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Contents

Contributors

Preface

Acknowledgments

Section 1: Principles of Disease Management

1 Introduction to Disease Management in Animal Shelters
Kate F. Hurley and Lila Miller

SHELTER MEDICINE AS A SPECIALTY

SHELTER MISSIONS AND GOALS

REGULATION OF SHELTERS

SHELTER CHALLENGES

SUMMARY OF SHELTER HEALTH PROGRAMS

CONCLUSION

APPENDIX 1.1. SHELTER MEDICINE RESOURCES

REFERENCES

2 Wellness
Brenda Griffin

WELLNESS DEFINED

THE PROBLEM-ORIENTED APPROACH TO SMALL ANIMAL MEDICINE

WELLNESS: PHYSICAL HEALTH

WELLNESS: BEHAVIORAL HEALTH

ENVIRONMENTAL WELLNESS

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

3 Outbreak Management
Kate F. Hurley

INTRODUCTION

RISK FACTORS FOR OUTBREAKS

BASIC TOOLS FOR OUTBREAK MANAGEMENT

SUMMARY

REFERENCES

4 Sanitation and Disinfection
Glenda Dvorak and Christine A. Petersen

INTRODUCTION

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SANITATION

DISINFECTANTS COMMONLY USED IN SHELTER SETTINGS

DISINFECTANT LABELS

PROPER USE AND APPLICATION

EDUCATION AND TRAINING OF PERSONNEL

SAFETY OF PERSONNEL AND ANIMALS

SHELTER-SPECIFIC CLEANING PROTOCOLS

CONCLUSION

INTERNET RESOURCES

REFERENCES

5 Canine and Feline Vaccinations and Immunology
Laurie J. Larson, Sandra Newbury, and Ronald D. Schultz

INTRODUCTION

VACCINATIONS AND IMMUNITY

VACCINE CHARACTERISTICS: EFFICACY, ONSET, AND DURATION OF IMMUNITY FOR MODIFIED LIVE, KILLED, AND OTHER VACCINE TYPES

VACCINATION PROTOCOLS FOR SHELTERS

VACCINE HANDLING, ADMINISTRATION, AND ADVERSE REACTIONS

CORE VACCINES FOR SHELTER DOGS AND CATS

OPTIONAL VACCINES FOR THE CAT OR DOG IN A SHELTER

JUVENILE ANIMALS

USE OF HYPERIMMUNE SERUM FOR DISEASE PREVENTION

SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDED VACCINE PROGRAMS IN SHELTERS

RISK A SSESSMENT AND E VALUATION OF SEROLOGIC IMMUNITY FOR CANINE DISTEMPER, CANINE PARVOVIRUS, AND FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA

VACCINE EFFECTS ON DIAGNOSTIC TESTING

REFERENCES

6 Pharmacology
Virginia R. Fajt

INTRODUCTION

WHAT DRUG IS LIKELY TO BE EFFECTIVE, AND HOW SHOULD IT BE USED TO MAXIMIZE EFFICACY?

ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE AND PRUDENT USE GUIDELINES FOR DOGS AND CATS

WHAT CONSTRAINTS MIGHT THERE BE ON USING THE MOST EFFECTIVE DRUG PROPERLY AND HOW CAN THE VETERINARIAN ADDRESS THEM?

REFERENCES

7 Necropsy Techniques
Patricia A. Pesavento

INTRODUCTION: WHY AND WHEN SHOULD A NECROPSY BE PERFORMED?

WHY SAMPLE TISSUES AT NECROPSY?

THE NECROPSY

STEPS IN PERFORMING A NECROPSY

THE DIAGNOSTIC SHELTER NECROPSY

OTHER SHELTER NECROPSIES

CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

Section 2: Respiratory Diseases

8 Feline Upper Respiratory Disease
Janet M. Scarlett

INTRODUCTION

AGENT CHARACTERISTICS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY

CLINICAL SIGNS

THERAPY

MODES OF TRANSMISSION

DIAGNOSIS

DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION

DISEASE SURVEILLANCE

STAFF AND VOLUNTEER EDUCATION AND MOTIVATION

ADOPTING A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO MANAGEMENT OF URTD

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

9 Canine Kennel Cough Complex
Claudia J. Baldwin

INTRODUCTION

EPIDEMIOLOGY/DISEASE COURSE

PREVENTION AND CONTROL

CLIENT EDUCATION/IMPLICATIONS FOR FOSTER CARE AND ADOPTION

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

10 Canine Distemper Virus
Sandra Newbury, Laurie J. Larson, and Ronald D. Schultz

INTRODUCTION

AGENT AND EPIDEMIOLOGY

CLINICAL SIGNS AND DISEASE COURSE

DIAGNOSIS OF CANINE DISTEMPER

TREATMENT

PREVENTION AND CONTROL IN THE SHELTER

CONSIDERATIONS FOR ADOPTION

SUMMARY

REFERENCES

11 Canine Influenza
Cynda Crawford and Miranda Spindel

INTRODUCTION

EPIDEMIOLOGY/DISEASE COURSE FOR CANINE INFLUENZA

PREVENTION AND CONTROL/RISK ASSESSMENT FOR CANINE INFLUENZA

CLIENT EDUCATION/IMPLICATION FOR ADOPTION

WEB RESOURCES

REFERENCES

Section 3: Gastrointestinal Diseases

12 Feline Panleukopenia
Helen Tuzio

INTRODUCTION

EPIDEMIOLOGY/COURSE OF THE DISEASE

PATHOGENESIS AND DISEASE COURSE

CLINICAL SIGNS

DIAGNOSIS

TREATMENT

PREVENTION AND CONTROL/RISK ASSESSMENT

CLIENT EDUCATION/IMPLICATIONS FOR ADOPTION

SUMMARY

REFERENCES

13 Canine Parvovirus and Coronavirus
Leslie D. Appel and Stephen C. Barr

INTRODUCTION

EPIDEMIOLOGY AND COURSE OF THE DISEASE

CLINICAL SIGNS

DIAGNOSIS

TREATMENT

PREVENTION, CONTROL, AND RISK ASSESSMENT

CLIENT EDUCATION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ADOPTION

CPV-1, THE MINUTE VIRUS OF CANINES

CANINE CORONAVIRUS

REFERENCES

14 Internal Parasites
Dwight D. Bowman

INTRODUCTION

PARASITES THAT COMMONLY ENTER AND PERPETUATE IN SHELTERS

PARASITES THAT MAY ENTER SHELTERS BUT ARE UNLIKELY TO BE PERPETUATED

TREATMENT OF THE ANIMAL AT THE TIME OF ARRIVAL IN THE SHELTER

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

15 Bacterial and Protozoal Gastrointestinal Disease
Michael R. Lappin and Miranda Spindel

INTRODUCTION

BACTERIAL AGENTS

PROTOZOAL PATHOGENS

DIAGNOSTIC PROTOCOLS

MANAGEMENT IN THE SHELTER ENVIRONMENT

IMPLICATIONS FOR ADOPTERS

CONCLUSION

APPENDIX 15.1. DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES FREQUENTLY USED IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF BACTERIAL AND PROTOZOAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES

REFERENCES

Section 4: Dermatological Disease

16 Dermatophytosis
Sandra Newbury and Karen A. Moriello

INTRODUCTION

ETIOLOGY

PATHOGENESIS

DISEASE COURSE

TRANSMISSION

CLINICAL PRESENTATION

DIAGNOSIS

INITIAL RISK EVALUATION AND RESPONSE

TREATMENT

OUTBREAK MANAGEMENT AND RESPONSE

CONSIDERATIONS FOR ADOPTION

SUMMARY

REFERENCES

17 Ectoparasites
Karen A. Moriello, Sandra Newbury, and Alison Diesel

INTRODUCTION

PROCEDURES FOR PERFORMING COMMON DIAGNOSTIC TESTS FOR ECTOPARASITES

ECTOPARASITES OF IMPORTANCE IN SHELTERS

TREATMENT PROTOCOLS AND OPTIONS FOR THE MOST COMMON ECTOPARASITE INFESTATIONS

APPENDIX 17.1. ECTOPARASITICIDES

REFERENCES

Section 5: Other Diseases

18 Rabies
James C. Wright

EPIDEMIOLOGY/COURSE OF THE DISEASE

PREVENTION AND CONTROL/RISK ASSESSMENT

CLIENT EDUCATION/IMPLICATIONS FOR ADOPTION

REFERENCES

19 Feline Leukemia Virus and Feline Immunodeficiency Virus
Julie K. Levy

INTRODUCTION

EPIDEMIOLOGY AND COURSE OF DISEASE

PREVENTION AND CONTROL

CLIENT EDUCATION/IMPLICATIONS FOR ADOPTION

REFERENCES

20 Feline Infectious Peritonitis
Catherine H. Mullin

BACKGROUND

ETIOLOGY

PREVALENCE OF FCoV IN DIFFERENT POPULATIONS OF CATS

TRANSMISSION AND SHEDDING OF FCoV

PATHOGENESIS OF FCoV INFECTION AND FIP

CLINICAL SIGNS OF FCoV INFECTION

THE FIP DISEASE SYNDROME

DIAGNOSIS

TREATMENT OF FIP

MANAGEMENT OF FCoV AND FIP OUTBREAKS IN SHELTERS

MANAGEMENT OF FCoV AND FIP OUTBREAKS IN FOSTER HOMES

PREVENTION AND CONTROL

IMPLICATIONS FOR ADOPTIONS/OTHER CONCERNS

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

21 Vector-Borne Diseases
Janet Foley

INTRODUCTION

WEST NILE VIRUS

LEISHMANIASIS

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

22 Heartworm Disease
C. Thomas Nelson

INTRODUCTION

EPIDEMIOLOGY

PATHOGENESIS

DIAGNOSTIC SCREENING IN DOGS

DIAGNOSTIC SCREENING IN CATS

PREVENTION AND CONTROL

ADULTICIDAL TREATMENT

ELECTIVE SURGERIES ON HEARTWORMPOSITIVE DOGS

CLIENT EDUCATION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ADOPTION

REFERENCES

23 Zoonosis
Jennifer Calder and Lila Miller

INTRODUCTION

CONSULTING WITH THE DEPARTMENTS OF HEALTH

GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR ZOONOTIC DISEASE PREVENTION

ISSUES OF CONCERN WHEN ADOPTING TO HIGH-RISK PERSONS

DISEASES ACQUIRED THROUGH A CONTACT SUCH AS A BITE, SCRATCH, OR EXPOSURE TO SALIVA

DISEASES THAT ARE ACQUIRED THROUGH CLOSE CONTACT OR A SCRATCH

INFECTIONS SPREAD VIA THE FECAL-ORAL ROUTE

DISEASES THAT ARE ACQUIRED VIA CONTACT WITH URINE OR GENITAL SECRETIONS

DISEASES ACQUIRED THROUGH AIRBORNE TRANSMISSION

VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES

ANTHROPONOSES

CONCLUSION

APPENDIX 23.1. ZOONOTIC DISEASES OF DOGS AND CATS AND THEIR MODES OF TRANSMISSION

REFERENCES

Index

Eula

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Dedication

This textbook is dedicated to the countless homeless animals in shelters everywhere, and the steadfast veterinarians and shelter staff who toil tirelessly on their behalf.

Contributors

Leslie D. Appel, BS, DVM

ASPCA

New York, New York

Shelter Outreach Services

Ithaca, New York

Claudia J. Baldwin, DVM, MS, Diplomate ACVIM (SAIM)

Associate Professor, Veterinary Clinical Sciences

Director, Maddie’s Shelter Medicine Program

Faculty, Center for Food Security and Public Health

College of Veterinary Medicine

Iowa State University

Ames, Iowa

Stephen C. Barr, BVSc, MVS, PhD, DACVIM (SA)

Professor of Veterinary Medicine

Cornell University

Ithaca, New York

Dwight D. Bowman, MS, PhD

Professor of Parasitology

Department of Microbiology & Immunology

College of Veterinary Medicine

Cornell University

Ithaca, New York

Jennifer A.M. Calder, DVM, MPH, PhD, CHSV

Professor of Pathobiology

College of Veterinary Medicine, Nursing and Allied

Health

Tuskegee University

Department of Pathobiology

Tuskegee, Alabama

Cynda Crawford, DVM, PhD

Maddie’s Shelter Medicine Program

College of Veterinary Medicine

University of Florida

Gainesville, Florida

Alison Diesel, DVM, Resident ACVD

University of Wisconsin

Madison, Wisconsin

Glenda Dvorak, MS, DVM, MPH, DACVPM

Center for Food Security and Public Health

Iowa State University

Ames, Iowa

Virginia R. Fajt, DVM, PhD, DACVCP

Texas A & M University

College Station, Texas

Janet Foley, DVM, PhD

Department of Medicine and Epidemiology

University of California

Davis, California

Brenda Griffin, DVM, MS, Diplomate ACVIM

College of Veterinary Medicine

Cornell University

Ithaca, New York

Kate F. Hurley, DVM, MPVM

Koret Shelter Medicine Program

Center for Companion Animal Health

School of Veterinary Medicine

University of California

Davis, California

Michael R. Lappin, DVM, PhD, DACVIM (Internal Medicine)

Professor, Department of Clinical Sciences

Colorado State University

Fort Collins, Colorado

Laurie J. Larson, DVM

Department of Pathobiological Sciences

School of Veterinary Medicine

University of Wisconsin

Madison, Wisconsin

Julie K. Levy, DVM, PhD, DACVIM

Maddie’s Shelter Medicine Program Sciences

College of Veterinary Medicine

University of Florida

Gainesville, Florida

Lila Miller, BS, DVM

ASPCA

New York, New York

Adjunct Assistant Professor, Cornell University

Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Pennsylvania

Karen A. Moriello, DVM, Diplomate ACVD

School of Veterinary Medicine

Department of Medical Sciences

University of Wisconsin

Madison, Wisconsin

Catherine H. Mullin, VMD, MS

Koret Shelter Medicine Program

Center for Companion Animal Health

School of Veterinary Medicine

University of California

Davis, California

C. Thomas Nelson, DVM, BS

Animal Medical Centers of N.E. Alabama

Anniston, Alabama

Sandra Newbury, DVM

Koret Shelter Medicine Program

Center for Companion Animal Health

School of Veterinary Medicine

University of California

Davis, California

Patricia A. Pesavento, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVP

School of Veterinary Medicine

University of California

Davis, California

Christine A. Petersen, DVM, PhD

College of Veterinary Medicine

Iowa State University

Ames, Iowa

Janet M. Scarlett, DVM, MPH, PhD

Director, Maddie’s Shelter Medicine Program

Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic

Sciences

College of Veterinary Medicine

Cornell University

Ithaca, New York

Ronald D. Schultz, MS, PHD, Diplomate ACVM (Honorary)

Professor and Chair

Department of Pathobiological Sciences

School of Veterinary Medicine

University of Wisconsin

Madison, Wisconsin

Miranda Spindel, DVM, MS

ASPCA

Fort Collins, Colorado

Helen Tuzio, BS, DVM, Diplomate ABVP (Feline)

Forest Hills Cat Hospital

Glendale, New York

James C. Wright, DVM, PhD

Department of Pathobiology

Auburn University

Auburn, Alabama

Preface

Shelter medicine is a relatively new specialty area in veterinary medicine. In the past, euthanasia has been the most common response to infectious disease in sheltered animals. Even when shelter staff had the desire and resources to seek alternatives, veterinarians and fellow shelter professionals may have advised depopulation. This did not reflect a lack of compassion, but simply a lack of knowledge regarding safe alternatives that addressed the needs of individual animals while protecting the health of the shelter population and surrounding community. Balancing these concerns in the resource-limited shelter environment is a complex task, but veterinary science need not shy away from complexity. The same principles of evidence-based medicine and herd health, applied so effectively in other settings, create a powerful set of tools to maintain the health of this most vulnerable population.

While the challenges inherent to shelter medicine are substantial, the potential rewards are great. Because so many animals pass through shelters, the effects of policies, both good and bad, are magnified. Effectively managing outbreaks, preventing infection, and establishing wellness programs in shelters have the potential to save countless lives, prevent tremendous suffering, and even save shelters money and staff time that can be devoted to other urgently needed programs.

Shelter Medicine for Veterinarians and Staff was the first textbook for veterinarians devoted solely to the care of animals in shelters. It was published in 2004 and very ambitiously tackled a variety of medical and management issues that veterinarians working with shelters would need to know, but only touched on the specifics of managing disease in shelters. It very quickly became clear that a textbook was needed that focused entirely on the management of infectious disease in animal shelters. This textbook was conceived in 2005 and work began shortly thereafter.

The purpose of this text is to provide detailed, practical information regarding fundamental principles of disease control in shelters and specific management of the most important diseases encountered in dogs and cats in shelters. The emphasis throughout is on strategies for the prevention of illness and mitigation of disease spread. Practical information on treatment and considerations for adoption are also included. This text is not intended to provide the reader with exhaustive information about each disease included nor does it cover every disease that may be encountered in a shelter animal. Other textbooks are available that focus on the details of disease pathogenesis, individual animal treatment protocols, and less common conditions in shelter dogs and cats as well as other species of importance. The reader is encouraged to use these resources in conjunction with this text. The recommendations contained herein are based on research coupled with the authors’ collective experience. As in any practice setting, final decisions regarding selection of treatment protocols, safe drug use, and shelter practices are the responsibility of the clinician.

Acknowledgments

This book is truly the work of many people. We would like to thank the contributing authors who provided their valuable time and expertise so freely to this project. We recognize that completion of the chapters was an additional project for individuals with extremely busy lives. Nevertheless, the authors worked unstintingly to provide the very best available resources, often gathering together information that has never before been presented in this format. Each chapter is a gift for the homeless animals we are all working to care for.

In reflecting on the circumstances that made this book possible, we must acknowledge all those pioneering veterinarians who established the integral role of the veterinarian in shelter animal care and who founded the field of shelter medicine. We must also gratefully acknowledge the shelter staff and volunteers who work tirelessly to care for homeless pets and who help make our work meaningful.

We recognize Wiley-Blackwell for their vision in supporting publication of this and the first textbook on shelter medicine, Shelter Medicine for Veterinarians and Staff. They courageously answered the need for a resource dedicated to a population of animals previously little regarded by veterinary publishers.

We would especially like to thank the ASPCA and UC Davis for recognizing the importance of the textbook. Our supervisors, colleagues, and residents have all contributed with their patience and support over the three years it took to bring this project to its completion.

Special thanks must also go to Diane Wilson, the project manager, whose excellent organizational skills, encouragement, and enthusiasm allowed us to focus on the process of assembling all the information contained in this text.

All the authors provided invaluable contributions, but two authors went above and beyond the call of duty: Sandra Newbury co - authored an epic four chapters, and Miranda Spindel, in addition to co-authoring two chapters, provided valued editorial assistance with several others.

Finally, we would like to extend a heartfelt thanks to our beloved families, friends, and pets, who tolerated our prolonged absence and neglect as we worked day and night on this book.

Kate would like to personally thank: Muggs the Terrier for being a warm anchor at my feet for the many hours I sat at my desk; Foss the Cat for refusing to take my angst seriously; my Mom for raising me to believe I could make a difference in the world; and all my wonderful family, friends, and partners in dance and crime who supported, amused, and distracted me throughout this project and who always remind me of how much more there is to life.

Lila would like to personally thank: my parents Virginia and Lonist, who have never wavered in their love and support over the years; my brother Rodney and his family; Corlette and Lila for their patience; Mr. Rusty and Miss Coco, two cats who always met me at the door on those late nights coming home from the office; and the many friends and colleagues who have cheered me along the way.

Without your support and encouragement this book surely would not have been possible. We missed you and are happy to be back, if only until the second edition is due!

Section 1

Principles of Disease Management