Cover

A COMPANION TO FAMILIES IN THE GREEK AND ROMAN WORLDS

BLACKWELL COMPANIONS TO THE ANCIENT WORLD

This series provides sophisticated and authoritative overviews of periods of ancient history, genres of classical literature, and the most important themes in ancient culture. Each volume comprises between twenty-five and forty concise essays written by individual scholars within their area of specialization. The essays are written in a clear, provocative, and lively manner, designed for an international audience of scholars, students, and general readers.


ANCIENT HISTORY

Published

A Companion to the Roman Army
Edited by Paul Erdkamp

A Companion to the Roman Republic
Edited by Nathan Rosenstein and Robert Morstein-Marx

A Companion to the Roman Empire
Edited by David S. Potter

A Companion to the Classical Greek World
Edited by Konrad H. Kinzl

A Companion to the Ancient Near East
Edited by Daniel C. Snell

A Companion to the Hellenistic World
Edited by Andrew Erskine

A Companion to Late Antiquity
Edited by Philip Rousseau

A Companion to Ancient History
Edited by Andrew Erskine

A Companion to Archaic Greece
Edited by Kurt A. Raaflaub and Hans van Wees

A Companion to Julius Caesar
Edited by Miriam Griffin

A Companion to Byzantium
Edited by Liz James

A Companion to Ancient Egypt
Edited by Alan B. Lloyd

A Companion to Ancient Macedonia
Edited by Joseph Roisman and Ian Worthington

In preparation

A Companion to the Punic Wars
Edited by Dexter Hoyos

A Companion to Sparta
Edited by Anton Powell

LITERATURE AND CULTURE

Published

A Companion to Classical Receptions
Edited by Lorna Hardwick and Christopher Stray

A Companion to Greek and Roman Historiography
Edited by John Marincola

A Companion to Catullus
Edited by Marilyn B. Skinner

A Companion to Roman Religion
Edited by Jörg Rüpke

A Companion to Greek Religion
Edited by Daniel Ogden

A Companion to the Classical Tradition
Edited by Craig W. Kallendorf

A Companion to Roman Rhetoric
Edited by William Dominik and Jon Hall

A Companion to Greek Rhetoric
Edited by Ian Worthington

A Companion to Ancient Epic
Edited by John Miles Foley

A Companion to Greek Tragedy
Edited by Justina Gregory

A Companion to Latin Literature
Edited by Stephen Harrison

A Companion to Greek and Roman Political Thought
Edited by Ryan K. Balot

A Companion to Ovid
Edited by Peter E. Knox

A Companion to the Ancient Greek Language
Edited by Egbert Bakker

A Companion to Hellenistic Literature
Edited by Martine Cuypers and James J. Clauss

A Companion to Vergil’s Aeneid and its Tradition
Edited by Joseph Farrell and Michael C. J. Putnam

A Companion to Horace
Edited by Gregson Davis

A Companion to Families in the Greek and Roman Worlds
Edited by Beryl Rawson

In preparation

A Companion to the Latin Language
Edited by James Clackson

A Companion to Greek Mythology
Edited by Ken Dowden and Niall Livingstone

A Companion to Sophocles
Edited by Kirk Ormand

A Companion to Aeschylus
Edited by Peter Burian

A Companion to Greek Art
Edited by Tyler Jo Smith and Dimitris Plantzos

A Companion to Tacitus
Edited by Victoria Pagán

A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East
Edited by Daniel Potts

Title

Contents

Illustrations

Maps

1 The Greek and Roman worlds to the second century CE.

2 The first walk: the Roman Forum of 169 BCE; possible routes.

3 The second walk: Rome, 211 CE.

Figures

1.1 Courtyard of house C118, Karanis, viewed from the southeast.

1.2 Plan of houses 2 and 3, Kellis.

1.3a Insula from Karanis Area 10–12, F–G, phase C.

1.3b Insula from Karanis Area 10–12, F–G, phase B.

2.1 Houses A vii 4 and D vi 6, Olynthus.

2.2 House of Mosaics, Eretria.

2.3 Peristyle house 1, Iaitas.

2.4 Insula of the Bronzes, Delos.

2.5 House of the Trident, Delos.

3.1 Casa del Menandro, Pompeii.

3.2 Representation of a boy playing with a dove from the Casa di Successus, Pompeii.

3.3 Casa del Labirinto, Pompeii.

3.4 Casa dei Postumii, Pompeii.

3.5 The kitchen (22) of the Casa dei Postumii, Pompeii.

10.1 Tombstone of Dagvalda, mourned by his wife, Pusinna, from Cawfields on Hadrian’s Wall.

10.2 Map of Germany showing locations of forts in this study.

10.3 GIS plot showing distribution of women’s and children’s items inside the first-century legionary fortress of Vetera I.

10.4 GIS plot showing distribution of women’s and children’s items inside the legionary fortress and cohort fort at Rottweil.

10.5 GIS plot showing distribution of women’s and children’s items inside the second-century auxiliary fort at Oberstimm.

10.6 GIS plot showing distribution of women’s and children’s items inside the second-century auxiliary fort at Ellingen.

18.1 Fragmentary marble relief, from the Asclepieion, Piraeus, fourth century BCE.

18.2 Attic marble grave stele, second quarter of the fourth century BCE.

18.3 Glass paste (cast), Roman period.

18.4 Marble sarcophagus, 170–180/200 CE.

18.5 Marble votive relief, from Echinos, ca. 300 BCE.

18.6 Onyx alabastron, ca. 50–30 BCE.

18.7 Grave, newborn baby (ten lunar months) with a funerary coin.

18.8 Attic red-figure hydria, ca. 440–430 BCE.

18.9 Terracotta, second century CE.

18.10 Attic red-figure chous, 420–410 BCE.

18.11a Stamnos, Berlin Painter, ca. 480 BCE.

18.11b Lekythos, manner of the Pistoxenos Painter, ca. 470 BCE.

19.1 Epitaph of Aurelius Castus, Rome, fourth century CE.

19.2 Epitaph of Cicercula, Rome, fourth/fifth century CE.

25.1 Relief of a Republican funeral procession, from Amiternum, ca. 50 BCE with close-up of a smiling pallbearer.

25.2 Basalt pavers along the Via Appia.

25.3 Hypothetical view of the procession in the narrow streets along the northern slope of the Palatine.

25.4 Hypothetical view of the Forum (169 BCE) from within the procession.

25.5 The eulogist’s view of the Forum from the Rostra.

25.6 Reconstructed façade of the Tomb of the Scipios.

25.7 The eroded remains of a pyramid-shaped tomb on the Appian Way alongside the well-preserved remains of the Pyramid of Cestius.

25.8 The heavily reconstructed tomb of Gaius Rabirius Hermodorus along the Appian Way.

25.9 The tomb of Caecilia Metella.

25.10 Hypothetical view of the Roman Forum from the Sacred Way, 211 CE.

27.1 Plan of rooms and shrines in the ancient Greek house.

27.2 Hearth from A vi 10a, Olynthus.

27.3 Altar set up in the Athenian Agora by a phratry.

27.4 Plan of A vi 3, Olynthus.

27.5 Dining room with mosaic from A vi 3b, Olynthus.

28.1 Marble funerary stele of Xanthippos, ca. 430–420 BCE.

28.2 Attic black-figure lekythos showing marriage procession, ca. 540 BCE.

28.3 Terracotta group of midwife, birthing woman, and child from Cyprus and terracotta group of midwife and birthing woman from Cyprus.

28.4 Terracotta figurine showing a kourotrophos from House M at Mecyberna, Chalcidice.

28.5 Marble funerary stele showing mother, baby, and female attendant, from Athens, ca. 425–400 BCE.

28.6 Walker Evans, Sharecropper’s Family/Burroughs Family,Hale County, Alabama, 1935.

28.7 Attic red-figure lekythos, showing mother, child, and attendant, from Eretria, ca. 470–460 BCE.

28.8 White-ground lekythos by the Timokrates Painter showing mother, child, and maid, from Eretria, ca. 460 BCE.

28.9 Marble votive relief showing a family visit to a god or hero, from Megara, ca. 350 BCE.

28.10 Cycladic relief pithos, ca. 650 BCE.

31.1 Sarcophagus of P. Aelius Ponticus, Padua.

31.2 Tombstone of Flavia Augustina, York.

31.3 Septimius Severus and Julia Domna on the Arch of the Argentarii, Rome.

31.4 Sarcophagus of Euhodus and Metilia Acte.

31.5 Sarcophagus showing childhood of Bacchus.

31.6 Tomb relief from Via Po, Rome.

31.7 Relief of parents and child.

31.8 Child’s sarcophagus.

31.9 Sarcophagus from Portonaccio.

31.10 Child’s biographical sarcophagus.

32.1 Roman family votive stele to Saturn, Djemila, Algeria, ca. second century CE.

32.2 Grave altar, Rome, late first century CE.

32.3 Fresco in lunette of arcosolium, chamber 45, catacomb of SS Marcellino and Pietro, Rome, early fourth century CE.

32.4 Schematic plan of chamber 45, catacomb of SS Marcellino and Pietro, Rome.

32.5 Wall fresco, chamber 45, catacomb of SS Marcellino and Pietro,Rome, early fourth century CE.

32.6 Roman pagan gold glass medallion: married pair with Hercules, fourth century CE.

32.7 Early Christian gold glass medallion: married pair with Christ, fourth century CE.

32.8 Detail of children’s loculi, chamber III, Vigna Randanini catacomb, Rome, late third century CE.

32.9 Detail of fresco, Crypt of the Sacraments, catacomb of Callixtus,Rome, late second century CE.

32.10 Children and adult loculi with frescoes, Crypt of the Sacraments, catacomb of Callixtus, Rome, late second century CE.

32.11 Slave mass grave, Isola Sacra cemetery, Ostia, second to early fourth century CE.

Tables

4.1 Household composition in various premodern societies.

4.2 Family relationships mentioned in the Egyptian epigraphic evidence.

4.3 Family structures found in inscriptions from the Roman West and East.

7.1 Gender asymmetries in occupational participation, from Roman epitaphs.

19.1 Children in Christian Latin funerary inscriptions from Rome.

19.2 References to innocence in Christian verse inscriptions for Roman children.

19.3 References to beauty and charm in Christian verse inscriptions for Roman children.

19.4 References to early maturity in Christian verse inscriptions for Roman children.

Contributors

Penelope Allison is a Reader in Archaeology and Ancient History in the School of Archaeology and Ancient History at the University of Leicester. She has previously held fellowships at the University of Sydney, the Australian National University, the University of Cambridge and the University of Durham. She is a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and an Honorary Fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities. Her main research concerns Roman painting, household archaeology, and gender and space in the Roman world. Her major publications include the edited volume The Archaeology of Household Activities (1999); Casa della Caccia Antica, Häuser in Pompeji Volume 11 (2002), co-authored with Frank Sear; Pompeian Households: An Analysis of the Material Culture (2004); Pompeian Households (online companion to Monograph 42, Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, UCLA; ); The Insula of the Menander in Pompeii III: The Finds, A Contextual Study (2006; ); and the edited volume Dealing with Legacy Data. Internet Archaeology 24–25 (2008; ).

Eva Cantarella is Professor of Roman Law and Greek Law in the Law School at the University of Milan. She has recurrently been a member of the Hauser Global Law School Program of the New York University Law School, and has given lectures and courses in many other European and American universities and institutions. She is the editor of Dike. International Journal of Greek Law, published by the University of Milan. She has written extensively on the condition of women, on the social and legal regulation of sexual behavior and on criminal law, both in Greece and Rome. Many of her books have been translated into foreign languages (English, German, French, Greek), among them (in English): Pandora’s Daughters, The Role and Status of Women in Greek and Roman Antiquity (1987) and Bisexuality in the Ancient Word (1993). She has contributed to the Cambridge Companion to Greek Law (2005), with a chapter dedicated to “Gender, Sexuality and Law,” and recently published (with Andrew Lear) Images of Greek Pederasry. Boys were their Gods (2008).

Ada Cohen is professor of art history at Dartmouth College. She is co-editor of and contributor to Constructions of Childhood in Ancient Greece and Italy (American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 2007) as well as Assyrian Reliefs from the Palace of Ashurnasirpal II: A Cultural Biography (University Press of New England, 2010). She is the author of The Alexander Mosaic: Stories of Victory and Defeat (Cambridge University Press, 1997) and Art in the Era of Alexander the Great: Paradigms of Manhood and Their Cultural Traditions (Cambridge University Press, 2010).

Kate Cooper teaches in the Department of Classics and Ancient History at the University of Manchester. She is author of The Virgin and the Bride: Idealized Womanhood in Late Antiquity (2006) and The Fall of the Roman Household (2007), and co-editor, with Julia Hillner of Religion, Dynasty, and Patronage in Early Christian Rome, 300–900 (2007). She is currently completing a book for students and non-specialists, Early Christian Women, to be published by Atlantic Press in 2011.

Cheryl A. Cox is Associate Professor of Classics in the Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures at the University of Memphis. She is the author of several articles on the household and family and of the book Household Interests (1998).

Véronique Dasen is Associate Professor in Classical Archeology at the University of Fribourg, Switzerland. She is the author of Dwarfs in Ancient Egypt and Greece (1993); Jumeaux, jumelles dans l’Antiquité grecque et romaine (2005); and, with H. King, La médecine dans l’Antiquité grecque et romaine (2008). She has edited and contributed to Naître en 2001. Regards croisés sur la naissance et la petite enfance (2002); Naissance et petite enfance dans l’Antiquité (2004); L’embryon humain à travers l’histoire. Images, savoirs et rites (2007); with J. Wilgaux, Langages et métaphores du corps (2008); with V. Boudon and B. Maire, Femmes en médecine (2008); and, with T. Späth, Children, Memory, and Family Identity in Roman Culture (2010).

Jens-Arne Dickmann is Senior Lecturer in the Institute of Classical Archeology at Heidelberg University. On behalf of the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut at Rome he is director of the investigations in the Casa dei Postumii at Pompeii. He has published Domus frequentata. Anspruchsvolles Wohnen im pompejanischen Stadthaus (1999); Pompeji. Archäologie und Geschichte ( (2005); translated into Italian (2007) ) and a series of articles on Pompeian issues.

Suzanne Dixon is a feminist historian and is currently an Honorary Research Consultant in the School of History, Philosophy, Religion and Classics at the University of Queensland. Her interests include work and patronage in classical antiquity, as well as issues of law, gender and kinship. She is the author of The Roman Mother (1988); The Roman Family (1992); Reading Roman Women (2001); and Cornelia, Mother of the Gracchi (2007); and has edited or co-edited and contributed to the collections Pre-Industrial Women (1984); Stereotypes of Women in Power (1992); and Childhood, Class and Kin in the Roman World (2001).

Fanny Dolansky is Assistant Professor of Classics at Brock University in St. Catharines, Ontario, where she teaches Roman history, Latin language and literature, and Roman religion. She has published articles on the toga virilis ceremony and the Parentalia festival, and is currently working on a monograph on Roman domestic religion.

Stephen L. Dyson is Park Professor of Classics at the University at Buffalo, Past President of the Archeological Institute of America and Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. His research has focused on the Roman countryside, The Roman Countryside (2003); Roman social and economic history, Community and Society in Roman Italy (1992); and the history of classical archeology, In Pursuit of Ancient Pasts: A History of Classical Archaeology in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (2006).

Judith Evans Grubbs is the Betty Gage Holland Chair in Roman History at Emory University in Atlanta. She is the author of Law and Family in Late Antiquity: the Emperor Constantine’s Legislation on Marriage (1995) and Women and the Law in the Roman Empire: A Sourcebook on Marriage, Divorce, and Widowhood (2002). Her current project is a book, Children without Fathers in Roman Imperial Law: Paternity, Legitimacy, and Freedom.

Jane F. Gardner is Emeritus Professor of Ancient History in the School of Humanities at the University of Reading. Her publications include three monographs on Roman legal and social history, Women in Roman Law and Society (1986); Being a Roman Citizen (1993); and Family and Familia in Roman Law and Life (1998); and, with Thomas Wiedemann, a sourcebook, The Roman Household (1991).

Mark Golden teaches Classics at the University of Winnipeg. He has written a book, Children and Childhood in Classical Athens (1990), and many articles and reviews on ancient childhood as well as three books on ancient Greek sport.

Sabine R. Huebner is a Marie Curie Fellow of the European Commission at Columbia University and a current member of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. Among her publications are a monograph on the clergy in the later Roman empire, Der Klerus in der Gesellschaft des spätantiken Kleinasiens (2005); a co-edited volume on Growing up Fatherless in Antiquity (2009); and a just-completed second monograph on intergenerational solidarity in the ancient eastern Mediterranean. In addition, she is one of the four general editors of Blackwell’s new 13-volume Encyclopedia of Ancient History.

Janet Huskinson is a Visiting Research Fellow at the Open University and a Leverhulme Emeritus Research Fellow, following her retirement in 2008 as Reader in Classical Studies at the Open University. She has published on Roman private art, especially of the third and fourth centuries, with a strong focus on the imagery of sarcophagi and funerary monuments.

Christopher Johanson is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Classics at the University of California, Los Angeles. His research applies the tools and techniques of digital humanities and the analytical methodologies of classics to social historical problems. He is currently developing a hybrid, geo-temporal publication, tentatively titled Spectacle in the Forum: Visualizing the Roman Aristocratic Funeral of the Middle Republic, which is a study of material and literary contexts set within a digital laboratory. In his role as Associate Director of the UCLA Experiential Technologies Center, he has worked for or collaborated on cultural mapping projects set in Bolivia, Peru, Albania, Iceland, Spain, Italy and Turkey.

Christian Laes is Assistant Professor in the Department of History at the University of Antwerp and in the Latin Section at the Free University of Brussels. His main research interest is the human life course in the Roman period and Late Antiquity, especially childhood and youth. He has published widely on these and related subjects. Both his books on childhood and youth in Roman antiquity are forthcoming from Cambridge University Press, as translations and expansions of the Dutch monographs, Kinderen bij de Romeinen. Zes eeuwen dagelijks leven (2006) and, with J. Strubbe, Jeugd in het Romeinse rijk. Jonge jaren, wilde haren? (2008).

Hugh Lindsay is Senior Lecturer in Classics in the School of Humanities and Social Science at the University of Newcastle. He is the author of Suetonius, Caligula (1993); Suetonius, Tiberius (1995); and co-editor and contributor to Strabo’s Cultural Geography (2005). He has written articles on aspects of Strabo, Suetonius and Roman social history, and has a forthcoming book entitled Adoption in the Roman World (2009).

Janett E. Morgan is Lecturer in Greek Archeology at Royal Holloway, University of London. She has written on household religion in Classical Greece for the journal Kernos and on gender and Classical houses for La maison, lieu de sociabilité, dans des communautés urbaines européennes de l’Antiquité à nos jours and The Blackwell Companion to Greek Religion. Her first monograph, The Classical Greek House, is being published in 2010.

Teresa Morgan is Fellow and Tutor in Ancient History at Oriel College, Oxford. She is the author of Literate Education in the Hellenistic and Roman Worlds (1998) and Popular Morality in the Early Roman Empire (2007).

Henrik Mouritsen is Professor of Roman History at King’s College London. He has published Elections, Magistrates and Muncipal Elite. Studies in Pompeian Epigraphy (1988); Italian Unification. A Study in Ancient and Modern Historiography (1998); Plebs and Politics in the Late Roman Republic (2001); and a monograph on Roman freedmen is currently in press.

Lisa Nevett is Associate Professor of Greek Archeology in the Department of Classical Studies and the Department of the History of Art at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Her publications include House and Society in the Ancient Greek World (1999); co-edited with Bradley Ault, Ancient Greek Houses and Households (2005); and Domestic Space in Classical Antiquity (2010).

David Noy teaches Classics at the University of Wales, Lampeter and at the Open University. He is the author of Foreigners at Rome (2000), several volumes of Jewish inscriptions and various papers on Roman life and death.

Daniel Ogden is Professor of Ancient History at the University of Exeter and an Academic Associate of the University of South Africa (UNISA). His principal research areas are ancient traditional narratives, Greek religion, and Macedonian and Hellenistic dynasties. His publications include Alexander the Great: Myth, Genesis and Sexuality (forthcoming); Magic, Witchcraft and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman Worlds (2nd edition, 2009); Aristomenes of Messene (2004); Polygamy, Prostitutes and Death. The Hellenistic Dynasties (1999); and Greek Bastardy (1996). He has also edited the Blackwell Companion to Greek Religion (2007).

Carolyn Osiek was Charles Fischer Catholic Professor of New Testament at Brite Divinity School at Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, now retired. She is co-author of The Family in Early Christianity: Households and House Churches (1997); and co-editor of Early Christian Families in Context: An Interdisciplinary Dialogue (2003), both with David L. Balch; and co-author of A Woman’s Place: House Churches in Earliest Christianity, with Margaret Y. MacDonald (2006).

Tim Parkin is Professor of Ancient History at the University of Manchester. His publications include Demography and Roman Society (1992); Old Age in the Roman World: A Cultural and Social History (2003); and, with Arthur Pomeroy, Roman Social History: A Sourcebook (2007).

Sara Saba is a postdoctoral Humboldt Fellow at the Kommission für alte Geschichte und Epigraphik of Munich. Her main research interests are Greek epigraphy and historical geography. She is currently working on a project on isopoliteia in Hellenistic times.

Richard Saller is Professor of Classics and History and Dean of Humanities and Sciences at Stanford University. His research has focused on Roman social and economic history, including the topics of patronage, the family and economic production. His books include Patriarchy, Property and Death in the Roman Family (1994); and The Cambridge Economic History of Greco-Roman Antiquity (2007), co-edited with Walter Scheidel and Ian Morris.

Walter Scheidel is Dickason Professor in the Humanities at Stanford University. His research focuses on ancient social and economic history, premodern historical demography, and comparative and transdisciplinary approaches to the past.

Monika Trümper is Associate Professor of Classical Archeology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She has written two books (1998; 2008) and a number of articles on monuments in Delos (domestic architecture, urban development, club-houses of associations, shops, the synagogue and the Agora of the Italians), as well as a book on Greco-Roman slave markets (2010) and several articles on Greek bathing culture, which will also be the topic of her next book.

Janet H. Tulloch is a scholar of religious studies and ancient visual culture. She is editor and contributor to the forthcoming The Cultural History of Women: Volume I – Antiquity: 500BCE–1000CE. Recent academic articles include a chapter in A Woman’s Place: House Churches in Earliest Christianity (2006); and a theoretical investigation of religious seeing and visual space in Richard Wagner’s “The Ring Cycle” in Theatre Research in Canada/Recherches Théâtrales du Canada (2006). She currently teaches at Carleton University in Ottawa.

Jérôme Wilgaux is Maître de Conférences in Greek History at Nantes University. He has edited and contributed to Penser et représenter le corps dans l’Antiquité, co-edited with Francis Prost (2006); Parenté et société dans le monde grec de l’Antiquité à l’âge moderne, co-edited with Alain Bresson and Stavros Perentidis (2006); and Langages et métaphores du corps dans le monde antique, co-edited with Véronique Dasen (2008).

Acknowledgments

This volume owes most to the team of contributors who took up their commitment with enthusiasm and energy and carried it through in good time. They shared the goal of keeping the time gap between invitation, writing and publication as short as possible, so as to present our ideas and material still fresh and new. They responded positively and with goodwill to editorial queries, suggestions and (sometimes) pressure. They overcame the difficulties of busy professional lives and varied personal lives. In our “family” of contributors babies were born, children changed schools, couples moved house, aged parents needed care. A variety of time zones, as well as a shared world of scholarship, reminded us that we were an international community.

Thanks are due to those contributors who used visual illustrations, for their expertise in finding quality images, for presenting them in optimal format, and for their energy and persistence in dealing with museums. To the museums who made their works available to us we offer our thanks: their art and artefacts have become an indispensible part of our understanding of ancient cultures.

The publisher’s editors, Haze Humbert and Galen Smith, provided invaluable support and encouragement throughout the whole process.

There are many who have contributed to the field of family studies in recent decades and we are grateful for their work and inspiration. Some of them are represented in this volume, but others, who were unable to contribute to this project, have nevertheless shared ideas and materials with me over a long period. I would like to acknowledge particularly Keith Bradley, Mireille Corbier, Michele George, Susan Treggiari and Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, who have contributed generously in conferences and correspondence over the years. John Crook and Paul Weaver also contributed over a long period, but, alas, did not survive to see publication of this volume. Werner Eck has contributed in various ways, most recently in advice on the sculpture used on the jacket of this volume.

The anonymous referees who recommended publication of this volume provided valuable advice and suggestions for improving the original proposal.

I make belated acknowledgment of Fiona Crowe, who organized thirteen international colleagues (many represented in this volume) to contribute to a handsome presentation volume in 1999, which became the book edited by Suzanne Dixon (2001) and which advanced important aspects of family studies.

In the last phase of preparing material for the publisher, Gina Coulthard’s editorial experience and expertise were invaluable. I warmly thank her for her talent and energy.

Christina Spittel provided an English translation for chapter 3 from Jens-Arne Dickmann’s German text.

Sincere thanks are due to friends and colleagues Graeme Clarke and Stephen Foster for frequent encouragement and advice and some reading of text. Graeme also played a vital role in sponsoring the three Roman Family conferences held at the Australian National University, as Director of the Humanities Research Centre here.

I thank Edyth Binkowski for taking on the indexing.

The School of Humanities at the Australian National University has provided much appreciated hospitality and support.

Beryl Rawson

Map 1 The Greek and Roman worlds to the second century CE. Map 3 “The Roman Empire in the time of Augustus,” from Andrew Erskine, A Companion to Ancient History, Wiley-Blackwell, 2009, and Map 1 “Provinces of the Roman Empire at the death of Trajan (AD 117),” p. xxxi from David S. Potter, A Companion to the Roman Empire, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.

c03f001

PART I

Houses and Households

PART II

Kinship, Marriage, Parents,
and Children

PART III

The Legal Side

PART IV

City and Country

PART V

Ritual, Commemoration, Values