Cover Page

Table of Contents

Title Page


About the Editors

List of Contributors


Propagation and Channel Models


List of Acronyms

Part One: Background

Chapter 1: Enabling Technologies for 3GPP LTE-Advanced Networks

1.1 Introduction

1.2 General IMT-Advanced Features and Requirements

1.3 Long Term Evolution Advanced Requirements

1.4 Long Term Evolution Advanced Enabling Technologies

1.5 Summary


Chapter 2: Propagation and Channel Modeling Principles

2.1 Propagation Principles

2.2 Deterministic Channel Descriptions

2.3 Stochastic Channel Description

2.4 Channel Modeling Methods


Part Two: Radio Channels

Chapter 3: Indoor Channels

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Indoor Large Scale Fading

3.3 Indoor Small Scale Fading


Chapter 4: Outdoor Channels

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Reference Channel Model

4.3 Small Scale Variations

4.4 Path Loss and Large Scale Variations

4.5 Summary

4.6 Acknowledgements


Chapter 5: Outdoor-Indoor Channel

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Modelling Principles

5.3 Empirical Propagation Models

5.4 Deterministic Models

5.5 Hybrid Models

5.6 Acknowledgements


Chapter 6: Vehicular Channels

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Radio Channel Measurements

6.3 Vehicular Channel Characterization

6.4 Channel Models for Vehicular Communications

6.5 New Vehicular Communication Techniques


Chapter 7: Multi-User MIMO Channels

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Multi-User MIMO Measurements

7.3 Multi-User Channel Characterization

7.4 Multi-User Channel Models


Chapter 8: Wideband Channels

8.1 Large Scale Channel Properties

8.2 Impulse Response of UWB Channel

8.3 Frequency Selective Fading in UWB Channels

8.4 Multiple Antenna Techniques

8.5 Implications for LTE-A


Chapter 9: Wireless Body Area Network Channels

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Wearable Antennas

9.3 Analysis of Antennas Close to Human Skin

9.4 A Survey of Popular On-Body Propagation Models

9.5 Antenna Implants-Possible Future Trends

9.6 Summary


Part Three: Simulation and Performance

Chapter 10: Ray-Tracing Modeling

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Main Physical Phenomena Involved in Propagation

10.3 Incorporating the Influence of Vegetation

10.4 Ray-Tracing Methods


Chapter 11: Finite-Difference Modeling

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Models for Solving Maxwell's Equations

11.3 Practical Use of FD Methods

11.4 Results

11.5 Perspectives for Finite Difference Models

11.6 Summary and Perspectives

11.7 Acknowledgements


Chapter 12: Propagation Models for Wireless Network Planning

12.1 Geographic Data for RNP

12.2 Categorization of Propagation Models

12.3 Empirical Models

12.4 Semi-Empirical Models for Macro Cells

12.5 Deterministic Models for Urban Areas

12.6 Accuracy of Propagation Models for RNP

12.7 Coverage Probability


Chapter 13: System-Level Simulations with the IMT-Advanced Channel Model

13.1 Introduction

13.2 IMT-Advanced Simulation Guidelines

13.3 The IMT-Advanced Channel Models

13.4 Channel Model Calibration

13.5 Link-to-System Modeling for LTE-Advanced

13.6 3GPP LTE-Advanced System-Level Simulator Calibration

13.7 Summary and Outlook


Chapter 14: Channel Emulators for Emerging Communication Systems

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Emulator Systems

14.3 Random Number Generation

14.4 Fading Generators

14.5 Channel Convolution

14.6 Emulator Development

14.7 Example Transceiver Applications for Emerging Systems

14.8 Summary


Chapter 15: MIMO Over-the-Air Testing

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Channel Modelling Concepts

15.3 DUTs and Usage Definition

15.4 Figures-of-Merit for OTA

15.5 Multi-Probe MIMO OTA Testing Methods

15.6 Other MIMO OTA Testing Methods

15.7 Future Trends


Chapter 16: Cognitive Radio Networks: Sensing, Access, Security

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Cognitive Radio: A Definition

16.3 Spectrum Sensing in CRNs

16.4 Spectrum Assignment–Medium Access Control in CRNs

16.5 Security in Cognitive Radio Networks

16.6 Applications of CRNs

16.7 Summary

16.8 Acknowledgements


Chapter 17: Antenna Design for Small Devices

17.1 Antenna Fundamentals

17.2 Figures of Merit and their Impact on the Propagation Channel

17.3 Challenges in Mobile Terminal Antenna Design

17.4 Multiple-Antenna Minaturization Techniques

17.5 Multiple Antennas with Multiple Bands

17.6 Multiple Users and Antenna Effects

17.7 Small Cell Antennas

17.8 Summary


Chapter 18: Statistical Characterization of Antennas in BANs

18.1 Motivation

18.2 Scenarios

18.3 Concepts

18.4 Body Coupling: Theoretical Models

18.5 Body Coupling: Full Wave Simulations

18.6 Body Coupling: Practical Experiments

18.7 Correlation Analysis for BANs

18.8 Summary

18.9 Acknowledgements



Title Page

About the Editors

Guillaume de la Roche is a Wireless System Engineer at Mindspeed Technologies in France. Prior to that he was with the Centre for Wireless Network Design (CWiND), University of Bedfordshire, United Kingdom (2007–2011). Before that he was with Infineon (2001–2002, Germany), Sygmum (2003–2004, France) and CITI Laboratory (2004–2007, France). He was also a visiting researcher at DOCOMO-Labs (2010, USA) and Axis Teknologies (2011, USA). He holds a Dipl-Ing from CPE Lyon, and a MSc and PhD from INSA Lyon. He was the PI of European FP7 project CWNetPlan on radio propagation for combined wireless network planning. He is a co-author of the book Femtocells: Technologies and Deployment, Wiley, 2010 and a guest editor of EURASIP JWCN, Special issue on Radio Propagation, Channel Modeling and Wireless Channel Simulation tools for Heterogeneous Networking Evaluation, 2011. He is on the editorial board of European Transactions on Telecommunications. He is also a part time lecturer at Lyon 1 University.

Andrés Alayón Glazunov was born in Havana, Cuba, in 1969. He received the M.Sc. (Engineer-Researcher) degree in physical engineering from the Saint Petersburg State Polytechnic University, Russia and the PhD degree in electrical engineering from Lund University, Lund, Sweden, in 1994 and 2009, respectively. He has held research positions in both the industry and academia. Currently, he holds a Postdoctoral Research Fellowship at the Electromagnetic Engineering Lab, the KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. From 1996 to 2001, he was a member of the Research Staff at Ericsson Research , Sweden. In 2001, he joined Telia Research, Sweden, as a Senior Research Engineer. From 2003 to 2006 he held a position as a Senior Specialist in Antenna Systems and Propagation at TeliaSonera Sweden. He has actively contributed to international projects such as the European COST Actions 259 and 273, the EVEREST and NEWCOM research projects. He has also been involved in work within the 3GPP and the ITU standardization bodies. His research interests include the combination of statistical signal processing techniques with electromagnetic theory with a focus on antenna-channel interactions, RF propagation channel measurements and simulations and advanced numerical tools for wireless propagation predictions. Dr Alayón Glazunov was awarded a Marie Curie Research Fellowship from the Centre for Wireless Network Design at the University of Bedfordshire, UK, from 2009 to 2010. He is a senior member of the IEEE.

Ben Allen is head of the Centre of Wireless Research at the University of Bedfordshire. He received his PhD from the University of Bristol in 2001, then joined Tait Electronics Ltd, New Zealand, before becoming a Research Fellow and member of academic staff with the Centre for Telecommunications Research, Kings College London, London. Between 2005 and 2010, he worked within the Department of Engineering Science at the University of Oxford. Ben is widely published in the area of wireless systems, including two previous books. He has an established track record of wireless technology innovation that has been built up through collaboration between industry and academia. His research interests include wideband wireless systems, antennas, propagation, waveform design and energy harvesting. Professor Allen is a Chartered Engineer, Fellow of the Institution of Engineering and Technology, Senior Member of the IEEE and a Member of the editorial board of the IET Microwaves, Antennas, and Propagation Journal. He has received several awards for his research.

List of Contributors

Ben Allen, University of Bedfordshire, UK
Laura Bernadó, Forschungszentrum Telekommunikation Wien, Austria
Tim Brown, University of Surrey, UK
Jorge Cabrejas, Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain
Narcis Cardona, Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain
Luis M. Correia, IST/IT—Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal
Nicolai Czink, Forschungszentrum Telekommunikation Wien, Austria
Guillaume de la Roche, Mindspeed Technologies, France
David Edward, University of Oxford, UK
Rob Edwards, Loughborough University, UK
Jan Ellenbeck, Technische Universität München, Germany
Andrés Alayón Glazunov, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
Katsuyuki Haneda, Aalto University, Finland
Petros Karadimas, University of Bedfordshire, UK
Muhammad Irfan Khattak, NWFP University of Engineering and Technology, Pakistan
Veli-Matti Kolmonen, Aalto University, Finland
Thomas Kürner, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany
Zhihua Lai, Ranplan Wireless Network Design Ltd, UK
Tommi Laitinen, Aalto University, Finland
Guangyi Liu, China Mobile, China
Yves Lostanlen, University of Toronto, Canada
Lei Ma, Loughborough University, UK
Christoph Mecklenbräuker, Vienna University of Technology, Austria
Andreas F. Molisch, University of Southern California, USA
Jose F. Monserrat, Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain
Michal Mackowiak, IST/IT—Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal
Carla Oliveira, IST/IT—Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal
Alexander Paier, Austria
Ghazanfar A. Safdar, University of Bedfordshire, UK
Vit Sipal, University of Oxford, UK
Fredrik Tufvesson, Lund University, Sweden
Julian Webber, Hokkaido University, Japan
Thomas Zemen, Forschungszentrum Telekommunikation Wien, Austria
Jianhua Zhang, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China
Jie Zhang, University of Sheffield, UK


In the nineteenth century, scientists, mathematician, engineers and innovators started investigating electromagnetism. The theory that underpins wireless communications was formed by Maxwell. Early demonstrations took place by Hertz, Tesla and others. Marconi demonstrated the first wireless transmission. Since then, the range of applications has expanded at an immense rate, together with the underpinning technology. The rate of development has been incredible and today the level of technical and commercial maturity is very high. This success would not have been possible without understanding radio-wave propagation. This knowledge enables us to design successful systems and networks, together with waveforms, antennal and transceiver architectures. The radio channel is the cornerstone to the operation of any wireless system.

Today, mobile networks support millions of users and applications spanning voice, email, text messages, video and even 3G images. The networks often encompass a range of wireless technologies and frequencies all operational in very diverse environments. Examples are: Bluetooth personal communications that may be outside, indoors or in a vehicle; wireless LAN in buildings, femtocell, microcell and macrocell sites; wireless back-haul; and satellite communications. Examples of emerging wireless technologies include body area networks for medical or sensor applications; ultra wideband for extremely high data rate communications and cognitive radio to support efficient and effective use of unused sections of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Mobile device usage continues to grow with no decrease in traffic flow. Most of the current cellular networks are now in their third generation (3G). Based on Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) or Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), they support data rates of a few megabits per second under low-mobility conditions. During the last few years, the number of cell phones has dramatically increased as wireless phones have become the preferred mode of communication, while landline access has decreased. Moreover, most new wireless devices like smart phones, tablets and laptops include 3G capabilities. That is why new applications are proposed every year and it is now common to use mobile devices not only for voice but also for data, video, and so on.

The direct consequence of this is that the amount of wireless data that cellular networks must support is exploding. For instance, Cisco recently noted in its Visual Networking Index (VNI) Global Mobile Data Forecast that a smart phone generates, on average, 24 times more wireless data than a plain vanilla cell phone. The report also noted that a tablet generates 122 times more wireless data than a feature phone, and a wireless laptop creates 515 times the wireless data traffic of traditional cell phones. Hence in 2009, the International Telecommunication Union—Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) organization specified the International Mobile Telecommunication Advanced (IMT-A) requirements for 4G standards, setting peak speed requirements for 4G service at 100 Mbit/s for high mobility communication (such as from trains and cars) and 1 Gbit/s for low mobility communication (such as pedestrians and stationary users). The main candidate to 4G is the so called Long Term Evolution Advanced which is expected to be released in 2012. Unlike the first Long Term Evolution (LTE) deployments (Rel 8 or Rel 9) which do not fully meet the 4G requirements, LTE-Advanced is supposed to surpass these requirements. That is why LTE-Advanced and beyond networks introduce new technologies and techniques (Multiple antennas, larger bandwidth, OFDMA, and so on) whose aim is to help reach very high capacity even in mobility conditions. 4G and beyond network are not deployed yet, however most of industry and researchers focus on developing new products, algorithms, solutions and applications. Like all wireless networks the performance of 4G and beyond networks depend for a major part on the channel, that is, how the signal propagates between emitters and users. That is why channel modelling and propagation, which is sometimes seen as an old topic, is very important and must have full consideration. Indeed, in order to study the performance of future wireless networks, it is very important to be able to characterize the wireless channel into different scenarios and and to be able to take into account the new situations introduced by future networks such as multiple antennas that can be embedded in high speed cars or worn directly on the body.

Propagation and Channel Models

This book presents an overview of models of how the channel will behave in different scenarios, and how to use these channel models to study the performance of 4G and beyond networks. 4G is imminent, so we believe it is good timing to have a book on channel propagation for these aspects. Moreover, future wireless networks will never stop using larger bandwidth, higher frequencies, more antennas, so this book is not only focused on 4G but on beyond 4G networks as well, where new concepts like cognitive radio or heterogeneous will be ever more important.

This book is divided into three parts as follows:

That is why Chapter 13 focuses on the use of channel models for performing system level simulations. In more detail it focuses on the IMT-Advanced model which is the model proposed by 3GPP for LTE-Advanced. If software solutions can be a good way to simulate the channel, another alternative is to use channel emulators. Those will be investigated in Chapter 14. For all the channels presented in this book, it is important to consider how to perform measurement and calibratethe models accurately. If most of the chapters present results based on measurements, Chapter 15 focuses on over the air MIMO measurement, which is the most challenging type of measurement and is currently highly regarded by many researchers because multi-user MIMO is a key technology in 4G and beyond networks. Then, Chapter 16 presents different topics related to cognitive radio, which will also play a strong role in future communication systems. If there is one important consideration when studying the performance, it is to take into account the antenna aspects which have a strong interaction with the radio channel. That is why the two last chapters will present the antenna aspects related to future networks. First Chapter 17 will present all the challenges when designing small antennas for a LTE-A system. Finally, Chapter 18 will focus on antennas for BANs and more especially how to perform statistical characterization of antennas in such an environment.

For more information, please visit the companion website –


As editors of this book, we would first like to express our sincere gratitude to our esteemed and knowledgeable co-authors, without whom this book would not have been accomplished. It is their time and dedication spent on this project that has facilitated the timeliness and high quality of this book. We extend a immensely grateful thank you to all our contributors, from many countries (including Austria, Canada, China, Finland, France, Germany, Pakistan, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, USA and UK) who accepted to share their expertise and contributed to make this book happen—thank you!

We would like to thank Wiley staff and more in particular Anna Smart and Susan Barclay for their help and encouragement during the publication process of this book.

Guillaume de la Roche is very grateful to his family and friends for their support during the time devoted to compiling this book. He also wishes to say thank you to his previous colleagues and more in particular Prof. Jean Marie Gorce for introducing him to the world of radio propagation and Prof Jie Zhang for letting him continue to do research in this area.

Andrés Alayón Glazunov wishes to thank his mother Louise for her encouragement to always pursue his dreams, his children Amanda and Gabriel for being his most precious treasures and his wife Alina for her wonderful love and support. Andrés also wishes to thank his current and former colleagues at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, University of Bedfordshire, Lund University, TeliaSonera/Telia Research and Ericsson Research for the valuable intellectual interactions on wireless propagation and antenna research that have made this project come true

Ben Allen wishes to thank his family, Louisa, Nicholas and Bethany, for their understanding of the dedication and time required for this project. Ben also wishes to thank colleagues at the University of Bedfordshire for making a stimulating and fulfilling work environment that enables works such as this to be possible, and to thank all those who he has collaborated with for making the wireless research community what it is.

List of Acronyms

2D Two-dimensional
3D Three-dimensional
3GPP 3rd Generation Partnership Project
3G Third Generation
4G Fourth Generation
AAA Authentication, Authorization and Accounting
ABS Almost Blank Subframe
ACIR Adjacent Channel Interference Rejection ratio
ACK Acknowledgement
ACL Allowed CSG List
ACLR Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio
ACPR Adjacent Channel Power Ratio
ACS Adjacent Channel Selectivity
AD Analog/Digital
ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
AF Amplify-and-Forward
AGCH Access Grant Channel
AH Authentication Header
AKA Authentication and Key Agreement
AMC Adaptive Modulation and Coding
AMPS Advanced Mobile Phone System
ANN Artificial Neural Network
ANR Automatic Neighbor Relation
AOA Angle-of-Arrival
AOD Angle-of-Departure
API Application Programming Interface
APS Angular Power Spectrum
ARFCN Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number
ARQ Automatic Repeat Request
ASA Angle Spread of Arrival
ASD Angle Spread of Departure
AS Access Stratum
ASE Area Spectral Efficiency
ASN Access Service Network
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
AUC Authentication Centre
AWGN Additive White Gaussian Noise
BAN Body Area Network
BCCH Broadcast Control Channel
BCH Broadcast Channel
BCU Body Central Unit
BE Best Effort
BF Beacon Management Frame
BER Bit Error Rate
BR Beacon Management Frame
BLER BLock Error Rate
BP BandPass
BPSK Binary Phase-Shift Keying
BPR Branch Power Ratio
BR Bit Rate
BS Base Station
BSC Base Station Controller
BSIC Base Station Identity Code
BSS Blind Source Separation
BTS Base Transceiver Station
CAC Call Admission Control
CAM Cooperative Awareness Message
CAPEX CAPital EXpenditure
CAZAC Constant Amplitude Zero Auto-Correlation
CC Chase Combining
CCCH Common Control Channel
CCDF Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function
CCPCH Common Control Physical Channel
CCTrCH Coded Composite Transport Channel
CDF Cumulative Distribution Function
CDM Code Division Multiplexing
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CGI Cell Global Identity
CH-SEL Channel Selection
CH-RES Channel Reservation
CID Connection Identifier
CIF Carrier Indicator Field
CIR Channel Impulse Response
CN Core Network
CoC Component Carrier
CoMP Coordinated Multipoint transmission or reception
CORDIC Coordinate Rotational Digital Computer
CP Cyclic Prefix
CPCH Common Packet Channel
CPE Customer Premises Equipment
CPICH Common Pilot Channel
CPU Central Processing Unit
CQI Channel Quality Indicator
CR Cognitive Radio
CRC Cyclic Redundance Check
CRN Cognitive Radio Network
CRS Channel state information Reference Signal
CSA Concurrent Spectrum Acces
CS/CB Coordinated Scheduling and Beamforming
CSG ID CSG Identity
CSG Closed Subscriber Group
CSI Channel State Information
CSI-RS Channel State Information - Reference Signal
CSMA/CA Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance
CSMA Carrier-Sense Multiple Access
CTCH Common Traffic Channel
CTF Channel Transfer Function
CTS Clear To Send
CW Continuous Wave
CWiND Centre for Wireless Network Design
DAS Distributed Antenna System
DCCH Dedicated Control Channel
DCH Dedicated Channel
DCI Data Control Indicator
DCS Digital Communication System
DDH-MAC Dynamic Decentralized Hybrid MAC
DEM Digital Elevation Model
DI Diffuse
DF Decode-and-Forward
DFP Dynamic Frequency Planning
DFT Discrete Fourier Transform
DHM Digital Height Model
DL DownLink
DLU Digital Land Usage
DM RS Demodulation Reference Signal
DoS Denial of Service
DoA Direction of Arrival
DoD Direction of Departure
DPCCH Dedicated Physical Control Channel
DPDCH Dedicated Physical Data Channel
DRX Discontinuous Reception
DPSS Discrete Prolate Spheroidal Sequences
DSA Dynamic Spectrum Access
DS Delay Spread
DSCH Downlink Shared Channel
DSD Doppler Power Spectra Density
DSL Digital Subscriber Line
DSP Digital Signal Processor
DTCH Dedicated Traffic Channel
DTM Digital Terrain Model
DUT Device Under Test
DXF Drawing Interchange Format
E-SDM Eigenbeam Space Division Multiplexing
EAB Extended Access Barring
EAGCH Enhanced uplink Absolute Grant Channel
EAP Extensible Authentication Protocol
ECRM Effective Code Rate Map
EDCH Enhanced Dedicated Channel
EESM Exponential Effective SINR Mapping
EHICH EDCH HARQ Indicator Channel
EIR Equipment Identity Register
EIRP Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power
EM Electromagnetic Model
EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility
EMD IEEE 802.16m Evaluation Methodology Document
EMI Electromagnetic Interference
EMS Enhanced Messaging Service
eNB Evolved NodeB
EPC Enhanced Packet Core
EPLMN Equivalent PLMN
ERGCH Enhanced uplink Relative Grant Channel
ertPS Extended real time Polling Service
ESP Encapsulating Security Payload
ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute
EVDO Evolution-Data Optimized
FACCH Fast Associated Control Channel
FACH Forward Access Channel
FAP Femtocell Access Point
FCC Federal Communications Commission
FCFS First Come First Served
FCCH Frequency-Correlation Channel
FCH Frame Control Header
FCL Free Channel List
FCS Frame Check Sequence
FD Finite Difference
FDD Frequency Division Duplexing
FDE Frequency Domain Equalization
FDM Frequency Division Multiplexing
FDTD Finite-Difference Time-Domain
FEC Forward Error Correction
FEM Finite Element Method
FFRS Fractional Frequency Reuse Scheme
FFT Fast Fourier Transform
FGW Femto Gateway
FIFO First In First Out
FIR Finite Impulse Response
FIT Finite Integration Technique
FMC Fixed Mobile Convergence
FOM Figure Of Merit
FPGA Field Programmable Gate Array
FR-4 Fibreglass Epoxy Resin
FRS Frequency Reuse Scheme
FSA Fixed Spectrum Assignment
FTP File Transfer Protocol
FUSC Full Usage of Subchannels
GAN Generic Access Network
GANC Generic Access Network Controller
GCCC Global Common Control Channel
GBR Guaranteed Bit Rate
GERAN GSM EDGE Radio Access Network
GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node
GMSC Gateway Mobile Switching Center
GO Geometrical Optics
GPRS General Packet Radio Service
GPS Global Positioning System
GPU Graphics Processing Unit
GSCM Geometry-based Stochastic Channel Model
GSM Global System for Mobile communication
GTD Geometrical Theory of Diffraction
HARQ Hybrid Automatic Repeat request
HBS Home Base Station
HCS Hierarchical Cell Structure
HDFP Horizontal Dynamic Frequency Planning
HeNB Home eNodeB
HII High Interference Indication
HLR Home Location Register
HNB Home NodeB
HNBAP Home NodeB Application Protocol
HNBGW Home NodeB Gateway
HR High Resolution
HRD Horizontal Reflection and Diffraction
HSCA Horn Shaped self-Complementary Antenna
HSDPA High Speed Downlink Packet Access
HSPA High Speed Packet Access
HSS Home Subscriber Server
HSUPA High Speed Uplink Packet Access
HUA Home User Agent
I2V Infrastructure-to-Vehicle
IC Interference Cancellation
ICI Intercarrier Interference
I-CI Inter-Cell Interference
ICNIRP International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection
ICS IMS Centralised Service
IDFT Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform
IEEE Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force
IFFT Inverse Fast Fourier Transform
IKE Internet Key Exchange
IKEv2 Internet Key Exchange version 2
ILP Integer Linear Programming
IMEI International Mobile Equipment Identity
IMS IP Multimedia Subsystem
IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identity
IMT International Mobile Telecommunication
IMT-A International Mobile Telecommunication Advanced
InH Indoor Hotspot
IO Interacting Object
IOI Interference Overload Indication
IP Internet Protocol
IPsec Internet Protocol Security
IR Incremental Redundancy
IRLA Intelligent Ray Launching
ISB Incident Shadow Boundary
ISD Inter-Site Distance
ISI Intersymbol Interference
ITS Intelligent Transportation System
ITU International Telecommunication Union
ITU-R International Telecommunication Union—Radiocommunication Sector
IWF IMS Interworking Function
JP Joint Processing
KPI Key Performance Indicator
LA Location Area
LAC Location Area Code
LAN Local Area Network
LAI Location Area Identity
LAU Location Area Update
LFSR Linear Feedback Shift Register
LIDAR Light Detection And Ranging
LIPA Local IP Access
LLS Link-Level Simulation
LOS Line Of Sight
LR Low Resolution
LSF Local Scattering Function
LTE Long Term Evolution
LTE-A Long Term Evolution-Advanced
LTI Linear Time-Invariant
LUT Look Up Table
M2M Machine-to-Machine
MAC Medium Access Control
MAP Media Access Protocol
MaxI Maximum Insertion
MaxR Maximum Removal
MBMS Multicast Broadcast Multimedia Service
MBS Macrocell Base Station
MBSFN Multicast-Broadcast Single-Frequency Network
MC Modulation and Coding
MCS Modulation and Coding Scheme
MD Mobile-Discrete
MEG Mean Effective Gain
MGW Media Gateway
MIB Master Information Block
MIC Mean Instantaneous Capacity
MIESM Mutual Information Effective SINR Mapping
MIMO Multiple Input Multiple Output
MinI Minimum Insertion
MinR Minimum Removal
MIP Mixed Integer Program
MM Mobility Management
MME Mobility Management Entity
MMIB Mean Mutual Information per Bit
MMSE Minimum Mean Square Error
MNC Mobile Network Code
MNO Mobile Network Operator
MO Main Obstacle
MOM Method Of Moments
MPC Multipath Component
MR Measurement Report
MRC Maximum Ratio Combining
MR-FDPF Multi Resolution Frequency Domain Parflow
MRTD Multi Resolution Time Domain
MS Mobile Station
MSC Mobile Switching Center
MSISDN Mobile Subscriber Integrated Services Digital Network Number
MTC Machine-Type Communications
MUSIC MUltiple Signal Identification and Classification
NACK Negative Acknowledgement
NAS Non Access Stratum
NAV Network Allocation Vector
NCL Neighbor Cell List
NDI New Data Indicator
NGMN Next Generation Mobile Networks
NIR Non-Ionisation radiation
NLOS Non-Line Of Sight
nrtPS non-real-time Polling Service
NR Neighbor Relation
NRT Neighbor Relation Table
NSS Network Switching Subsystem
NTP Network Time Protocol
ntp Network Time Ptotocol
NWG Network Working Group
OAM Operations and Maintenance
O2I Outdoor-to-Indoor
O2V Outdoor-to-Vehicle
OBU OnBoard Unit
OC Optimum Combining
OCC Orthogonal Cover Code
OCXO Oven Controlled Oscillator
OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
OFDMA Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access
OLOS Obstructed Line Of Sight
OPEX OPerational EXpenditure
OSA Opportunistic Spectrum Access
OSI Open Systems Interconnection
OSS Operation Support Subsystem
OTA Over The Air
PAS Power Azimuth Spectrum
P2MP Point-to-Multi-Point
P2P Point-to-Point
PAPR Peak-to-Average Power Ratio
PC Power Control
PCCH Paging Control Channel
PCCPCH Primary Common Control Physical Channel
PCFICH Physical Control Format Indicator Channel
PCH Paging Channel
PCI Physical Cell Identity
PCPCH Physical Common Packet Channel
PCPICH Primary Common Pilot Channel
PDCCH Physical Downlink Control Channel
PDCP Packet Data Convergence Protocol
PDF Probability Density Function
PDP Power Delay Profile
PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel
PDU Packet Data Unit
PES Power Elevation Spectrum
PF Proportional Fair
PhD Doctor of Philosophy
PHICH Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel
PHY Physical
PIC Parallel Interference Cancellation
PICA Planar Inverted Cone Antenna
PIFA Planar Inverted-F Antenna
PKI Public Key Infrastructure
PLMN Public Land Mobile Network
PMI Precoding-Matrix Indicator
PML Perfect Matched Layer
PN Pseudorandom Noise
PO Physical Optics
PoC Push-to-talk over Cellular
PRACH Physical Random Access Channel
PRB Physical Resource Block
PRNG Pseudo Random Noise Generator
PSC Primary Scrambling Code
P-SCH Primary Synchronization Channel
PSSD Pseudo Spectral Spatial Domain
PSTD Pseudo Spectral Time Domain
PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network
PU Primary User
PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel
PUSC Partial Usage of Subchannels
PUSCH Physical Uplink Shared Channel
PWD Pattern Weighted Difference
QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
QoS Quality of Service
QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
RAB Radio Access Bearer
RAC Routing Area Code
RACH Random Access Channel
RADIUS Remote Authentication Dial-In user Services
RAM Random Access Memory
RAN Radio Access Network
RANAP Radio Access Network Application Part
RAT Radio Access Technology
RB Resource Block
RBN Radio Body Network
RC Reverberation Chamber
RE Resource Element
RF Radio Frequency
RFP Radio Frequency Planning
RI Random Insertion
RLC Radio Link Control
RMa Rural Macrocell
RMS Root Mean Square
RMSE Root Mean Square Error
RNC Radio Network Controller
RNP Radio Network Planning
RNTP Relative Narrowband Transmit Power
RPLMN Registered PLMN
ROM Read Only Memory
RPT Radio Planning Tool
RR Random Removal
RRC Radio Resource Control
RRPS Ranplan Radiowave Propagation Simulator
RS Reference Signal
RSB Reflection Shadow Boundary
RSRP Reference Signal Received Power
RSRQ Reference Signal Received Quality
RSU RoadSide Unit
RT Ray Tracing
RTS Ready To Send
RTL Register Transfer Level
RRM Radio Resource Management
RTP Real Time Transport
rtPS real-time Polling Service
RV Redundancy Version
Rx Receiver
RX Receiver
SA Simulated Annealing
SACCH Slow Associated Control Channel
SAE System Architecture Evolution
SAEGW System Architecture Evolution Gateway
SAGE Space-Alternating Generalized Expectation Maximization
SAIC Single Antenna Interference Cancellation
SAP Service Access Point
SAR Specific Absorption Rate
SBR Shooting and Bouncing Rays
SCCPCH Secondary Common Control Physical Channel
SC-FDMA Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access
SC-FDE Single Carrier Frequency Domain Equalization
SCH Synchronization Channel
SCM Spatial Channel Model
SCME Spatial Channel Model Extended
SCTP Stream Control Transmission Protocol
SD Static-Discrete
SDCCH Standalone Dedicated Control Channel
SDU Service Data Unit
SDM Spatial Division Multiplexing
SFC Scattered Field Chamber
SFID Service Flow Identifier
SG Signalling Gateway
SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
SI State Insertion
SIB System Information Block
SIC Successive Interference Cancellation
SIFS Short Inter Frame Space
SIGTRAN Signaling Transport
SIM Subscriber Identity Module
SIMO Single Input Multiple Output
SINR Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio
SIP Session Initiated Protocol
SIPTO Selected IP Traffic Offload
SIR Signal to Interference Ratio
SISO Single Input Single Output
SLS System-Level Simulation
SMa Suburban Macro
SMS Short Message Service
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol
SNR Signal to Noise Ratio
SOHO Small Office/Home Office
SON Self-Organizing Network
SORTD Spatial Orthogonal-Resource Transmit Diversity
SoU Sum of Uniform
S-SCH Secondary Synchronization Channel
SRS Sounding Reference Signal
SSL Secure Socket Layer
SU Secondary User
SU-MIMO Single-User MIMO
SUI Stanford University Interim
TA Tracking Area
TACS Total Access Communications System
TAI Tracking Area Identity
TCI Target Cell Identifier
TDL Tapped-Delay Line
TAU Tracking Area Update
TCH Traffic Channel
TCXO Temperature Controlled Oscillator
TDD Time Division Duplexing
TE Transverse Electric
TIS Total Isotropic Sensitivity
TDMA Time Division Multiple Access
TLM Transmission Line Matrix
TLS Transport Layer Security
TNL Transport Network Layer
TP ThroughPut
TPM Trusted Platform Module
TS Tabu Search
TSG Technical Specification Group
TTG Transmit/Receive Transition Gap
TTI Transmission Time Interval
TM Transverse Magnetic
TRP Total Radiated Power
TRS Total Radiated Sensitivity
TV Television
TX Transmitter
UARFCN UTRA Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number
UDP User Datagram Protocol
UE User Equipment
UGS Unsolicited Grant Service
UICC Universal Integrated Circuit Card
UK United Kingdom
UL UpLink
ULA Uniform Linear Array
UMA Unlicensed Mobile Access
UMa Urban Macrocell
UMi Urban Microcell
UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunication System
URV Uniform Random Variable
US Uncorrelated Scattering
USIM Universal Subscriber Identity Module
UTD Uniform Theory of Diffraction
UTRA UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access
UTRAN UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
UWB Ultra Wide Band
V2I Vehicle-to-Infrastructure
V2V Vehicle-to-Vehicle
VD Vertical Diffraction
VDFP Vertical Dynamic Frequency Planning
VHDL Very High speed integrated circuits hardware Description Language
VLR Visitor Location Register
VM Visibility Mask
VoIP Voice over IP
WA Wearable Antenna
WAVE Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments
WBAN Wireless Body area network
WBSN Wireless Body Sensor Network
WCDMA Wideband Code Division Multiple Access
WEP Wired Equivalent Privacy
WG Working Group
WGNG White Gaussian Noise Generated
WHO World Health Organization
WiFi Wireless Fidelity
WiMAX Wireless Interoperability for Microwave Access
WINNER Wireless World Initiative New Radio
WLAN Wireless Local Area Network
WMTS Wireless Medical Telemetry Service
WRC World Radiocommunication Conference
WMAN Wireless Metropolitan Area Network
WSS Wide Sense Stationary
WSSUS Wide Sense Stationary Uncorrelated Scattering
XPR Cross Polar Ratio
ZF Zero Forcing

Part One


Chapter 1

Enabling Technologies for 3GPP LTE-Advanced Networks

Narcis Cardona, Jose F. Monserrat and Jorge Cabrejas

Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain

The specifications of Long Term Evolution (LTE) in 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) (Release 8) were just finished when work began on the new Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-A) standard (Release 9 and beyond). LTE-A meets or exceeds the requirements imposed by International Telecommunication Union (ITU) to Fourth Generation (4G) mobile systems, also called International Mobile Telecommunication Advanced (IMT-A). These requirements were unthinkable a few years ago, but are now a reality. Peak data rates of 1 Gbps with bandwidths of 100 MHz for the downlink, very low latency, more efficient interference management and operational cost reduction are clear examples of why LTE-A is so appealing for operators. Moreover, the quality breakthrough affects not only operators but also end users, who are going to experience standards of quality similar to optical fiber. To reach these levels of capacity and quality, the international scientific community, in particular the 3GPP, are developing different technological enhancements on LTE. The most important technological proposals for LTE-A are: support of wider bandwidth (carrier aggregation), advanced Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) techniques, Coordinated Multipoint transmission or reception (CoMP), relaying, enhancements for Home eNodeB (HeNB) and machine-type communications. To analyze both the context of LTE-A and the new enabling technologies, this chapter is divided as follows:

1.1 Introduction

Along its standardization LTE was designed as an evolution of legacy Third Generation (3G) mobile systems due to the incorporation of a set of technological improvements, such as:

All these new features represent a qualitative and quantitative leap in system performance that is motivated by different reasons. Market globalization and liberalization and the increasing competence among vendors and operators coming from this new framework has led to the emergence of new technologies. This fact comes together with the popularization of Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802 technologies within the mobile communications sector. Finally, end users are becoming more discerning and demand new and better services such as Voice over IP (VoIP), video-conference, Push-to-talk over Cellular (PoC), multimedia messaging, multiplayer games, audio and video streaming, content download of ring tones, video clips, virtual private network connections, web browsing, email access, file transfer, and so on. It is precisely this increasing market demand and its enormous economic benefits, together with the new challenges that come with the requirements in higher spectral efficiency and services aggregation that raised the need to allocate new frequency channels to mobile communications systems. That is why the International Telecommunication Union—Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) WP 8F started in October 2005 the definition of the future 4G, also known as IMT-A, following the same model of global standardization used with 3G systems. The objective of IMT-A is to specify a set of requirements in terms of transmission capacity and quality of service, in such a way that if a certain technology fulfils all these requirements it is included by the ITU in the IMT-A set of standards. This inclusion firstly endorses technologies and motivates operators to invest in them, but furthermore it allows these standards to make use of the frequency bands specially designated for IMT-A, which entails a great motivation for mobile operators to increase their offered services and transmission capacity. Given this economic outlook, the 3GPP established the LTE standardization activity as an ongoing task to build up a framework for the evolution of the 3GPP radio technologies, concretely Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS), towards 4G. The 3GPP divided this work into two phases: the former concerns the completion of the first LTE standard (Release 8), whereas the latter intends to adapt LTE to the requirements of 4G through the specification of a new technology called LTE-A (from Release 9 on). Following this plan, the LTE-A Study Item was launched in April 2008 to analyze IMT-A requirements and pose conditions to the new standard:

1.2 General IMT-Advanced Features and Requirements

IMT-A systems comprise new capabilities and new services, migrating towards an all-IP network. As happened with the IMT-2000 family of standards, it is expected that IMT-A becomes, through a continuous evolution, the dominant technology designed to support new applications, products and services. Moreover, IMT-A systems must support applications for both low and high speed mobility and for different data rates. The main characteristics of IMT-A systems are:

Requirements established by ITU-R can be classified in three main categories: services, spectrum and technical aspects. The aim of these requirements is not to limit the performance of the candidate technologies, but to ensure that the IMT-A radio interface technologies fulfil these minimum conditions to become a member of the 4G family of standards.

1.2.1 Services