Cover

A Companion to Los Angeles

Blackwell Companions to American History

This series provides essential and authoritative overviews of the scholarship that has shaped our present understanding of the American past. Edited by eminent historians, each volume tackles one of the major periods or themes of American history, with individual topics authored by key scholars who have spent considerable time in research on the questions and controversies that have sparked debate in their field of interest. The volumes are accessible for the non-specialist, while also engaging scholars seeking a reference to the historiography or future concerns.

Published

1 A Companion to the American Revolution edited by Jack P. Greene and J. R. Pole

2 A Companion to 19th-Century America edited by William L. Barney

3 A Companion to the American South edited by John B. Boles

4 A Companion to American Indian History edited by Philip J. Deloria and Neal Salisbury

5 A Companion to American Women's History edited by Nancy Hewitt

6 A Companion to Post-1945 America edited by Jean-Christophe Agnew and Roy Rosenzweig

7 A Companion to the Vietnam War edited by Marilyn Young and Robert Buzzanco

8 A Companion to Colonial America edited by Daniel Vickers

9 A Companion to 20th-Century America edited by Stephen J. Whitfield

10 A Companion to the American West edited by William Deverell

11 A Companion to American Foreign Relations edited by Robert Schulzinger

12 A Companion to the Civil War and Reconstruction edited by Lacy K. Ford

13 A Companion to American Technology edited by Carroll Pursell

14 A Companion to African-American History edited by Alton Hornsby

15 A Companion to American Immigration edited by Reed Ueda

16 A Companion to American Cultural History edited by Karen Halttunen

17 A Companion to California History edited by William Deverell and David Igler

18 A Companion to American Military History edited by James Bradford

19 A Companion to Los Angeles edited by William Deverell and Greg Hise

In preparation

A Companion to American Environmental History edited by Douglas Sackman

Title

This edition first published 2010

© 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd except for chapter 1 (© Matt Gainer 2010); chapter 20 (© 2010 Matt Gainer); chapter 24 (© 2010 Robbert Flick)

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Contents

List of Plates

Los Angeles, 2006.

Los Angeles, May 2003.

Los Angeles, May 2003.

Los Angeles, May 2006.

Los Angeles, May 2006.

Minutemen, Burbank, CA, April 2006.

Fernando Suárez Del Solar at the Cesar Chavez La Paz Center, Keene, CA, March 2006.

Day Labor Center, Burbank, 2006.

Day Labor Center, San Fernando Valley, 2007.

Downtown Los Angeles, 2003.

Downtown Los Angeles, 2006.

The border crossed US, Los Angeles, 2006.

Minutemen, San Fernando Valley, 2007.

Lupe, Minutemen Organizer, Simi-Valley, 2008.

Lilliana and son, Sanctuary Family, Simi-Valley, 2008.

Los Angeles City Hall, May, 2006.

A day without an immigrant, May, 2006.

Map of Los Angeles drawn by José Argüello, 1793.

"Part of Los Angeles," drawn by William Rich Hutton, 1847.

"Los Angeles City Map," drawn by E. O. C. Ord and William Rich Hutton, 1849.

Fine.

Stanford Sims, Robert Sims, and General R. C. Sims, Jr. in front of a house on Central Avenue.

Geneva Stevenson.

Saber-tooth cat skull, La Brea Tar Pits. Catalogue # 2001–1, Pit 61, D 11, 14 1/2'. Photograph May   1916 by Luther E. Wyman.

Misión San Gabriel Arcángel, by Ferdinand Deppe, 1832. Oil on canvas. Original in Santa Barbara Mission Library. Photograph of painting by Max Bruensteiner.

Sunkist Building, photographed in 1939, looking east on Fifth Street across from Los Angeles Public Library's Central Library.

"Have One" brand label from the 1930s, suggestive and suggesting, exemplifi ed the latter prong of the "science and sex" themes of citrus advertising.

Aimee Semple McPherson's majestic and showy Angelus Temple, viewed at night, ca. 1930.

Los Angeles Interfaith Network.

Universal Cao Dai Temple.

Beth Chayim Chadashim.

Salvation Mountain.

Parroquia San Judas Tadeo.

Radha Krishna Mandir.

Islamic Center of Southern California.

Ministerios Nuevo Vivir.

Radha Krishna Mandir.

Islamic Center of Southern California.

Ministerios Nuevo Vivir.

Victory Baptist Church.

Ministerios Linaje Escogido.

Virgin of the Rocks.

Los Angeles Baha'i Center.

Chapel of Peace Holiness Church of the Old and New Testament.

Masjid Bilal Islamic Center.

Chùa Pháp Vân Theravada Buddhist Corporation.

Grace Williams, Albert Williams, Mary Mingleton, and Willie Williams (no relation) at Santa  Monica Beach, 1926.

Ralph Bunche and friends at the beach, ca. 1923.

As a destination for health-seekers, southern California quickly developed a healthcare infrastructure, represented here by California Hospital.

Dr. Welwood Murray was so impressed by the climate in Palm Springs, he established a sanitarium there. Many hotels began by serving health-seekers, helping to create the region's tourism industry.

Sanitariums were often located in an isolated natural setting, such as Elysian Park, the home of Los Angeles County's Barlow Sanatorium.

Philip Lovell commissioned Richard Neutra to design an ideal southern California home by integrating the indoors with the landscape beyond.

Herbal remedies, such as those sold at the T. Leung Herb Co. ("under the same manager since 1896"), located at 711 S. Main St., were one type of alternative/complementary medicine long a part of Los Angeles healthcare.

This view of the bungalows, beach, dock, and coast from Santa Monica's palisades represents an iconic representation of Los Angeles as a place of healthy activity.

Six riders of the Los Angeles Bicycle Club pose with their decorated bicycles at the Fiesta de las Flores, ca. 1887.

Notes on Contributors

Eric Avila is an Associate Professor of History, Chicano Studies, and Urban Planning at UCLA. He is author of Popular Culture in the Age of White Flight: Fear and Fantasy in Suburban Los Angeles (2004). His current book project is titled The Folklore of the Freeway: A Cultural History of a Mornist Space.

Leo Braudy, the author of The Frenzy of Renown (1997) and other works of cultural history, is University Professor and Bing Professor of English and American Literature at the University of Southern California. His new project is a book about the intertwined history of Hollywood and the icon of the Hollywood Sign.

Lawrence Culver is an Assistant Professor in the Department of History at Utah State University. His Ph.D. dissertation on recreation, resorts, and tourism in Southern California received the 2005 Rachel Carson Prize for the best dissertation in Environmental History from the American Society for Environmental History. It is now forthcoming as The Frontier of Leisure: Southern California and the Shaping of Modern America.

William Deverell is Director of the Huntington-USC Institute on California and the West. He previously edited the Blackwell Companion to the American West and co-edited, with David Igler, the Blackwell Companion to California History.

Edward Dimendberg is Associate Professor of Film and Media Studies, Visual Studies, and German at the University of California, Irvine. He has received fellowships from the American Academy in Berlin, the German Fulbright Commission, the J. Paul Getty Trust, the Graham Foundation, the Canadian Centre for Architecture, and the International Research Center for Cultural Studies in Vienna. He is co-editor (with Anton Kaes and Martin Jay) of The Weimar Republic Sourcebook (1995) and author of Film Noir and the Spaces of Modernity (2004). At present he is completing a monograph on the architecture of Diller Scofidio + Renfro and a history of Los Angeles documentary media since the 1970s.

Steven P. Erie is Professor of Political Science, Adjunct Professor of History, and Director of the Urban Studies and Planning Program at the University of California, San Diego. Erie studies urban politics, governance, and public policy. His recent work concerns infrastructure, governance, and economic development in Southern California. His books include Rainbow's End (1990), Globalizing L.A. (2004), and Beyond ‘Chinatown’ (2006). His new book project (with Scott A. MacKenzie and Vlad Kogan) is Paradise Plundered: Fiscal Crisis and Growth Politics in San Diego.

Philip J. Ethington is Professor of History and Political Science at the University of Southern California, North American Editor and Multimedia Editor of the journal Urban History, and Co-Director (with Tara McPherson) of the USC Center for Transformative Scholarship. An interdisciplinary historian, Ethington's scholarship explores the past as a cartography of time. His published work includes theoretical work on a spatial theory of history; sociological studies of residential segregation; large-format maps of urban historical change; online interactive Web 2.0 tools, archives, and publications for urban studies; and museum exhibit collaborations. He is co-PI of the HyperCities project (funded by the MacArthur Foundation and HASTAC). Most recently, Ethington co-wrote the award-winning film Visual Acoustics: The Modernism of Julius Shulman (Art House Films, 2009), narrated by Dustin Hoffman. His photography and cartography have been published and exhibited internationally. He is currently completing a large-format graphic book, interactive online publication, and public art exhibit, Ghost Metropolis: Los Angeles, since 13,000 BP.

Robbert Flick is a Southern California artist who uses photography as his primary medium. Flick, a native of Holland, received a BA at the University of British Columbia and an MA and MFA at the University of California, Los Angeles. He has been exhibiting his photographs for over thirty years and his work has been shown and collected at numerous private and public venues both nationally and internationally. He has been the recipient of two NEA Fellowships, a Guggenheim Fellowship, and a Flintridge Visual Artist Award, and was a Getty Scholar at the Getty Center for the History of Art and the Humanities. A thirty-year retrospective of his work was held at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art in 2004 accompanied by a major monograph, Robbert Flick: Trajectories.

Matt Gainer is a Los Angeles based photographer whose work explores social and political movements, religious identity and community, and tensions between people and the environments they occupy - with particular focus on California and the American West. He is a Research Associate at the USC Center for Religion and Civic Culture, and serves as the Director of the USC Digital Library.

Anthea Hartig directs the National Trust for Historic Preservation's Western Office, helping save the heritage of the six continental far western states along with Hawai'i, Alaska, Guam, and the Pacific Territories. A third-generation Californian, her interest in the state's historic built environment has come to define her professional and advocational life, and she has worked between public and academic history throughout her career.

Christopher Hawthorne is architecture critic for the Los Angeles Times. He is the author, with Alanna Stang, of The Green House: New Directions in Sustainable Architec ture (2005), and was co-curator of an exhibition based on the book at the National Building Museum in Washington, DC. He has taught at Columbia University and the University of California at Berkeley and was a mid-career fellow in 1998–9 at Columbia's National Arts Journalism Program. A native of Berkeley, CA, he is an honors graduate of Yale University, where he studied architectural history and political philosophy.

Greg Hise is a historian of urban economies, architecture, and city planning. After completing his doctorate at UC Berkeley, Hise joined the faculty at the University of Southern California, where his teaching and research examined Los Angeles, comparative urbanism, and related topics. He is now Professor of History at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Hise is the author, co-author, or co-editor of five books and the recipient of the Spiro Kostof Book Prize (Society of Architectural Historians) and the Pflueger Award (Historical Society of Southern California). Recent articles and book chapters have examined regionalism, architecture as state building, and the role of big projects in urban revitalization.

Tom Hogen-Esch is Associate Professor of Political Science at California State University, Northridge. He is co-author of Local Politics:A Practical Guide to Governing at the Grassroots (2006) with Terry Christensen. His articles on urban social movements and municipal incorporation have appeared in California Politics and Policy (2004), California Policy Issues Annual (2003), and Urban Affairs Review (2001, 2006).

Victor Jew grew up in Los Angeles (Echo Park and Chinatown) and is a full-fledged product of the Los Angeles Unified School District (grades K to 12.) He graduated with a degree in US History from the University of California, Los Angeles and then received his MA and Ph.D. degrees in history from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He has taught Asian American history and US legal and constitutional history at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and Cornell University. Being a transplanted Midwesterner, he has written about the largely unknown Asian American past in the Midwest, including the anti-Chinese riot in Milwaukee in 1889 (for the Journal of Social History) and he is the co-editor of a volume about Asian Americans in Michigan. For his legal history work, he is currently working on a study of the legal-social and cultural history of arson, incendiarism, and forbidden fire in the United States, 1780 to 1960.

Josh Kun is Associate Professor in the Annenberg School for Communication and the Department of American Studies of Ethnicity at USC. He is author of Audiotopia: Music, Race, and America (2005) and co-author of And You Shall Know Us By The Trail of Our Vinyl: The Jewish Past As Told By The Records We Have Loved and Lost (2008). A contributor to the New York Times and Los Angeles magazine, he is co-editor, with Ronald Radano, of the Refiguring American Music book series.

Scott Kurashigeis an Associate Professor of American culture, Asian/ Pacific Islander American Studies, and History at the University of Michigan. He is the author of The Shifting Grounds of Race: Black and Japanese Americans in the Making of Multiethnic Los Angeles, which received the 2008 Albert J. Beveridge Award from the American Historical Association.

Stephanie Lewthwaiteis lecturer in American History at the School of American and Canadian Studies, University of Nottingham, UK. She is the author of Race, Place, and Reform in Mexican Los Angeles: A Transnational Perspective, 1890–1940 (2009). Her current research project examines the relationship between Mexican American artists and modernism in the US Southwest between 1930 and 1960.

David McBrideis a Senior Editor for Oxford University Press in New York. He received his Ph.D. in history from UCLA, where he wrote on the counterculture in 1960s Los Angeles.

Scott MacKenzieis Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of California, Davis. His research studies the effects of state and local government institutions on public policy and economic growth. He has co-authored reports on trade infrastructure for the Southern California Association of Governments and is currently working with Steven P. Erie on Paradise Plundered: Fiscal Crisis and Growth Politics in San Diego.

Angela Oh is the Executive Director of the Western Justice Center Foundation, whose mission is the peaceful resolution of conflict. She is an attorney, public lecturer, and teacher whose focus is on race relations, leadership, and civic engagement. She has served on select commissions and boards, including the Advisory Board to the President's Initiative on Race and the Los Angeles City Human Relations Commission.

Manuel Pastoris Professor of Geography and American Studies and Ethnicity at the University of Southern California. He directs the Program for Environmental and Regional Equity at USC's Center for Sustainable Cities and is co- director, with Dowell Myers, of USC's Center for the Study of Immigrant Integration. His most recent book, coauthored with Chris Benner and Martha Matsuoka, is This Could Be the Start of Something Big: How Social Movements for Regional Equity are Transforming Metropolitan America (2009).

Louise Pubolsis Chief Curator of History at the Oakland Museum of California, where she is working on a major reinstallation of the museum's history galleries. Her book The Father of All: The de la Guerra Family, Power, and Patriarchy in Mexican California (2009) explores how patriarchy informed the economic and political systems of the Mexican era.

George J. Sanchezis Professor of American Studies, Ethnicity, and History at the University of Southern California. He is the author of Becoming Mexican American: Ethnicity, Culture and Identity in Chicano Los Angeles, 1900–1945 (1993), co-editor of Los Angeles and the Future of Urban Cultures (2005), and " ‘What's Good for Boyle Heights is Good for the Jews': Creating Multiracialism on the Eastside During the 1950s," American Quarterly 56:3 (2004). He is Past President of the American Studies Association in 2001–2, and is one of the co-editors of the book series American Crossroads: New Works in Ethnic Studies. He currently serves as Director of the Center for Diversity and Democracy at USC, and as Director of College Diversity for the USC College of Letters, Arts and Sciences. He works on both historical and contemporary topics of race, gender, ethnicity, labor, and immigration, and is currently working on a historical study of the ethnic interaction of Mexican Americans, Japanese Americans, African Americans, and Jews in the Boyle Heights area of East Los Angeles, California in the twentieth century. He also co-edited, with Amy Koritz, Civic Engagement in the Wake of Katrina (2009).

Scott Saul is the author of Freedom Is, Freedom Ain't: Jazz and the Making of the Sixties (2003). A professor of English and American Studies at the University of California, Berkeley, he has written on African American history and culture for Boston Review, Harper's, and The Nation, and is currently working on a critical biography of the comic Richard Pryor.

David Sloane is Professor and Director of the undergraduate programs in the School of Policy, Planning, and Development at the University of Southern California. He received his BA from the University of Wisconsin- Madison and his MA and Ph.D. from Syracuse University. His research interests consider the history of urban planning and cultural landscapes, as well as contemporary concerns around community health and safety.

Susan Straight has published six novels, including I Been in Sorrow's Kitchen and Licked Out All the Pots (1992), Highwire Moon (Finalist for the 2001 National Book Award), and A Million Nightingales (Finalist for the 2006 Los Angeles Book Prize). Her essays have appeared in Harper's, The Nation, New York Times Magazine, Los Angeles Times Magazine, Salon, Reader's Digest, and other publications. She is Professor of Creative Writing at the University of California, Riverside.

Introduction

William Deverell and Greg Hise

Over the past decade and a half, we have worked together on books and other projects focused on the history of greater Los Angeles. These collaborations, as well as the writing we've pursued individually, form a part of a recent groundswell of scholarship that has recast interpretations of nineteenth and twentieth-century Southern California. A host of mostly young scholars have written dozens of insightful, empirically rich, and challenging works which together constitute one of the most lively sub-fields of historical inquiry into North American cities and urban life.

In part as a result of that mini-explosion, historians, including non-Americanists who might never have taught, much less thought about, Los Angeles history, now do so with exuberance. Many have sought to incorporate Los Angeles into their own research. All the more impressive is the embrace of Los Angeles history by non-historians and non-historical scholarly disciplines. Architecture, urban planning, urban studies, sociology, ethnic studies, feminist studies, gender studies, art theory, landscape architecture, photography, cultural studies, literature, comparative literature, urban theory, American studies, critical legal studies, political science, and comparative economics (the list is representative rather than exhaustive) have all drawn Los Angeles history and case studies into their inquiries by way of these many new books and articles.

We designed this volume to showcase some of that work, both by way of the authors who have contributed and in the scholarly surveys each performs in their respective essays. The volume has other ambitions as well. It is the first of the long and distinguished list of Blackwell Companions devoted to a single city. We hope that it will be an important tool by which to understand the complex history of greater Los Angeles and in addition that it might serve as a model for similarly conceived projects on other cities or other regions. Most ambitiously, though, we wished for this volume to dig deeply into the history of Los Angeles with specific aims related to chronology, continuity, and context.

Chronology and the Re-Balancing of Los Angeles History

In constructing the table of contents for this volume we sought to engage deeply with the nineteenth century as a way to bring chronological balance to the "Los Angeles flurry" of recent years. The field has tipped profoundly in the direction of the post-World War II era. In and of itself this is not especially a problem, particularly since the quality of much of these works is so high. But the relative paucity of historical inquiries taking into account the second, much less first, half of the nineteenth century has created an imbalance in interpretations of the region's past.

Los Angeles of the nineteenth century remains largely the domain of classics written by such figures as Carey McWilliams, Robert Fogelson, Glenn Dumke, and Robert Glass Cleland. This is not to suggest that these books, interpretations, and insights have lost their importance: they are classics precisely because we read and learn from them yet. But the shelf upon which they sit – "nineteenth-century Los Angeles" – is far too thinly populated, especially when it comes to more recent imprints. We can fill that shelf with primary sources, but the monographs are lonely. Hence, we designed the volume's approach around sustained engagement with the deep past and asked specific authors to consider chronological depth specifically as they constructed their essays (that request is honored most apparently in Philip Ethington's roughly 15,000-year inquiry into regional regimes of power, but the long fetch of Los Angeles history is also apparent in contributions from Louise Pubols, Eric Avila, Robbert Flick, and others).

We think that this approach will assist scholars as they further tie together the historical dimensions and dynamism across the nineteenth and twentieth centuries or across the divides of the Spanish, Mexican, and American periods. If scholars were to devote comparable resources of time and talent to the nineteenth century, and if institutions were to enhance collections and access to primary documents via digital initiatives, for example, we could grapple more fully with the level and extent of the various chronological, racial, national, or other ruptures and continuities which separate or amalgamate the post-conquest era.

Continuity and Pattern in the Long History of Los Angeles

The thematic organization of this volume, which includes longer introductory essays launching four of the five sections (Matt Gainer's photo essay, "The Border Crossed US" introduces part one), is designed to address another vexing and related issue in the writing of Los Angeles history. All too often, discrete episodes, events, or periods are cleaved off for study – sometimes distinguished study – but not folded back into the longer history of the city and region. This can be partly, if implicitly, addressed, as we think we've accomplished here, by thematic analyses that move across time or even space. In this volume readers can begin to see long-term patterns emerging in, for example, land use, political structures and regimes, and even cultural expression. Such organization can help us think in more general terms about Los Angeles history writ large, and it can also push collective thinking of Los Angeles beyond the less-than-helpful constructions of ever-present Los Angeles exceptionalism. As a case in point, Eric Avila's introduction to part two's excavation of "social flashpoints" helps to explicate one of the earliest ideas and ambitions we shared in envisioning this volume. Scholarly work on episodic eruptions of racial and ethnic coercion and violence in Los Angeles is among the best of that form of historical inquiry currently in practice. We know a great deal about isolated examples – Sleepy Lagoon, the Zoot Suit attacks, Watts, and the violence of the post-Rodney King verdicts. But have we thought to connect such explosions across time? Have we wondered what a longitudinal exploration that also took account of, for example, the violence of the 1850s, or the 1871 Chinese massacre, or the forced deportations and internments of the 1930s and 1940s, might tell us in addition to the usual forensic, episodic treatment? As Avila notes, and as "social flashpoints" authors then take up in detailed portraits in turn, racial and ethnic violence in Los Angeles may be less a story of periodic eruption and more a story of generalized, even regularized, behavior and culture. Such refiguring, or at least rethinking, of the episodic tendencies inherent to much of Los Angeles historical scholarship, which is further pushed along by Susan Straight's deeply personal essay closing out part one, encourages further breadth and depth to our inquiries.

Context and Audience, Past and Present

In our approach to this book, which builds upon previous experience with other Blackwell Companions (specifically those which address the history of the American West and the history of California), we wished to keep true to a central theme of these volumes. That is that it would represent a highly competent, well-informed "state of the field" assessment of the best and most important work to date on, in this case, the history of Los Angeles. All along, we kept in mind – and urged our authors to do the same – that one important audience for these volumes is graduate students at work mastering fields of study, finding their critical voices, and in search of significant thesis topics. This book speaks to those students (and their professors) in precisely that regard; its success may be judged on the number and quality of thesis "ships" that it helps launch over time.

Graduate students are but one readership. We also kept in mind another proverbial audience, the so-called "lay public" interested, and often deeply versed in, the history of Los Angeles and Southern California more generally. This book demanded a level of scholarly sophistication in conception and execution, but that need not cut off access to (or appreciation of) the volume from non-scholars. On the contrary, in our choice of authors, topics, and formats, including the fine photo essays by artists Robbert Flick and Matt Gainer, we explicitly designed this book as, in part, a dialogue between historians and non-historians, both within the book's pages and in its outward reach to the public.

A related point as regards audience and dialogue: we remained cognizant of the power of history in shaping contemporary life and culture in Los Angeles. While scholars may find history intrinsically fascinating, the enduring significance of historical perspective assuredly springs from its relationship with the present. Accordingly, we asked five of our contributors to offer "contemporary voice" views and visions of specific aspects of life in Los Angeles. At once musings, ruminations, and "think pieces," these visual and textual essays help to bring the volume's scholarly insights into sharp focus on the human and physical landscapes of early twenty-first century Los Angeles.

Together, the various and varied contributions that make up this volume constitute a lively and informed introduction to a history as fascinating as it is complex. Our preeminent hope is for the book to invite further inquiries that will offer additional insights and spark polyphonic conversations that bridge disciplines, audiences, and discourses.

We wish to express our thanks to our colleagues at Blackwell, especially Peter Coveney, Galen Smith, Jack Messenger, and Deidre Ilkson for their expertise, counsel, and vision. We express warm, collegial thanks to the several dozen authors and artists for their outstanding contributions. It has been a privilege to work with such talented scholars, writers, and photographers. We are grateful to the John Randolph Haynes and Dora Haynes Foundation of Los Angeles for important financial support, without which this project, and this book, would not have been possible. The Huntington Library and its Director of Research, Roy Ritchie, provided scholarly, administrative, and logistical support to this project; Ross Landry, Jennifer Watts, and Erin Chase assisted us with research into Edison ephemera and Collection of southern California photographs. Research support from the Lusk Center for Real Estate in the USC School of Policy, Planning and Development freed time for Greg Hise to write and edit, as did support from the Office of the Provost and USC College for Bill Deverell.

Part I

The Long History of a Global City

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Chapter One

The Border Crossed US

Matt Gainer

On May 1, 2006 more than 1 million people took to the streets of Los Angeles. They were there to protest the House of Representatives passage of HR 4437: Border Protection, Antiterrorism, and Illegal Immigration Control Act of 2005. Their actions crippled the city.

As written, HR 4437 would have criminalized people who provide illegal aliens assistance and would have stripped asylum seekers of fundamental due process protections. It also would have introduced new penalties – including a minimum five-year prison term – for church workers, schoolteachers, humanitarian workers, and others who sought to aid immigrants who are in the US illegally.

The tensions surrounding the issues HR 4437 addressed had been escalating for years. By the time of the 2006 "Day Without an Immigrant" protests, groups on both sides of the debate were well organized and deeply entrenched. Those who supported the bill argued it was a necessary step for securing American borders and stabilizing the demand on resources. Opponents believed it was unfair, inhumane, and extreme in the way it dealt with immigrants and their advocates. The latter groups sought legislation that would recognize basic rights, establish a guest-worker program, keep mixed-status families together, and create paths towards citizenship, among other things.

Plate 1.1 Los Angeles, 2006.

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Plate 1.2 Los Angeles, May 2003.

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Plate 1.3 Los Angeles, May 2003.

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Plate 1.4 Los Angeles, May 2006.

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Plate 1.5 Los Angeles, May 2006.

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Plate 1.6 Minutemen, Burbank, CA, April 2006.

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Plate 1.7 Fernando Suárez Del Solar at the Cesar Chavez La Paz Center, Keene, CA, March 2006.

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Plate 1.8 Day Labor Center, Burbank, 2006.

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Plate 1.9 Day Labor Center, San Fernando Valley, 2007.

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Plate 1.10 Downtown Los Angeles, 2003.

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Plate 1.11 Downtown Los Angeles, 2006.

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Plate 1.12 The border crossed US, Los Angeles, 2006.

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Plate 1.13 Minutemen, San Fernando Valley, 2007.

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Plate 1.14 Lupe, Minutemen Organizer, Simi-Valley, 2008.

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Plate 1.15 Lilliana and son, Sanctuary Family, Simi-Valley, 2008.

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Plate 1.16 Los Angeles City Hall, May, 2006.

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Plate 1.17 A day without an immigrant, May, 2006.

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