cover

Contents

Contributors

Preface

1 Cities in the Transition

THE NATURE OF THE TRANSITION AND THE SIGNIFICANCE OF CITIES IN IT

SOCIALIST URBANIZATION AND THE TRANSITION IN CONTEXT

STATE SOCIALIST CITIES AND REGIONS

CITIES IN THE TRANSITION: HOUSING AND LAND PRIVATIZATION

THE EMERGENT CAPITALIST CITY: A GERMAN CASE STUDY

THE NEW POLITICS: URBAN SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND NATIONALISM

CITIES AFTER SOCIALISM

NOTES

2 Structural Change and Boundary Instability

EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE IN THE CENTURY TO 1945

THE ADOPTION OF THE SOVIET-TYPE ECONOMIC MODEL

FROM REFORM TO REJECTION OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE-COMMAND ECONOMY

REINTEGRATION INTO THE GLOBAL MARKET

POLITICAL CHANGE AND TERRITORIAL FRAGMENTATION

CLASS RESTRUCTURING IN POST-COMMUNIST SOCIETIES

REAL ESTATE AS A SOURCE OF CONFLICT AND ACCUMULATION

URBAN SPACE

CONCLUSION

NOTES

3 The Socialist City

PHYSICAL ORGANIZATION

SOCIO-ECONOMIC DIFFERENTIATION IN THE SOVIET CITY

ETHNIC SEGREGATION

INEQUALITY IN THE SOCIALIST CITY

NOTES

4 Urbanization under Socialism

WAS THERE A SOCIALIST URBANIZATION?

LATE DEVELOPMENT

URBAN DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES IN THE SOCIALIST ERA

SPECIAL FEATURES OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN EAST CENTRAL EUROPE

5 Privatization and its Discontents: Property Rights in Land and Housing in the Transition in Eastern Europe

PRIVATIZATION AND ITS MEANINGS

SOVIET PROPERTY RIGHTS

SOVIET AND WESTERN PROPERTY RIGHTS COMPARED

THE TRANSITION FROM SOVIET PROPERTY RIGHTS

THE LEGISLATIVE HISTORY OF PRIVATIZATION: A GENERALIZED MODEL

SUMMARY AND INTERPRETATION

NOTES

6 Housing Privatization in the Former Soviet Bloc to 1995

TENURE DISTRIBUTION UNDER THE SOVIET SYSTEM

POWER TO LOCAL GOVERNMENTS

THE RECORD ON PRIVATIZATION

BROADER IMPACTS

CONCLUSIONS

NOTES

7 From the Socialist to the Capitalist City: Experiences from Germany

DIFFERENCES IN URBAN DEVELOPMENT

THE GUIDING PRINCIPLES OF THE ‘SOCIALIST CITY’

THE LOCAL POWER STRUCTURE

THE TRANSITION TO A ‘CAPITALIST CITY’

FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS

SUMMARY

NOTES

8 Environmental and Housing Movements in Cities after Socialism: The Cases of Budapest and Moscow

INTRODUCTION

ENVIRONMENTAL AND HOUSING ORGANIZATIONS UNDER STATE SOCIALISM

ENVIRONMENTAL AND HOUSING ORGANIZATIONS SINCE 1989/90

EXPLAINING THE DEVELOPMENT OF HOUSING AND ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENTS IN THE POST-SOCIALIST CITY

CONCLUSION

NOTES

9 A New Movement in an Ideological Vacuum: Nationalism in Eastern Europe

THE CONTINUITY OF NATIONALISM IN EASTERN EUROPE

THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO NATIONALISM IN EASTERN EUROPE

INDICATORS OF NATIONALISM

APPROACHES TO JUST SOLUTIONS IN ETHNIC POLITICS

10 Cities under Socialism – and After

POSING THE PROBLEM

SOCIALIST CITIES: THE THEORETICAL PUZZLE

URBAN POPULATION GROWTH UNDER SOCIALISM

SOCIALISM AND URBANISM

DID THE URBAN FORMS DIFFER IN SOCIALIST SOCIETIES?

CITIES AFTER SOCIALISM

CONCLUDING REMARKS

NOTES

Bibliography

Index

Studies in Urban and Social Change

Published by Blackwell in association with the International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. Series editors: Chris Pickvance, Margit Mayer and John Walton

Published

The City Builders

Susan S. Fainstein

Divided Cities

Susan S. Fainstein, Ian Gordon, and Michael Harloe (eds)

Fragmented Societies

Enzo Mingione

Free Markets and Food Riots

John Walton and David Seddon

The Resources of Poverty

Mercedes González de la Rocha

Post-Fordism

Ash Amin (ed.)

The People’s Home?

Social Rented Housing in Europe and America

Michael Harloe

Cities after Socialism

Urban and Regional Change and Conflict in Post-Socialist Societies

Gregory Andrusz, Michael Harloe and Ivan Szelenyi (eds)

Forthcoming

Urban Social Movements and the State

Margit Mayer

Urban Poverty and the Underclass: A Reader

Enzo Mingione

Image

To our friends and colleagues in former Yugoslavia. May they have cities to live in and peaceful lives to live there.

Contributors

Gregory Andrusz

Faculty of Social Sciences, Middlesex University, Queensway, Enfield, Middlesex EN3 4SF

György Enyedi

Centre for Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, PO Box 527, Budapest H-1538, Hungary

Michael Harloe

Office of Research and European Liaison, University of Essex, Colchester C04 3SQ

Hartmut Häussermann

Humboldt-Universität, Fachbereich Sozialwissenschaften, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin

Peter Marcuse

Graduate School of Architecture and Planning, Avery Hall, Columbia University, NY 10027

Chris Pickvance

Urban and Regional Studies Unit, Darwin College, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NY

David M. Smith

Department of Geography, Queen Mary and Westfield College, Mile End Road, London El 4NS

Raymond J. Struyk

The Urban Institute/USAID Shelter Cooperation Program, 19, Prospect Mira, Moscow 129090

Ivan Szelenyi

Department of Sociology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1551

Klaus von Beyme

Philosophisch-Historische Fakultät, Universität Heidelberg, Hauptstrasse 120, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany

Preface

From its inception in 1977, the International Journal of Urban and Regional Research had a particular interest in publishing analyses of urbanization in the state socialist countries. In the late 1980s, given the relative paucity of readily available literature on this topic, I thought that an edited collection of the best of these papers, together with some new material, would be a useful project. Greg Andrusz and Ivan Szelenyi agreed to become my co-editors in what we then thought would be a relatively easy and speedy task.

However, no sooner had we begun our book on ‘socialist cities’ than the objects of our attention began to slip, with ever accelerating speed, into history. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, as communism collapsed and as the new social, economic and political orders in the former state socialist countries began to take shape, the plans for this book, and the list of contributors, had to be revised several times. In fact, editing Cities after Socialism has been like trying to run down an up escalator (or vice versa – depending on one’s ideological orientation). Readers should bear in mind that most of this book was written between 1993 and the early months of 1995.

I must thank all those who have kept their patience during the years that it has taken to bring this work to a conclusion, especially my co-editors, the contributors and our publisher. Thanks are also due to our friends and colleagues in the countries of Eastern Europe who have helped us in many different ways, during times that have been difficult and sometimes dangerous for them.

Michael Harloe

Colchester