Cover

The Concise Encyclopedia of Sociology

Title

Contents

Contributors

Gabriele Abels, University of Tübingen

Barry D. Adam, University of Windsor

Michele Adams, Tulane University

Patricia Adler, University of Colorado

Peter Adler, University of Denver

Michael Agar, University of Maryland

Kristine J. Ajrouch, Eastern Michigan University

Syed Farid Alatas, National University of Singapore

Richard Alba, University at Albany

Dawn Aliberti, Case Western Reserve University

Graham Allan, Keele University

Christopher W. Allinson, The University of Leeds

Jutta Allmendinger, Social Science Research Center Berlin

Mats Alvesson, Lunds Universitet

Hans van Amersfoort, University of Amsterdam

Peter B. Andersen, University of Copenhagen

Eric Anderson, University of Bath

Christopher Andrews, University of Maryland

Robert J. Antonio, University of Kansas

Lemonik Arthur, Rhode Island College

Mikaila Mariel Lemonik Arthur, Rhode Island College

Elyshia Aseltine, University of Austin at Texas

Zeynep Atalay, University of Maryland

Lonnie, Athens, Seton Hall University

Muhammad Najib Azca, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Abdallah M. Badahdah, University of North Dakota

Hans A. Baer, The University of Melbourne

Stephen J. Bahr, Brigham Young University

Alan Bairner, Loughborough University

J. I. (Hans) Bakker, University of Guelph

Jack Barbalet, University of Western Sydney

Kendra Barber, University of Maryland

Eileen Barker, London School of Economics and Political Science

Nina Baur, Technial University, Berlin

Rob Beamish, Queen’s University

Thomas D. Beamish, University of California, Davis

Frank D. Bean, University of California, Irvine

Dawn Beichner, Illinois state University

David Bell, University of Leeds

T. J. Berard, Kent State University

Mabel Berezin, Cornell University

Joseph Berger

Pierre van den Berghe, University of Washington

Yasemin Besen-Cassino, Montclair State University

Peter Beyer, University of Ottawa

William Bezdek, Oakland University

Alex Bierman, California State University, Northridge

Nicole Woolsey Biggart, University of California, Davis

David B. Bills, University of Iowa

Sam Binkley, Emerson College

Jon Binnie, Manchester Metropolitan University

Manuela Boatca, Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt

Connie de Boer, University of Amsterdam

John Bongaarts, Population Council

Kimberly Bonner, University of Maryland

Alfons Bora, Bielefeld University

Christine A. Bose, University at Albany, SUNY

Geoffrey Bowker, Santa Clara University

Gaspar Brandle, Universidad de Murcia

David G. Bromley, Virginia Commonwealth University

Susan K. Brown

Clifton D. Bryant, Virginia Tech

Ian Buchanan, Cardiff University

Claudia Buchmann, The Ohio State University

Steven M. Buechler, Minnesota State University, Mankato

Dirk Bunzel, University of Oulu

Melissa L. Burgess,

Marcos Burgos, The Graduate Center, The City University of New York

Joseph Burke, Independent Researcher

Peter J. Burke, University of California, Riverside

Tom R. Burns, Stanford University

Roger Burrows, University of York

Ryan Calder, University of California, Berkeley

Thomas Calhoun, Jackson State University

Peter L. Callero, Western Oregon University

John L. Campbell, Dartmouth College

James R. Carey, University of California Davis

Dianne Cyr Carmody, Old Dominion University

Moira Carmody, University of Western Sydney

Laura M. Carpenter, Vanderbilt University

Deborah Carr, Rutgers University

Michael C Carroll

Allison Carter, Rowan University

Chris Carter, University of St Andrews

Michael J. Carter, University of California, Riverside

John M. Chamberlain,

J. K. Chambers, University of Toronto

Gordon C. Chang, University of California, San Diego

Jean Francois Chanlat, Université Paris-Dauphine

Kathy Charmaz, Sonoma State University

Christopher Chase-Dunn, University of California, Riverside

David Cheal, University of Winnipeg

Roland Chilton, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

James L. Chriss, Cleveland State University

Doris, Chu, Arakansas State University, Jonesboro

Peter, Chua, San Jose State University

Jeffrey M. Clair

D. Anthony Tyeeme Clark, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

Jesse K. Clark, University of Georgia

Adele E. Clarke, University of California School of Nursing

Stewart Clegg, University of Technology, Sydney

Jay Coakley, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs

Rodney Coates, Miami University

Allan Cochrane, The Open University

William C. Cockerham, University of Alabama, Birmingham

Walker Connor, Trinity College

Peter Conrad, Brandeis University

Daniel Thomas Cook, Rutgers University

Karen S. Cook, Stanford University

Mamadi Corra, East Carolina University

Karen Corteen, University of Chester

Zoë Blumberg Corwin, University of Southern California

Lloyd, Cox, Macquarie University

Ann Cronin, University of Surrey

Graham Crow, University of Southhampton

Kyle Crowder, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

Gregory J. Crowley, Coro Center for Civic Leadership

Geoff Cumming, La Trobe University

Kimberly Cunningham, City University of New York Graduate Center

John Curra, Eastern Kentucky University

Steven Dandaneau, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Tim Dant, Lancaster University

Julia O’Connell Davidson, The University of Nottingham

Hartley Dean, London School of Ecomomics and Political Science

James Joseph Dean, Sonoma State University

Paul Dean, University of Maryland

Mary Jo Deegan, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mathieu Deflem, University of South Carolina

Regina Deil-Amen, University of Arizona

Gerard Delanty, University of Sussex

David H. Demo, University of North Carolina, Greensboro

Kimy N. Dennis, North Carolina State University

Rutledge M. Dennis, George Mason University

Esther Dermott, University of Bristol

Steve Derne, SUNY Geneseo

Marjorie L. Devault, Syracuse University

Joel A. Devine, Tulane University

Mario Diani, Università degli studi di Trento

James Dickinson, Rider University

Andreas Diekmann, Swiss Federal Institute of Techology, Zurich

Michele, Dillon, University of New Hampshire

Robert Dingwall, Director of Dingwall Enterprises: Consulting, Research, Writing

Karel Dobbelaere, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven

Nigel Dodd, The London School of Economics

Lena Dominelli, Durham University

Gwendolyn Dordick, The City College of New York, CUNY

David Downes

Rachel Dowty, Louisiana State University

Jaap Dronkers, European University Institute

John Drysdale, American University

Harriet Orcutt Duleep, College of William and Mary

Diana Dumais, University of New Hampshire

Riley Dunlap, Oklahoma State University

Jennifer Dunn, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale

Jennifer Earl, University of California, Santa Barbara

Martha Easton, Elmira College

Bob, Edwards, East Carolina University

Rosalind, Edwards, London South Bank University

Brad van Eeden-Moorefield,

Noah Efron, Bar-Ilan University

Anne Eisenberg, State University of New York at Geneseo

S. N. Eisendstat, The Van Leer Jerusalem Institute

Richard Ekins

Tony Elger, University of Warwick

David L. Elliott, University of Missouri, Columbia

Irma T. Elo, University of Pennsylvania

Chamsy El-Ojeili, Victoria University of Wellington

Debbie Epstein, Cardiff University

Eugene P. Ericksen, Temple University

Julia A. Ericksen, Temple University

Lena Eriksson, The University of York

David T. Evans, University of Glasgow

Dianne Fabii, Rutgers University

William W. Falk, University of Maryland

Xitao Fan, University of Virginia

Thomas J. Fararo, University of Pittsburgh

George Farkas, Cornell University

Margaret E. Farrar, Augustana College

Anne Fearfull, University of St Andrews

Gordon Fellman, Brandeis University

Sarah Fenstermaker, University of California, Santa Barbara

April Few-Demo, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Mark G. Field, Harvard University

Glenn Firebaugh, Pennsylvania State University

Juanita M. Firestone, University of Texas, San Antonio

David M. Flores, University of Nevada, Reno

John Foran, University of California, Santa Barbara

Marion Fourcade-Gourinchas, University of California, Berkeley

Gelya Frank

Boris, Frankel, The University of Melbourne

Adrian Franklin, University of Tasmania

Judith J. Friedman, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

Irene Hanson Frieze, University of Pittsburgh

Catarina Fritz, Minnesota State University, Mankato

Hongyun Fu, Tulane University

Stephan Fuchs, University of Virginia

Steve Fuller, University of Warwick

Caroline Fusco, University of Toronto

Karl Gabriel, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster

Gloria Gadsden, East Stroudsburg University

Larry Gaines, California State University, San Bernardino

Andrew Gamble, University of Cambridge

Markus Gangl, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Robert Garner, University of Leicester

Nicolas Garnham, University of Westminster

Rosemary Gartner, University of Toronto

Gil Geis, University of Califonria, Irvine

Gary Genosko, Lakehead University

Linda K. George, Duke University Center for the Study of Aging and Human Development

Simone Ghezzi, Università di Milano-Bicocca

Wayne Gillespie, East Tennessee State University

Stephanie Gilmore, Dickinson College

Giuseppe Giordan, University of Padova

Evi Girling, Keele University

Henry A. Giroux, McMaster University

Richard Giulianotti

Norval D. Glenn, The University of Texas at Austin

Julian, Go Boston University

Ernest Goetz, Texas A & M University

Ralph Gomes, Howard University

Erich Goode, New York University

Lyn Gorman, Charles Sturt University

Kevin Fox Gotham, Tulane University

Royston Greenwood, University of Alberta

Julie Gregory, Queen’s University

Arthur L. Greil, Alfred University

Sean Patrick Griffin, Penn State Abington

Axel Groenemeyer, University of Dortmund

David, Grusky Stanford University

Stephen Obeng Gyimah, Queen’s University

Joanna Hadjicostandi, The University of Texas of the Permian Basin

Catherine Hakim, London School of Economics

John R. Hall, University of California, Davis

Lesley A. Hall, Wellcome Library

Matthew Hall, Pennsylvania State University

Peter M. Hall, University of Missouri

Thomas D. Hall, DePauw University

Karen Bettez Halnon, Penn State Abington

Laura Hamilton, Indiana University

Martyn Hammersley, The Open University

David J. Harding, University of Michigan

Simon Hardy, University of Worcester

Austin Harrington, University of Leeds

Dave Harris, University of College Plymouth St Mark and St John

Anthony Ryan Hatch, Georgia Stage University

Keith Hayward, University of Kent

Brian Heaphy, The University of Manchester

Sue Heath, University of Southampton

John Heeren, California State University, San Bernardino

Karen A. Hegtvedt, Emory University

Laura Auf der Heide, Cornell University

Scott, Heil City University of New York, Graduate Center

Gert Hekma, University of Amsterdam

Thomas Henricks, Elon University

Stuart Henry, San Diego State University

Robin K. Henson, University of North Texas

Sabine Hering, University of Siegen

Donald J. Hernandez, State University of New York at Albany

Purseay P. M. A. R. Heugens, Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University

Annette Hill, University of Westminster

Michael R. Hill, University of Nebraska, Lincoln

Matt Hills, Cardiff University

Daniel Hillyard, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale

Wendy Hilton-Morrow, Augustana College

Michelle J. Hindin, Johns Hopkins University

Susan W. Hinze, Case Western Reserve University

Randy Hodson, Ohio State University

Douglas B. Holt, Said Business School University of Oxford

Burkart Holzner, University of Pittsburgh

Allan V. Horwitz, Rutgers University

Janet Hoskins, University of Southern California

James House, University of Michigan

Jeffrey Houser

Andrea N. Hunt, NC State University

Stephen Hunt, University of West of England

Ray Hutchison, University of Wisconsin, Green Bay

Mark Hutter, Rowan University

Michael Indergaard, St John’s University

Ronald Inglehart, University of Michigan

Keiko Inoue

Paul Ingram, Columbia University

Stevi Jackson, University of York

Martin M. Jacobsen, West Texas A&M University

Rita Jalali, International Consultant

Lynn Jamieson, The University of Edinburgh

James M. Jasper, CUNY Graduate Center

Alayna Jehle, R & D Strategic Solutions

Richard Jenkins, University of Sheffield

Chris Jenks, Brunel University

Elyse Jennings, University of Michigan

Laura Jennings, University of South Carolina Upstate

Paul Jones, University of Liverpool

Joan R. Kahn, University of Maryland

Vasiliki Kantzara, Panteion University of Social and Political Science

Susanne Karstedt, University of Leeds

Walda Katz-Fishman, Howard University

Tally Katz-Gerro, University of Haifa

Erin Kaufmann

Douglas Kellner, Columbia University

Russell Kelly, University of Trier, Germany

Markus Kemmelmeier, University of Nevada, Reno

Anne Kerr, University of Leeds

Ann H. Kim, York University

Michael S. Kimmel, SUNY at Stony Brook

Dave King, University of Liverpool

William J. Kinney, University of St. Thomas

Susan Kippax, University of New South Wales

Roger E. Kirk, Baylor Univesity

Sharon Kirmeyer, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Sunita Kishor, ICF Macro

Peter Kivisto, Augustana College

Christian Klesse, Manchester Metropolitan University

Andrew Kliman, Pace University

Wolfgang Knoebl, Goettingen University

Nikos Kokosalakis, Panteion University

Mark Konty, Eastern Kentucky University

Marek Korczynski, Loughborough University

Joseph Kotarba, University of Houston

Robert Kozinets, Schulich School of Business

Robert van Krieken, University of Sydney

Mary M. Kritz, Cornell University

Amy Kroska, University of Oklahoma

Catherine Krull, Queen’s University

Abdi M. Kusow, Oakland University

Craig D. Lair, Gettysburg College

Siegfried Lamnek,

Rainhart Lang, Technical University of Chemnitz

Beryl Langer, La Trobe University

Lauren Langman, Loyola University Chicago

Patti Lather, Ohio State University

Abraham D. Lavender, Florida International University

Ian Law, University of Leeds

Jacob Lederman, The City University of New York

Susan Hagood Lee, Boston University

Dirk vom Lehn, King’s College London

Terri LeMoyne, University of Tennessee, Chattanooga

Patrica Lengermann

Athena Leoussi, University of Reading

Ron J. Lesthaeghe, University of Michigan

Jack Levin, Northeastern University

Don Levy, Southeast Missouri State University

Tyson E. Lewis

Victor Lidz, Drexel University College of Medicine

John Lie, University of California, Berkeley

Jan Lin, Occidental College

Amy Lind, University of Cincinnati

Michael Lipscomb, Winthrop University

Sonia Livingstone, London School of Economics

Omar Lizardo, University of Notre Dame

Omar Lizardo

Elizabeth Long, Rice University

Charles F. Longino Jr

Michael Lovaglia

David W. Lovell, University of New South Wales at the Australian Defence Force Academy

Ray Loveridge, Saïd Business School, University of Oxford

John Loy, University of Rhode Island

Steve Loyal, University of College Dublin

Chao-Chin Lu, Brigham Young University

Jeffrey W. Lucas, University of Maryland

Glenn Lucke, University of Virginia

Wolfgang Ludwig-Mayerhofer, University of Siegen

Richard Machalek, University of Wyoming

Vicky M. MacLean, Middle Tennessee State Universisty

Michael Macy, Cornell University

Jennifer Smith Maguire, University of Leicester

Joseph, Maguire Loughborough University

Matthew C. Mahutga, University of California, Riverside

Regan, Main

Dominic Malcolm, Loughborough University

Evans Mandes, George Mason University

Peter Manning, Northeastern University

Barry Markovsky, University of South Carolina

Randal Marlin, Carleton University

Heather Marsh, University of Maryland

Randy Martin, New York University

Mark Mather, Population Reference Bureau

Ross Matsueda, University of Washington

Steffen Mau, University of Bremen

Allan Mazur, Syracuse University

Doug McAdam, Stanford University

E. Doyle McCarthy, Fordham University

Charles McCormick, University of Albany

Peter McDonald, The Australian National University

PJ McGann, University of Michigan

Patrick J. W. McGinty, Western Illinois University

Brian McNair, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow

Clark McPhail, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

Michelle Meagher, University of Alberta

Barbara F. Meeker, University of Maryland

Dominique Meekers, Tulane Univesity

Robert F. Meier, University of Nebraska at Omaha

Roslyn Arlin Mickelson, University of North Carolina, Charlotte

Dan E. Miller, University of Dayton

Toby Miller, University of California, Riverside

Monica K. Miller

Andrew Milner, Monash University

Joya Misra, University of Massachusetts

Tariq Modood, University of Bristol

Linda D. Molm, The University of Arizona

Jesús Romero Moñivas, San Pablo-CEU

Christopher D. Moore, Lakeland College

Laura M. Moore, Hood College

Yuri Jack Gomez Morales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia

David H. Morgan, Keele University

Thomas J. Morrione, Colby College

Marietta Morrissey, University of Toledo

Ross Mouer, Monash University

Siamak Movahedi, University of Massachusetts, Boston

Anna S. Mueller, University of Texas

Carol Mueller, Arizona State University

Chandra Mukerji, University of California, San Diego

Albert M. Muniz, DePaul University

Paul T. Munroe, Towson University

Peter Murphy, Monash University

Stephen L. Muzzatti, Ryerson University

Joane Nagel, University of Kansas

Nancy A. Naples, University of Connecticut

Victor Nee, Cornell University

Sarah Nettleton, University of York

Leonard Nevarez, Vassar College

Brett Nicholls, University of Otago

Gillian Niebrugge, American University

Donald A. Nielsen, College of Charleston

François Nielsen, University of North Carolina

Natalia, Nikolova, University of Technology, Sydney

Takako Nomi, University of Chicago

Samuel Nunn, Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis

Richard E. Ocejo, John Jay College of Criminal Justice - CUNY

Jarron M. Saint Onge, University of Houston

Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie, Sam Houston State University

Terri L. Orbuch, Oakland University

James D. Orcutt, Florida State University

W. Edward Orser, UMBC An honors University in Maryland

Anthony M. Orum, University of Illinois at Chicago

Timothy J. Owens, Purdue University

Enzo, Pace, University of Padova

Esperanza Palma, University of Autonoma Metropolitan Azacapotzalco

Sangeeta Parashar, Montclair State University

Patricia Parker, North Carolina State

Vincent N. Parrillo, William Paterson University

Ray Paternoster, University of Maryland

Vrushali Patil, Florida International University

Michael Quinn Patton, Utilization-Focused Evaluation

George Pavlich, University of Alberta

Jennifer Pearson, Wichita State University

Cynthia Fabrizio Pelak, The University of Memphis

Anssi Peräkylä, University of Helsinki

Robin D. Perrin, Pepperdine University

Nick Perry, University of Auckland

Frances G. Pestello, University of Dayton

Thomas Pettigrew, Universtiy of California, Santa Cruz

Mary Pickering, San Jose State University

Michael Pickering, Loughborough

Jan Nederveen Pieterse, University of California, Santa Barbara

Tyrone S. Pitsis, University of Technology, Sydney

Rebecca F. Plante, Ithaca College

Jennifer Platt, University of Sussex

Ken Plummer, University of Essex

Massimiliano A. Polichetti, Civil Servant under the Italian Ministry for Culture

Francesca Polletta, University of California, Irvine

Karen Polonko, Old Dominion University

Suet-ling Pong, Pennsylvania State University

Henry N. Pontell, University of California, Irvine

Silvia Posocco, Birkbeck College, University of London

Brian Powell, Indiana University, Bloomington

Jason L. Powell, Liverpool University

Joel Powell, Minnesota State University, Moorhead

Beverly M. Pratt, University of Maryland

Harland Prechel, Texas A&M University

Peter Preisendörfer, University of Mainz

Stella Quah, National University of Singapore

Matt Qvortrup, Robert Gordon University

Sara Raley, McDaniel College

Francesco Ramella, Urbino University “Carlo Bo”

Sheetal Ranjan, William Paterson University

Mark K. Rank, Washington University in St Louis

Lisa Rashotte, University of North Carolina, Charlotte

William K. Rawlins, Ohio University

Anne Warfield Rawls, Bentley College

Larry Ray, University of Kent

Michael Reay

Andreas Reckwitz, University of Konstanz

Jo Reger, Oakland University

D. A. Reisman, Nanyang Business School

Larissa Remennick, Bar-lian University

PJ Rey, University of Maryland

Cecilia L. Ridgeway, Stanford University

Cathering Riegle-Crum

Arnout van de Rijt, State University of New York, Stony Brook

George Ritzer, Universtiy of Maryland, College Park

Polly Rizova, Willamette University

Tracy Roberts, University of Maryland

Roland Robertson, University of Aberdeen

Paul Rock, London School of Economics

Richard G. Rogers, University of Colorado

Deana A. Rohlinger, Florida State University

Chris Rojek, Brunel University

Paul Roman, University of Georgia

Christopher Rootes, University of Kent

Jennifer Rothchild, University of Minnesota, Morris

Nicole Rousseau, Kent State University

David Rowe, University of Western Sydney

Karen Rowlingson, University of Birmingham

Janet M. Ruane, Montclair State University

Martin Ruef, Princeton University

Joseph D. Rumbo, James Madison University

Philip Rumney, University of West of England

Leila J. Rupp, University of California, Santa Barbara

Barbara Ryan, Widener University

J. Michael Ryan, University of Maryland, College Park

Michael T. Ryan, Dodge City Community College

Nicholas Sammond, University of Toronto

Jimy M. Sanders, University of South Carolina

Stephen K. Sanderson, University of California, Riverside

Diana Santillan, The George Washington University

Roberta Sassatelli, University of Milan

Sharon L. Sassler, Cornell University

R. Keith Sawyer, Washington University

Lawrence A. Scaff, Wayne State University

Thomas L. Scheff, University of California, Santa Barbara

Teresa L. Scheid, University of North Carolina, Charlotte

Scott Schieman, University of Toronto

Hubert Schijf

Kathryn S. Schiller, University at Albany, State University of New York

Lucia Schmidt, Universität Bielefeld

Mark A. Schneider, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale

Kurt Schock, Rutgers University

Claudia W. Scholz

Juliet Schor, Boston College

Jonathan E. Schroeder, University of Exeter

Hans-Joachim Schubert, Niederrhein University of Applied Science

Russell K. Schutt, University of Massachusetts, Boston

Gerhard Schutte, University of Wisconsin, Parkside

Thomas A. Schwandt, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

Jennifer Schwartz, Washington State University

Joseph Scimecca, George Mason University

Melissa Scopilliti

Jerome Scott, Community educator & organizer, Atlanta, GA (retired)

Sheila Scraton, Leeds Metropolitan University

Dusko, Sekulic, Faculty of Law

Eve Shapiro, University of Connecticut, Storrs

Yossi Shavit, Tel Aviv University

Benjamin Shepard, New York City College of Technology of the City University of New York

Diane S. Shinberg, University of Memphis

Yuichi Shionoya, Hitotsubashi University

Cynthia Siemsen, California State University, Chico

Alexandra E. Sigillo, University of Nevada, Reno

Daniel Silver, University of Toronto

Brent Simpson, University of South Carolina

Barbara Sims, Penn State University, Harrisburg

John Sinclair, The University of Melbourne

Leslie Sklair, London School of Economics

James Slevin, University of Roskilde

Michelle Smirnova, University of Maryland

David Norman Smith, University of Kansas

Gregory W. H. Smith, University of Salford

Irving Smith, United States Military Academy

Melanie Smith, University of Greenwich

Philip Smith, Yale University

David A. Snow, University of California

Patricia Snyder, University of Florida

Jessica Sperling, The Graduate Center, The City University of New York

Lyn Spillman, University of Notre Dame

Steven Stack, Wayne State University

Mark Stafford, Texas State University

James Ronald Stanfield, Colorado State University

Clifford L. Staples, The University of North Dakota

Silvia Staub-Bernasconi, Zentrum für postgraduale Studien Sozialer Arbeit, Zurich

Robert A. Stebbins, University of Calgary

George Steinmetz, University of Michigan

Judith Stepan-Norris, University of California, Irvine

Jeff Stepnisky, MacEwan University

Fred Stevens, Maastricht University

Gillian Stevens, University of Illinois

Nick Stevenson, University of Nottingham

Todd Stillman, Independent Researcher

John Stone, Boston University

Rob Stones, University of Essex

John Storey, University of Sunderland

Robin Stryker, University of Minnesota

Lyndsey Stults, Trinity College

Ivan Y. Sun, University of Delaware

Hung-En Sung, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY

William H. Swatos, Jr, Association for the Sociology of Religion

Mark Tausig, University of Akron

Verta Taylor, University of California, Santa Barbara

Victor E. Taylor, York College of PA

Yvette Taylor, Newcastle University

Tenisha Tevis, University of the Pacific

Richard Tewksbury, University of Louisville

Elizabeth Thorn, University of Maryland

Karen Throsby, The University of Warwick

Shane Thye, Universtiy of South Carolina

William G. Tierney, University of Southern California

David B. Tindall, University of British Columbia

Charles R. Tittle, North Carolina State University

Robert Tonkinson, University of Western Australia

Alberto Toscano, Goldsmiths University of London

Ruth Triplett, Old Dominion University

Trutz von Trotha, University of Siegen

Lisa Troyer, University of Connecticut

Charalambos Tsekeris, Panteion University

Frank van Tubergen, Utrecht University

Andrew Tudor, University of York

Kenneth D. Tunnell, Eastern Kentucky University

Bryan S. Turner, City University of New York

Charles Turner, University of Warwick

Stephen Turner, University of South Florida

Rodanthi Tzanelli, University of Leeds

Jeffrey T. Ulmer, Penn State University

Wout Ultee, Radboud University, Nijmegan

Carey L. Usher, Mary Baldwin College

Stephen Valocchi, Trinity College

Tancy Vandecar-Burdin, Old Dominion University

Mark VanLandingham, Tulane University

Ian Varcoe, University of Leeds

Tiina Vares, University of Canterbury

Matthias Zick Varul, University of Exeter

Lois A. Vitt, Institute for Socio-Financial Studies

Faye Linda Wachs, California State Polytechnic, Pomana

David Wagner, University at Albany, SUNY

Matthew Waites, University of Glasgow

Anne Waldschmidt, University of Cologne

Henry A. Walker, University of Arizona

Philip Walsh, York University

Susan Walzer, Skidmore College

Yong Wang, Montclair State University

Jason Wasserman

Leslie Wasson, Chapman University

John R. Weeks, San Diego State University

Darin Weinberg, University of Cambridge

Raymond M. Weinstein, University of South Carolina, Aiken

Eben A. Weitzman, University of Massachusetts, Boston

Barry Wellman, University of Toronto

Christian Welzel, Jacobs University

Christine A. Wernet, University of South Carolina, Aiken

Jonathan H. Westover, Utah Valley University

Michael J. White, Brown University

John T. Whitehead, East Tennessee State University

Owen Whooley, New York University

Vanessa R. Wight, Columbia University

Melissa M. Wilcox, Whitman College

Joyce E. Williams, Texas Woman’s University

Matthew Williams, Boston College

Janet M. Wilmoth, Syracuse University

Nico Wilterdink, Universiteit van Amsterdam

Howard Winant, University of California, Santa Barbara

Emma Wincup, University of Leeds

Kristina B. Wolff, University of Maine, Farmington

Helen Wood, Demontford Leicester

Stephen Wood, University of Sheffield

John Wooldredge, University of Cincinnati

Susan L. Wortmann, University of Nebraska, Lincoln

Delores F. Wunder, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale

Gad Yair, The Hebrew Universty

Michael Yaksich, Honda R & D Americas, Inc.

David Yamane, Wake Forest University

Kosaku Yoshino, Sophia University

Reef Youngreen of Massachusetts, Boston

Milan Zafirovski, University of North Texas

Jonke van der Zee

Jane Zeni, University of Missouri, St Louis

Jens O. Zinn of Kent

Kathrin Zippel, Northeastern University

Robert Zussman, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Introduction

The origins of sociology are usually traced back to 1839 and the coining of the term by Auguste Comte, one of the important thinkers in the history of the discipline. However, others trace intellectual concern for sociological issues much further back, and it could be argued that scholars (and non-scholars) have been thinking sociologically since the early history of humankind. However, it was not until about a half-century after Comte’s creation of the concept that sociology began to develop as a formal and clearly distinct discipline, primarily, at least at first, in Europe and the United States. It was another French thinker, Émile Durkheim, who in the late 1800s was responsible for distinguishing clearly the subject matter of sociology from neighboring fields such as psychology and biology. Sociology became institutionalized in France (thanks, importantly, to Durkheim’s efforts), as well as in Germany, Great Britain, and the United States. While sociology in the United States did not take the early lead in the development of key ideas and theories, it did move strongly in the direction of institutionalization (as did sociology in other nations, especially Great Britain). Sociology has grown enormously in the one hundred-plus years since the work of Durkheim and the early institutionalization of the field and is today a truly globe-straddling discipline. The sociological literature is now huge and highly diverse, and is growing exponentially. Journals, and therefore journal articles, devoted to sociology and its many subfields have proliferated rapidly, as has the number of books devoted to sociological topics. This is part of a broader issue identified by another early leader in sociology, Georg Simmel, who was concerned with the increasing gap between our cultural products and our ability to comprehend them. Sociology is one of those cultural products and this concise encyclopedia is devoted to the goal of allowing interested readers to gain a better understanding of it.

Framing The Concise Encyclopedia of Sociology

The magnitude and the diversity of the sociological literature represent a challenge to a wide range of people-scholars and students in sociology and closely related disciplines (some of which were at one time part of sociology) such as criminology, social work, and urban studies; in all of the other social sciences; and in many other disciplines. More generally, many others, including secondary school students and interested laypeople, often need to gain a sense not only of the discipline in general, but also of a wide range of specific topics and issues in the domain of sociology. Journalists and documentary filmmakers are others who frequently seek out ideas and insights from sociology. This concise encyclopedia gathers together in one place state-of-the-art information on, and analyses of, much of what constitutes contemporary sociology.

The Concise Encyclopedia of Sociology is drawn largely from entries that can be found in the full version of the Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology (2007). That project constitutes what is arguably the largest and greatest single reference work in sociology and one that by being continually updated online, promises to stay that way. Despite its unrivalled position as the single best sociological resource available, however, the full-length Encyclopedia of Sociology can be inaccessible to the average student, scholar, or layperson interested in sociology. Hence, the idea was born to create a more concise, manageable, and affordable version of the full-length project so that the great wealth of expertise and knowledge that it represents can be utilized by more people. The two leading figures on that project – the editor-in-chief and the senior managing editor – thus created this project.

Despite being a concise version, an effort was made to cast a very wide net in terms of areas to be included. It turned out that a majority of the entries for a given area also fit into one or more – in some cases 4 or 5 – other areas. In order to clarify and simplify matters for readers, 22 general categories were created that now form the organizational base of the Lexicon to be found soon after this introduction. The Lexicon represents the best way to get a quick overview of both sociology today and the contents of the concise encyclopedia (more on the Lexicon below).

An effort was made to ensure that the authors of the entries would be from many different parts of the world. The following are among the many countries from which authors have been drawn: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Zambia.

As a result of the international diversity of authors, the entries themselves are extraordinarily diverse. The entries include topics and people that are not typically included in a work like this emanating from the West and the North. This is truly a work that represents global sociology. While a major effort was made to be sure that there was representation from all parts of the world, there are certain to be omissions and oversights. Another kind of diversity is reflected in the fact that legendary figures in the field of sociology (S. N. Eisenstadt, Kenneth Plummer, Thomas J. Scheff), contemporary leaders (Linda D. Molm, Karen S. Cook, Roland Robertson, Chandra Mukerji, Doug Kellner), young scholars (Karen Bettez Halnon, Lloyd Cox), and even some graduate students (Paul Dean, Joseph Burke) are represented as authors in these pages. This diversity of authorship helped guarantee that the entries in this volume would range all the way from the expected “old chestnuts” to those on hot, new, cutting-edge topics.

Another useful reference source found in this encyclopedia is the timeline of sociology. While this cannot cover everything that everyone would consider of particular significance, it is a listing of over 600 of the most influential events, figures, and publications to have made an impact on the field. As with the entries themselves, the timeline covers a lot of ground both temporally (stretching back over 2,500 years) and geographically (ranging from the Philippines to Argentina to Poland and many places in between).

Although many of the entries in these pages were drawn from the full-length version of this project, and this had already undergone a rigorous editorial process, all entries once again underwent another careful round of editing, and often several rewrites. Further, nearly 20 percent of these entries are original to this project. Thus, all entries in this project have been reviewed and re-reviewed by the editors for both accuracy and interest.

As pointed out above, the overall design of this ambitious project can be gleaned from the Lexicon. First, a glance at the 22 broad headings gives the reader a sense of the great sweep of sociology that includes such diverse subfields as crime and deviance, demography/population, education, family, gender, health and medicine, media, politics, popular culture, race/ethnicity, religion, science, sexuality, social psychology, social stratification, sport, and urbanization. Second, a more detailed examination of the topics listed under each of the broad headings in the Lexicon yields a further sense not only of that sweep, but also of the enormous depth of work in sociology. Thus, the coverage of the field in this volume is both wide and deep, especially for a project of this nature. To take just one example, the crime and deviance category includes not only a general entry on crime, but also entries on such specific topics as capital punishment, child abuse, cybercrime, hate crimes, male rape, political crime, victimization, and many more. To take another example, entries on the economy range all the way from major events (Industrial Revolution and the rise of post-industrial society), theories (rational choice), and people (Karl Marx) to a wide array of other topics including money, occupations, poverty, wealth, shopping, and the ethnic/informal economy. Similar and often even greater depth is reflected in the lists of terms under most of the other headings in the Lexicon.

Sociology is a highly dynamic discipline that is constantly undergoing changes of various types and magnitudes. This greatly complicates getting a sense of the expanse of sociology. This is traceable to changes both within the field and in the larger social world that it studies.

In terms of changes in sociology, the concise encyclopedia includes many traditional concepts, such as primary groups, dyad and triad, norms, values, culture, and so on, but supplements these with a broad assortment of more recently coined and/or popularized concepts, such as distanciation and disembedding, glocalization, simulation, implosion, postpositivism, and imagined communities.

More generally, changes in the relative importance of various subareas in the discipline lead to increases (and decreases) in attention to them. Among the areas that seem to be attracting greater interest are globalization (see below) as well as the sociology of consumption and sport. A significant number of entries in the concise encyclopedia can be included under one (or more) of these headings.

The entries included in the concise encyclopedia also reflect recent changes in the larger social world. For example, the study of cybercrime is a relatively recent addition to the area of crime because the cyberspace in which it occurs is itself relatively new. Furthermore, new ways of engaging in criminal behavior on the Internet are constantly being invented. For example, a relatively new crime has emerged that involves the sending of emails to large numbers of people around the world claiming that help is needed in transferring money from one country to another. In return, the email recipient is offered a significant share of the money. Those who respond with a willingness to help are eventually lured into transferring considerable sums to the sender of the emails in order, they are told, to help with the transfer by, for example, bribing officials. People have lost tens and even hundreds of thousands of dollars in such scams. While the perpetrators are hard to find, victims are not and are subject to prosecution for illegal activities on their part (e.g., deceiving others in order to get needed funds).

A more general recent social change that is profoundly affecting sociology is globalization. This is clearly an emerging and multifaceted process that is dramatically altering the landscape of the world. Sociology (and many other disciplines including political science, international relations, and economics) has been compelled to deal with the process and its various aspects in many different ways. Thus, we have seen the emergence of various theories and methods devoted to dealing with this topic. Furthermore, the many different aspects and dimensions of the process of globalization have attracted the notice of sociologists (and other scholars). Much consideration has been paid to the economic dimensions of globalization, but there are myriad other aspects – social, cultural, political, and the like – that are also drawing increasing attention from sociologists. Thus, in addition to a general entry on globalization, this concise encyclopedia includes a number of more specific entries on such issues as world cities, the global justice movement, and the globalization of sport, sexuality, and so on. Further, such topics and issues will emerge as globalization as a process continues to evolve and develop. Sociology will respond by devoting attention to them.

By its very nature, sociology is also highly topical and its focus is often drawn to the most recent and publicly visible developments, events, and people. There are, of course, far too many of these to cover completely in this single volume, and in any case the topics covered are constantly changing with current events. However, in order to give a sense of this topicality, some of the most important such issues are covered here. For example, changes in science are dealt with under entries on the human genome, new reproductive technologies, genetic engineering, and the measurement of risk. Topical issues in health and medicine include AIDS, aging, mental health, and well-being, stress and health, and health care delivery systems. A flavor of the many new topics in culture of interest to sociologists is offered here in entries on popular culture icons and forms, postmodern culture, surveillance, brand culture, and online social networking.

The dynamic character of sociology makes it extremely interesting, but also very difficult to grasp in some general sense. Thus, it is useful to offer a definition of sociology, although the fact is that the complexity and diversity of the discipline have led to many different definitions and wide disagreement over precisely how to define it. While we recognize that it is one among many definitions, the following is a variant on one that we feel can be usefully employed and is consistent with the thrust of most definitions in the discipline: Sociology is the study of individuals, groups, organizations, cultures, societies, and transnational relationships and of the various interrelationships among and between them.

Unpacking this definition gives us yet another way of gaining an impression of the field of sociology. On the one hand, it is clear that sociology spans the workings of a number of levels of analysis all the way from individuals to groups, organizations, cultures, societies, and transnational processes. On the other, sociology is deeply concerned with the interrelationship among and between all of those levels of analysis. Thus, at the extremes, one might be concerned with the relationship between individuals and the transnational relationships involved in globalization. While globalization is certainly affecting individuals (for example, outsourcing is leading to the loss of jobs in some areas of the world and to the creation of others elsewhere around the globe), it is also the case that globalization is the outcome of the actions of various people (business leaders, politicians, workers). Sociology is attuned to such extreme micro (individual) and macro (global) relationships as well as everything in between. A slightly different way of saying this is that sociology is concerned, at its extremes, with the relationship between individual agents and the structures (e.g., of global transnational relationships) within which they exist and which they construct and are constantly reconstructing.

Using The Concise Encyclopedia of Sociology

One way of gaining an impression of the expanse of sociology is, of course, to read every entry in this concise encyclopedia. Since few (save the co-editors) are likely to undertake such an enormous task, a first approach would be to scan the entire Lexicon and then select headings and terms of special interest. The reader could then begin building from there to encompass areas and topics of less direct and immediate interest.

However, readers without time to work their way through the entire encyclopedia would be well advised to focus on several rather general Lexicon entries: Key Concepts, Key Figures, Theory, and Methods. Let us look at each of these in a bit more detail.

In a sense the vast majority of entries in this concise encyclopedia are key concepts in sociology, but a large number of the most important and widely used concepts in the discipline have been singled out for inclusion under the heading of Key Concepts. An understanding of this range of ideas, as well as of the content of each, will go a long way toward giving the reader an appreciation of the field. For example, one can begin at the level of the individual with the ideas of mind and self, and then move through such concepts as agency, interaction, everyday life, groups (primary and secondary), organizations, institutions, society, and globalization. This would give the reader a sound grasp of the scope of sociology, at least in terms of the extent of its concerns, all the way from individuals and their thoughts and actions to global relationships and processes. Readers could then work their way through the key concepts in a wide range of other ways and directions, but in the end they would emerge with a pretty good conception of the discipline.

All of those mentioned in the previous paragraph are theorists, but there are many other key figures in or associated with the discipline as well. One can read entries on these people and gain an understanding of specific areas in sociology, including demography (Kingsley Davis), race relations (W. E. B. Du Bois), feminism (Betty Friedan), sexuality (Alfred Kinsey), gender (Simone de Beauvoir), media (Marshall McLuhan), urbanization (Jane Jacobs), and many more.

The methods entries have similarly diverse coverage, which can be divided roughly into qualitative and quantitative methods. All are of varying degrees of utility in studying virtually any topic of concern in sociology. Among the notable qualitative methods covered are ethnography, feminist methodology, interviewing, verstehen, and participant and non-participant observation. More quantitative methods covered include a variety of demographic techniques, experiments, social network analysis, and survey research. Also covered under the heading of methods is a wide range of statistical techniques. Finally, a series of broad methodological issues is dealt with, such as validity, reliability, objectivity, and many others.

It is safe to say that the Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology represents the largest and most complete, diverse, global, and up-to-date repository of sociological knowledge in the history of the discipline. It stands as a resource for professional sociologists, scholars in other fields, students, and interested laypeople. We are confident that this concise version has managed to maintain the essence and high academic quality that made the full-length version the success that it has been and will prove just as invaluable a resource to senior scholars, young professionals, graduate students, undergraduate students, and laypeople alike.

Co-editors The Concise Encyclopedia of Sociology

August 2010