ackerman, P. Eng.; Mr. Curt Stout, P. Eng.; Dr. Larry Kostiuk, P. Eng.; Mr. Dave DeJong, P. Eng.; Mr. Michael Ross; and Mr. David Therrien.

A.G. McDonald
H.L. Magande

List of Figures

1.1 General steps in the design process
2.1 Duct shapes and aspect ratios
2.2 Photo of a typical air duct calculator
2.3 A ductwork system to transport air (ASHRAE Handbook, Fundamentals Volume, 2005; reprinted with permission)
2.4 Axial fans
2.5 Centrifugal fans
2.6 Classification of centrifugal fans based on blade types
2.7 Typical performance curves of centrifugal fans
2.8 Forward-curved centrifugal fan performance curves (Morrison Products, Inc.; reprinted with permission)
3.1 Some typical industrial valves
3.2 A typical fuel oil piping system complete with a pump set (ASHRAE Handbook, Fundamentals Volume, 2005; reprinted with permission)
3.3 Plastic pipe (Schedule 80) friction loss chart (ASHRAE Handbook, Fundamentals Volume, 2005; reprinted with permission)
3.4 Pipes supported on hangers
3.5 Pipes and an in-line pump mounted on brackets
3.6 Types of industrial pumps: (a) three-lobe rotary pump; (b) two-screw pump; (c) in-line centrifugal pump; (d) vertical mutistage submersible pump (Hydraulic Institute, Parsippany, NJ, www.pumps.org; reprinted with permission)
3.7 Schematic of a Hpump versus curve for a centrifugal pump
3.8 Schematic of a ηpump versus curve
3.9 Schematic of a system curve intersecting a pump performance curve
3.10 Performance curves for a family of geometrically similar pumps
3.11 Pump performance plot (Taco, Inc.; reprinted with permission)
3.12 A typical open-loop condenser piping system for water
3.13 Diagrams of closed-loop piping systems
4.1 Temperature profiles and schematics of (a) parallel and (b) counter flow double-pipe heat exchangers
4.2 Cross-flow heat exchangers
4.3 Picture of a continuous plate-fin-tube type cross-flow heat exchanger
4.4 Schematics of shell-and-tube heat exchangers
4.5 Temperature distribution around and through a 1D plane wall
4.6 Thermal resistance network around a plane wall
4.7 Axial temperature variation in parallel flow heat exchanger
4.8 Axial temperature variation in counter flow heat exchanger
4.9 Axial temperature variation in a balanced heat exchanger
4.10 Axial temperature variation in a heat exchanger with condensation
4.11 Axial temperature variation in a heat exchanger with boiling
4.12 Effectiveness charts for some heat exchangers (Kays and London [2])
4.13 (a) Finned tube and (b) bare tube bank bundles
4.14 Flow pattern for an in-line tube bank (Çengel [3], reprinted with permission)
4.15 Data for flow normal to an in-line tube bank (Kays and London [2])
4.16 Flow pattern for a staggered tube bank (Çengel [3], reprinted with permission)
4.17 Data for flow normal to a staggered tube bank (Kays and London [2])
4.18 Schematic drawing of tube bank showing the total length, Ltotal
4.19 Examples of finned heat exchangers
4.20 General constant area, straight fins attached to a surface
4.21 Staggered tube bank with a hexangular finned-tube array
4.22 Data for flow normal to a finned staggered tube bank (ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 79, Part II, 1973; reprinted with permission)
4.23 Data for flow normal to staggered tube banks: multiple tube rows (ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 81, Part I, 1975; reprinted with permission)
4.24 M series heating coil from Unico, Inc. (a) Page 1 of the M series heating coil from Unico, Inc. (Unico, Inc., reprinted with permission) (b) Page 2 of the M series heating coil from Unico, Inc. (Unico, Inc.; reprinted with permission) (c) Page 3 of the M series heating coil from Unico, Inc. (Unico, Inc., reprinted with permission) Page 4 of the M series heating coil from Unico, Inc. (Unico, Inc.; reprinted with permission)
5.1 A Praxair SG-100 plasma spray torch in operation
5.2 The Sulzer Metco Climet-HETM-200 heat exchanger (Sulzer Metco, Product Manual MAN 41292 EN 05; reprinted with permission)
5.3 Functional diagram for the Sulzer Metco Climet-HETM-200 (Sulzer Metco, Product Manual MAN 41292 EN 05; reprinted with permission)
5.4 Flow diagram for cooling a typical plasma torch (modified from Sulzer Metco, Product Manual MAN 41292 EN 05; reprinted with permission)
5.5 Schematic of a closed-loop hydronic heating system c/w a boiler
5.6 A typical gas-fired hot water boiler
5.7 Schematic of the internal section of typical water heaters
5.8 (a) A Rinnai noncondensing tankless water heater. (b) Schematic of Rinnai noncondensing tankless water heater (reprinted with permission)
5.9 Brochure showing specifications for a line of gas-fired boilers (Smith Cast Iron Boilers, GB100 series technical brochure; reprinted with permission)
5.10 Schematic diagram of a one-pipe series loop system
5.11 Schematic diagram of a split series loop system
5.12 Schematic of a one-pipe “monoflow” series loop system
5.13 Schematic diagram of a multizone system of one-pipe series loops
5.14 Schematic of a two-pipe direct return system
5.15 Schematic of a two-pipe reverse return system
5.16 Unbalanced flow in a two-pipe direct return system
5.17 Improved balance in a two-pipe direct return system
5.18 Diagrams of baseboard heaters. (a) 1-tiered baseboard heater; (b) 2-tiered finned-tube heater
6.1 Ideal Carnot cycle
6.2 Ideal Rankine cycle
6.3 Ideal regenerative Rankine cycles. (a) Single-stage feedwater heating; (b) four-stage feedwater heating
6.4 Mollier diagram for water
6.5 Mollier diagram for water showing an expansion line
6.6 Drain disposals for closed feedwater heaters (surface heaters)
6.7 Turbine operation
6.8 Exhaust diffuser of a LP turbine
6.9 Casing and shaft arrangements for large condensing turbines. (a) Tandem-compound 2 flows from 150 to 400 MW; (b) Tandem-compound 4 flows from 300 to 800 MW; (c) Cross-compound 2 flows from 300 to 800 MW; (d) Cross-compound 4 flows from 800 to 1200 MW
6.10 Heat-and-mass balance diagram for a fossil-fuel power plant (Li and Priddy [1]; reprinted with permission)
6.11 Ideal Brayton cycle
6.12 Real Brayton cycle
6.13 Regenerative Brayton cycle
6.14 Regenerative Brayton cycle with intercooling
6.15 Schematic of a combined-cycle power plant
6.16 Piping schematic of a single-pressure waste heat recovery boiler
6.17 Temperature profile in a single-pressure waste heat recovery boiler
A.1 Friction Loss in Round (Straight) Ducts. Source: System Design Manual, Part 2: Air Distribution, Carrier Air Conditioning Co., Syracuse, NY, 1974 (Reprinted with permission)
A.2 Schematics elbows in ducts
A.3 Copper tubing friction loss (open and closed piping systems) (Carrier Corp.; reprinted with permission)
A.4 Commercial steel pipe (Schedule 40) friction loss. (a) Open piping systems (Carrier Corp.; reprinted with permission); (b) closed piping systems (Carrier Corp.; reprinted with permission)
A.5 Bell & Gosset pump catalog (ITT Bell & Gossett; reprinted with permission)
C.1 j-factor versus ReG charts for in-line tube banks. Transient tests (2 charts): (a) For Xt = 1.50 and XL = 1.25; (b) For Xt = 1.25 and XL = 1.25. (Kays, W. and London, A. (1964) Compact Heat Exchangers, 2nd edn, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York)
C.2 j-factor versus ReG charts for staggered tube banks. Transient tests (6 charts): (a) For Xt = 1.50 and XL = 1.25; (b) For Xt = 1.25 and XL = 1.25; (c) For Xt = 1.50 and XL = 1.0; (d) For Xt = 1.5 and XL = 1.5; (e) For Xt = 2 and XL = 1; (f) For Xt = 2.5 and XL = 0.75. (Kays, W. and London, A. (1964) Compact Heat Exchangers, 2nd edn, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York)
C.3 j-factor versus charts for staggered tube banks (finned tubes): (a) five rows of tubes (ASHRAE Transactions, vol. 79, Part II, 1973; reprinted with permission); (b) multiple rows of tubes (ASHRAE Transactions, vol. 81, Part I, 1975; reprinted with permission)
C.4 j-factor versus ReG charts for staggered tube banks (finned tubes). (a) Tube outer diameter = 0.402 in.; (b) tube outer diameter = 0.676 in. (Kays, W. and London, A. (1964) Compact Heat Exchangers, 2nd edn, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York)

List of Tables

2.1 Maximum duct velocities
2.2 Typical values of component pressure losses [9]
2.3 Maximum supply duct velocities
2.4 Sound data during airflow through a rectangular elbow
2.5 Maximum main duct air velocities for acoustic design criteria
2.6 Acoustic design criteria for unoccupied spaces [21]
3.1 Typical average velocities for selected pipe flows
3.2 Pipe data for copper and steel
3.3 Hanger spacing for straight stationary pipes and tubes [1]
3.4 Minimum hanger rod size for straight stationary pipes and tubes [1]
4.1 Values of the overall heat transfer coefficient (US)
4.2 Values of the overall heat transfer coefficient (SI)
4.3 Representative fouling factors in heat exchangers
4.4 Nusselt numbers and friction factors for fully developed laminar flow in tubes of various cross sections: constant surface temperature and surface heat flux [3]
4.5 Effectiveness relations for heat exchangers
5.1 Minimum recovery rates and minimum usable storage capacities
5.2 Approximate heating value of fuels
5.3 Baseboard heater rated outputs at 1 gpm water flow rate
5.4 “Front outlet” finned-tube heater ratings for Trane heaters
5.5 Flow rate correction factors for water velocities less than 3 fps
5.6 Temperature correction factors for hot water ratings
6.1 Pressure drops at the gas-turbine plant inlet and exhaust [1]
6.2 Common steam conditions for waste heat recovery boilers [1]
A.1 Average roughness of commercial pipes
A.2 Correlation equations for friction factors
A.3 Circular equivalents of rectangular ducts for equal friction and capacity
A.4 Approximate equivalent lengths for selected fittings in circular Ducts
A.5 Approximate equivalent lengths for elbows in ducts
A.6 Data for copper pipes
A.7 Data for schedule 40 steel pipes
A.8 Data for schedule 80 steel pipes
A.9 Data for class 150 cast iron pipes
A.10 Data for glass pipes
A.11 Data for PVC plastic pipes
A.12 Typical average velocities for selected pipe flowsa
A.13 Erosion limits: maximum design fluid velocities for water flow in small tubes
A.14 Loss coefficients for pipe fittings
A.15 Typical pipe data format
A.16 Typical pump schedule format
B.1 Airmoving devices and ductwork symbols
B.2 Piping symbols
B.3 Symbols for piping specialities
B.4 Additional/alternate valve symbols
B.5 Fittings
B.6 Radiant Panel Symbols
C.1 Representative values of the overall heat transfer coefficients (US)
C.2 Representative values of the overall heat transfer coefficients (SI)
C.3 Representative fouling factors in heat exchangers

List of Practical Notes

2.1 Total Static Pressure Available at a Plenum or Produced by a Fan
2.2 Diffuser Discharge Air Volume Flow Rates in SDHV Systems
3.1 Link Seals
3.2 Piping Systems Containing Air
3.3 Higher Pipe Friction Losses and Velocities
3.4 Piping System Supported by Brackets
3.5 Manufacturers' Pump Performance Curves
3.6 “To-the-point” Design
3.7 Oversizing Pumps
3.8 NPSH
3.9 Bypass Lines
3.10 Regulation and Control of Flow Rate across a Pump
3.11 In-Line and Base-Mounted Pumps
3.12 Flanged or Screwed Pipe Fittings?
4.1 Industrial Flows
4.2 Flow in Rough Pipes
4.3 Condensers and Boilers
4.4 Real Heat Exchangers
4.5 Heat Transfer from Staggered Tube Banks
4.6 Coil Arrangement in Air-to-Water Heat Exchangers
4.7 Pressure Drop Over Tube Banks
4.8 L and M values
5.1 Condensing Boilers
5.2 Typical OSF Values
5.3 Domestic Water Data for Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
5.4 Hot Water Temperatures from Faucets
5.5 Temperature Data for Sizing Finned-Tube Heaters
6.1 Optimizing the Number of Feedwater Heaters
6.2 DCA and TTD Values
6.3 Stages of a Steam Turbine
6.4 Exhaust End Loss
6.5 Units of the Net Heat Rate (NHR)
6.6 How Does One Initiate Operation of a Power Plant System?
6.7 Reference Pressure and Temperature for Availability Analysis
6.8 Combustion Air and Cracking in a Burner

List of Conversion Factors

Dimension Conversion
Energy 1 Btu = 778.28 lbf ft
1 kWh = 3412.14 Btu
1 hp h = 2545 Btu
1 therm = 105 Btu (natural gas)
Force 1 lbf = 32.2 lbm ft/s2 = 16 ozf
1 dyne = 2.248 × 10−6 lbf
Length 1 ft = 12 in.
1 yard = 3 ft
1 in. = 25.4 mm
1 mile = 5280 ft
Mass 1 slug = 32.2 lbm
1 lbm = 16 ounces (oz)
1 ton mass = 2000 lbm
Power 1 kW = 3412.14 Btu/h
1 hp = 550 lbf ft/s
1 hp (boiler) = 33475 Btu/h
1 ton refrigeration = 12000 Btu/h
Pressure 1 atm = 14.7 psia
1 psia = 2.0 in Hg at 32°F
Temperature T(R) = T(°F) + 460
T(°F) = 1.8T(°C) + 32
Viscosity (dynamic) 1 lbm/(ft s) = 1488 centipoises (cp)
Viscosity (kinematic) 1 ft2/s = 929 stokes (St)
Volume 1 British gallon = 1.2 US gallon
1 ft3 = 7.48 US gallons
1 US gallon = 128 fluid ounces
Volume Flow Rate 35.315 ft3/s = 15850 gal/min (gpm) = 2118.9 ft3/min (cfm)

1

Design of Thermo-Fluids Systems

1.1 Engineering Design—Definition

Process of devising a system, subsystem, component, or process to meet desired needs.

1.2 Types of Design in Thermo-Fluid Science

i Process Design: The manipulation of physical and/or chemical processes to meet desired needs.
Example: (a) Introduce boiling or condensation to increase heat transfer rates.
ii System Design: The process of defining the components and their assembly to function to meet a specified requirement.
Examples: (a) Steam turbine power plant system consisting of turbines, pumps, pipes, and heat exchangers.
(b) Hot water heating system, complete with boilers.
iii Subsystem Design: The process of defining and assembling a small group of components to do a specified function.
Example: Pump/piping system of a large power plant. The pump/piping system is a subsystem of the larger power plant system used to transport water to and from the boiler or steam generator.
iv Component Design: Development of a piece of equipment or device.

1.3 Difference between Design and Analysis

Analysis: Application of fundamental principles to a well-defined problem. All supporting information is normally provided, and one closed-ended solution is possible.
Design: Application of fundamental principles to an undefined, open problem. All supporting information may not be available and assumptions may need to be made. Several alternatives may be possible. No single correct answer exists.

1.4 Classification of Design

i Modification of an existing device for
a. cost reduction;
b. improved performance and/or efficiency;
c. reduced mean time between “breakdowns”;
d. satisfy government codes and standards;
e. satisfy customer/client preferences.
ii Selection of existing components for the design of a subsystem or a complete system.
iii Creation of a new device or system.

1.5 General Steps in Design

The general steps in the design process are shown schematically in Fig. 1.1.

Figure 1.1 General steps in the design process

c01f001

1.6 Abridged Steps in the Design Process

1. Project Definition: One or two sentences describing the system or component to be designed. Check the problem statement for information.
2. Preliminary Specifications and Constraints: List the requirements that the design should satisfy. Requirements could come from the problem statement provided by the client or from the end users' preferences.
At this point, develop detailed, quantifiable specifications. For example, the client wants a fan-duct system that is quiet. What does “quiet” mean? What are the maximum and minimum noise levels for this “quiet” range? 60 dB may be satisfactory. Could the maximum noise level be 70 dB?
Detailed specifications or requirements could originate from the client (“client desired”), could be internally imposed by the designer to proceed with the design, or could be externally imposed by international/federal/provincial/ municipal/industry standards or codes.
3. Detailed Design and Calculations
i Objective
ii Data Given or Known
iii Assumptions/Limitations/Constraints
iv Sketches (where appropriate)
v Analysis
vi Drawings (where appropriate) or other documentation such as manufacturer's catalog sheets and Specifications.
vii Conclusions