Contents

The Blackwell Companion to Christian Spirituality

Title Page

Blackwell Companions to Religion

The Blackwell Companions to Religion series presents a collection of the most recent scholarship and knowledge about world religions. Each volume draws together newly-commissioned essays by distinguished authors in the field, and is presented in a style which is accessible to undergraduate students, as well as scholars and the interested general reader. These volumes approach the subject in a creative and forward-thinking style, providing a forum in which leading scholars in the field can make their views and research available to a wider audience.

Published

The Blackwell Companion to Judaism

Edited by Jacob Neusner and Alan J. Avery-Peck

The Blackwell Companion to Sociology of Religion

Edited by Richard K. Fenn

The Blackwell Companion to the Hebrew Bible

Edited by Leo G. Perdue

The Blackwell Companion to Postmodern Theology Edited by Graham Ward The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism Edited by Gavin Flood

The Blackwell Companion to Political Theology

Edited by Peter Scott and William T. Cavanaugh

The Blackwell Companion to Protestantism

Edited by Alister E. McGrath and Darren C. Marks

The Blackwell Companion to Modern Theology

Edited by Gareth Jones

The Blackwell Companion to Christian Ethics

Edited by Stanley Hauerwas and Samuel Wells

The Blackwell Companion to Religious Ethics

Edited by William Schweiker

The Blackwell Companion to Christian Spirituality

Edited by Arthur Holder

The Blackwell Companion to the Study of Religion

Edited by Robert A. Segal

The Blackwell Companion to the Qur’an

Edited by Andrew Rippin

The Blackwell Companion to Contemporary Islamic Thought

Edited by Ibrahim M. Abu-Rabi

The Blackwell Companion to the Bible and Culture

Edited by John F. A. Sawyer

The Blackwell Companion to Catholicism

Edited by James J. Buckley, Frederick Christian Bauerschmidt, and Trent Pomplun The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity Edited by Ken Parry

The Blackwell Companion to the Theologians Edited by Ian S. Markham

The Blackwell Companion to the Bible in English Literature

Edited by Rebecca Lemon, Emma Mason, John Roberts, and Christopher Rowland The Blackwell Companion to the New Testament Edited by David E. Aune

The Blackwell Companion to Nineteenth Century Theology

Edited by David Fergusson

The Blackwell Companion to Religion in America

Edited by Philip Goff

The Blackwell Companion to Jesus

Edited by Delbert Burkett

Forthcoming

The Blackwell Companion to Religion and Violence

Edited by Andrew R. Murphy

The Blackwell Companion to African Religions

Edited by Elias Bongmba

The Blackwell Companion to Christian Mysticism

Edited by Julia A. Lamm

The Blackwell Companion to Pastoral Theology

Edited by Bonnie Miller McLemore

The Blackwell Companion to Chinese Religions

Edited by Randall Nadeau

The Blackwell Companion to Buddhism

Edited by Mario Poceski and Michael Zimmermann

Notes on Contributors

Michael Barnes, SJ, teaches theology and religious studies at Heythrop College, University of London, where he is also co-director of the Centre for Christianity and Interreligious Dialogue. He has written various books and articles on inter-religious relations, most recently Theology and the Dialogue of Religions (2002). He also runs the De Nobili Centre for Dialogue in Southall, a strongly multicultural and multi-faith area of West London.

Diana Butler Bass is Senior Research Fellow and Director of the Project on Congregations of Intentional Practice, a Lilly Endowment-funded research study of contemporary mainline Protestantism at the Virginia Theological Seminary in Alexandria, Virginia. She is the author of four books on American Christianity, including Strength for the Journey: A Pilgrimage of Faith in Community (2002) and The Practicing Congregation: Imagining A New Old Church (2004). In addition to teaching and writing, she has served on a number of national committees of the Episcopal Church (USA) and on the staff of an Episcopal congregation as director of adult education.

Michael Battle is Associate Dean of Academic Affairs at the Virginia Theological Seminary in Alexandria, Virginia. He previously taught at Duke University Divinity School and the School of Theology at the University of the South (Sewanee). He has also worked as an inner-city chaplain with Tony Campolo Ministries, and in Uganda and Kenya with the Plowshares Institute. He holds certification in spiritual direction from the Shalem Institute. He also is vice-chairman of the board of the Ghandi Institute. He is the author of Reconciliation: The Ubuntu Theology of Desmond Tutu (1997) and Blessed are the Peacemakers: A Christian Spirituality of Nonviolence (2004).

Douglas Burton-Christie is Professor of Christian Spirituality in the Department of Theological Studies at Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles. He is author of The Word in the Desert: Scripture and the Quest for Holiness in Early Christian Monasticism (1993) and editor of the journal Spiritus, the official journal of the Society for the Study of Christian Spirituality.

John A. Coleman, SJ, is the Casassa Professor of Social Values at Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles. For twenty-three years he was Professor of Religion and Society at the Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley. His most recent book, co-edited with William Ryan, is Globalization and Catholic Social Thought: Peril or Promise? (2005). He is currently working on issues of globalization, ethics and religion, and ecology and the common good.

Philip Endean, SJ, teaches theology at the University of Oxford, and is editor of The Way, the journal of contemporary spirituality published by the British Jesuits. He is a co-editor and translator of Saint Ignatius of Loyola: Personal Writings in the Penguin Classics series, and is the author of Karl Rahner and Ignatian Spirituality (2001).

Alejandro García-Rivera is Associate Professor of Systematic Theology at the Jesuit School of Theology at Berkeley and the Graduate Theological Union. He is the author of numerous articles and books, including The Community of the Beautiful: A Theological Aesthetics (1999; 2000 Catholic Press Award) and A Wounded Innocence: Sketches for a Theology of Art (2003). He is past president of the Academy of Catholic Hispanic Theologians in the United States, and recipient of the 2003 Virgilio Elizondo award for distinguished achievement in theology.

Barbara Green, OP, is Professor of Biblical Studies at the Dominican School of Philosophy and Theology in the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California. She is author of How Are the Mighty Fallen? A Dialogical Study of Saul in 1 Samuel (2003) and Jonah’s Journeys (2005). She is general editor of Liturgical Press’s “Interfaces” series on biblical characters.

David Hay is Honorary Senior Research Fellow in the Department of Divinity and Religious Studies at the University of Aberdeen and Visiting Professor at the Institute for the Study of Religion of the University of Cracow in Poland. He is a zoologist by profession and a Roman Catholic layman. He worked for some years at the Religious Experience Research Unit in Oxford, becoming its director in 1985. Subsequently, he was appointed Reader in Spiritual Education at Nottingham University, a post from which he retired in 2000. His books include Exploring Inner Space: Scientists and Religious Experience (1982) and, with Rebecca Nye, The Spirit of the Child (1998).

Arthur Holder is Dean, Vice President for Academic Affairs, and Professor of Christian Spirituality at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California. A priest of the Episcopal Church, he is the translator of Bede: On the Tabernacle (1994) and cotranslator of Bede: A Biblical Miscellany (1998). He is co-chair of the Christian Spirituality Group of the American Academy of Religion, and serves on the governing board of the Society for the Study of Christian Spirituality and the editorial board of the society’s journal Spiritus.

Amy Hollywood is Professor of the History of Christianity and Theology at the University of Chicago Divinity School. She is the author of The Soul as Virgin Wife: Mechthild of Magdeburg, Marguerite Porete, and Meister Eckhart (1995) and Sensible Ecstasy: Mysticism, Sexual Difference, and the Demands of History (2002).

Robert Davis Hughes III is Norma and Olan Mills Professor of Divinity and Professor of Systematic Theology at the School of Theology of the University of the South (Sewanee). A priest of the Episcopal Church, he is a Fellow of the Episcopal Church Foundation, a member of the Society for the Study of Christian Spirituality, and past president of the Society of Anglican and Lutheran Theologians. He publishes regularly in Sewanee Theological Review and Anglican Theological Review, maintains a private practice in spiritual direction, and is president of the board of the GOAL project, a mission society promoting twelve-step recovery worldwide.

Kwok Pui-Lan is William F. Cole Professor of Christian Theology and Spirituality at the Episcopal Divinity School, Cambridge, Massachusetts. She has published extensively in Asian feminist theology, biblical hermeneutics, and postcolonial criticism. Her recent books include Introducing Asian Feminist Theology (2000) and Postcolonial Imagination and Feminist Theology (2005). She co-edited Beyond Colonial Anglicanism: The Anglican Communion in the Twenty-first Century (2001).

Elizabeth Liebert, SNJM, is Professor of Spiritual Life at San Francisco Theological Seminary and a member of the faculty of the doctoral program in Christian spirituality at the Graduate Theological Union. A past president of the Society for the Study of Christian Spirituality, she is co-author of The Spiritual Exercises Reclaimed: Uncovering Liberating Possibilities for Women (2001) and A Retreat with the Psalms: Resources for Personal and Communal Prayer (2001) and author of Changing Life Patterns: Adult Development in Spiritual Direction (1992, 2000).

Ann Loades is Emeritus Professor of Divinity at the University of Durham, England, where she was the first woman to receive a personal chair. She is currently President of the Society for the Study of Theology (2005–6). One of the first two lay members of Durham Cathedral Chapter, she is also its first woman member. She was recently appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire. Her publications include work on such diverse figures as Kant, Coleridge, C. S. Lewis, Evelyn Underhill, and Austin Farrer. Her most recent monograph is Feminist Theology: Voices from the Past (2001) on Mary Wollstonecraft, Josephine Butler, and Dorothy L. Sayers.

David Lonsdale teaches in the graduate Christian spirituality program at Heythrop College, University of London, and played a large part in creating that program. He was also co-editor of The Way, a journal of Christian spirituality, from 1984 to 1993. His books Listening to the Music of the Spirit: The Art of Discernment (1992) and Eyes to See, Ears to Hear: An Introduction to Ignatian Spirituality (2nd edn, 2000) are widely used in teaching and have been translated into several languages.

John A. McGuckin is a priest of the (Romanian) Orthodox Church. He is Professor of Early Church History at the Union Theological Seminary in New York, and Professor of Byzantine Christian Studies at Columbia University. He has written extensively on early Christian and New Testament literature. Recent publications include St Gregory of Nazianzus: An Intellectual Biography (2001) and The Westminster Handbook to Patristic Theology (2003). He is a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society. Current projects include a translation of Origen and a popular edition of the largely unknown treasures of Ethiopian religious poetry.

Mark A. McIntosh, Associate Professor of Theology at Loyola University of Chicago, is also currently serving as a chaplain to the House of Bishops of the Episcopal Church and as Canon Theologian to the Presiding Bishop and Primate of the Episcopal Church, USA. An Episcopal priest, he holds degrees in history and in theology from Yale, Oxford, and the University of Chicago. In addition to his most recent work, Discernment and Truth: Meditations on the Christian Life of Contemplation and Practice (2004), he is the author of Mystical Theology: The Integrity of Spirituality and Theology (1998) and two other monographs considering the relationship between theology and spirituality.

David B. Perrin, OMI, is Professor of Spirituality and Ethics at Saint Paul University, Ottawa, Canada. Most recently, he authored The Sacrament of Reconciliation: An Existential Approach (1998) and he is the editor of Women Christian Mystics Speak to our Times (2001). His research interest in mysticism centers on the mysticism of John of the Cross. Former Dean of the Faculty of Theology at Saint Paul University and past co-chair of the Mysticism Group of the American Academy of Religion, he currently serves on the governing board of the Society for the Study of Christian Spirituality.

Jill Raitt is Professor Emerita of Religious Studies and founder and Senior Research Fellow of the Center for Religion, the Professions, and the Public at the University of Missouri-Columbia. A past president of the American Academy of Religion, she has served as a senior editor of and contributor to the Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation and as primary editor of and contributor to Christian Spirituality: High Middle Ages and Reformation (1987), vol. 17 in World Spirituality: An Encyclopedic History of the Religious Quest.

Janet K. Ruffing, RSM, is Professor of Spirituality and Spiritual Direction at Fordham University, Bronx, New York. She is the author of numerous articles and of Spiritual Direction: Beyond the Beginnings (2000). In addition, she edited Mysticism and Social Transformation (2001) and prepared the critical introduction and translations for Elisabeth Leseur: Selected Writings (2005). She is one of the founding Coordinating Council members of Spiritual Directors International.

Robert John Russell is Professor of Theology and Science in Residence at the Graduate Theological Union, and Founder and Director of the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences (CTNS). He co-edited the five-volume CTNS/Vatican Observatory series, “Scientific Perspectives on Divine Action.” He helped lead the CTNS Science and the Spiritual Quest and Science and Religion course programs. He co-edits the new journal, Theology and Science. He is ordained in the United Church of Christ. His research includes eschatology and cosmology, quantum physics and divine action, and time, eternity and relativity theory.

Sandra M. Schneiders, IHM, is Professor of New Testament Studies and Christian Spirituality at the Jesuit School of Theology in the Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, California. She is author of Women and the Word (1986), The Revelatory Text (1999), Written That You May Believe (2003), and two volumes on Roman Catholic religious life (2000, 2001). She has served on the editorial boards of Spiritus, New Testament Studies, Catholic Biblical Quarterly, and Horizons, and on the governing board of the Society for the Study of Christian Spirituality, of which she was president in 1997.

Philip F. Sheldrake is William Leech Professor of Applied Theology at the University of Durham, England. He is the author of several books, including Spirituality and History (1995) and Spaces for the Sacred: Place, Memory, Identity (2001). His current research and writing focuses on spirituality and theological method, and the spirituality/ethics of place and the meaning of cities. He is regularly a visiting professor in North America and is a past president of the Society for the Study of Christian Spirituality.

William C. Spohn is Augustine Cardinal Bea, SJ, Distinguished Professor of Theology and Director of the Bannan Center for Jesuit Education at Santa Clara University. He is the author of What Are They Saying about Scripture and Ethics? (2nd edn, 1995) and Go and Do Likewise: Jesus and Ethics (1999). He serves as Project Director for Discover (the Santa Clara program for reflection on vocation) and is a member of the Medical Board of California Ethics Task Force.

Columba Stewart, OSB, is a monk of Saint John’s Abbey in Collegeville, Minnesota. He is Professor of Monastic Studies at the Saint John’s School of Theology and Executive Director of the Institute for the Book, Art, and Religious Culture and the Hill Monastic Manuscript Library at Saint John’s University. He is the author of Cassian the Monk (1992) and Prayer and Community (1998), and is currently at work on a study of early monastic prayer.

Joseph Stewart-Sicking is the Project Associate for the Project on Congregations of Intentional Practice, a Lilly Endowment-funded research study of vital mainline Protestant churches at the Virginia Theological Seminary in Alexandria, Virginia. An Episcopal layperson, his work focuses on the inter-relationships among Christian practices, Christian traditions, and congregational vitality in contemporary society.

William Thompson-Uberuaga is Professor of Systematic Theology at Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. A former president of the Catholic Theological Society of America, his published books include Christology and Spirituality (1991) and The Struggle for Theology’s Soul (1996). He specializes in the dialogue between spirituality, theology, and philosophy (especially political theory).

Bonnie Thurston was an academic for thirty years. She now lives as a solitary in West Virginia, USA. An ordained minister in the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), she was William F. Orr Professor of New Testament at Pittsburgh Theological Seminary and has authored many books including Spiritual Life in the Early Church (1993), Reading Colossians, Ephesians, and II Thessalonians (1995), Women in the New Testament (1998), To Everything a Season: A Spirituality of Time (1999), Preaching Mark (2002), the Sacra Pagina volume on Philippians (2004), and two books of poetry.

Susan J. White is Alberta H. and Harold L. Lunger Professor of Spiritual Resources and Disciplines and Associate Dean of Academic Affairs at Brite Divinity School, Texas Christian University. She received her PhD from the University of Notre Dame and was previously on the faculty of the Cambridge Federation of Theological Colleges, Cambridge, England and a member of the Faculty of Divinity of the University of Cambridge. Her recent books include Christian Worship and Technological Change (1997), The Spirit of Worship: The Liturgical Tradition (2000), and A History of Women in Christian Worship (2003).

Ulrike Wiethaus holds an interdisciplinary appointment as Professor of the Humanities at Wake Forest University. She combines her interest in medieval women’s spirituality with cross-cultural and interdisciplinary work on the arts, film, and cultural representations of the sacred. She is the author of numerous articles and books on medieval Christian mysticism and spirituality, including Ecstatic Transformation (1995), and, most recently, a translation of the visions of a medieval holy woman, Agnes Blannbekin, Viennese Beguine: Life and Revelations (2002).

Richard Fox Young is Timby Associate Professor of the History of Religions at Princeton Theological Seminary. He served for some years as a Presbyterian Church (USA) mission worker with churches and Christian institutions in Asia. His major publications – Resistant Hinduism (1981), The Bible Trembled (1995), Vain Debates (1996), and The Carpenter-Heretic (1998) – use the indigenous literatures of South Asia to historically reconstruct the encounter of Hindus and Buddhists with Christianity and to reflect theologically on contemporary problems of pluralism, dialogue, and witness.

Acknowledgments

The editor and publisher gratefully acknowledge the permission granted to reproduce the copyright material in this book:

Bridgeman Art Library, for permission to reproduce the painting Jonah and the Whale, c.1988 (oil on canvas) by Albert Herbert (b.1925), from a private collection.

Sandra M. Schneiders, for permission to use excerpts from her unpublished work, “Seriously, Jonah!”

The Johns Hopkins University Press, for permission to reproduce a revised version of an article entitled “The role of practice in the study of Christian spirituality” from Spiritus: A Journal of Christian Spirituality 2: 1 (2002), 30–49. (c) The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Every effort has been made to trace copyright holders and to obtain their permission for the use of copyright material. The publisher apologizes for any errors or omissions in the above list and would be grateful if notified of any corrections that should be incorporated in future reprints or editions of this book.