cover

Contents

Title Page

Dedicated by his Co-Authors

To the Memory of

NICHOLAS ATKIN

(1960–2009)

Preface

Although this work has three authors, the responsibility for composing its Preface falls sadly to two of us alone. Our friend and colleague Nicholas Atkin died in October 2009, during the very final stages of the writing, at the tragically early age of 49. We have therefore dedicated the Dictionary to his memory, as a token of our deep admiration for a collaborator possessed of so many intellectual and personal qualities.

The book stems from the many years of experience shared by all three of us while teaching and researching in the field of European history at the University of Reading. It sets out to provide a substantial work of reference that encompasses the whole period from the late eighteenth century through to the opening years of the twenty-first. Within it we have aimed to do justice to the eastern as well as western parts of the main continental land mass, as well as to certain aspects of the particular British experience that are integral to an understanding of Europe in its most inclusive sense. Spread across nearly a thousand entries supported by a sequence of maps, the encyclopaedic subject matter of this Dictionary covers personalities, states, regions, and institutions, together with significant themes and distinctive terms likely to be encountered in the relevant historical literature.

The entries contain ample cross-referencing, indicated by use of small capitals. However, we have been anxious not to distract readers by indiscriminate resort to this device. Therefore we have tried to refrain from such capitalization whenever mention of a particular person, state, region, or other topic covered more fully elsewhere happens to be occurring in a way that might be thought fairly incidental to the main subject matter of the entry immediately at issue. This consideration has particular bearing on some important terms whose very frequent appearance in a work of this kind could hardly be avoided: for example, “Balkans,” “Napoleon I,” “nationalism,” or “Soviet Union.” Conversely, our policy has certainly been to capitalize cross-references to these and other headwords wherever such pointers towards the text of further entries might seem likely to offer more positive help to our readers.

Regarding foreign words and phrases, we have not normally italicized these when they occur in the titles of institutions, movements, or political parties and similar organizations. Beyond that lies a set of cases where the crucial, but often hazier, issue is whether the terms concerned have now been sufficiently “naturalized” into English. There we have tried to follow whatever seems to be the generally prevailing usage in the most recent historical literature. Thus readers will encounter here, for instance, “biennio rosso” and “szlachta” on the one hand, together with “détente” and “Junkers” on the other. It can also be seen from the last of those examples that we have always retained the proper form of initial capitals for German nouns. For dating, we have consistently followed the Gregorian (“new style”) calendar, as distinct from the Julian (“old style”) version: the latter survived most notably in Russia until January 1918, at which point it was running 13 days behind the system already adopted nearly everywhere else in Europe by the late eighteenth century.

In conclusion, we wish to record our thanks to those who have been most generous in assisting our completion of this project. The deepest debts of gratitude go to Claire Atkin, Ruth Biddiss, and Judy Tallett for their constant encouragement to the authors over a substantial period of preparation. Our former colleague, Dr David Laven, was directly involved in the preliminary planning of the Dictionary and, upon his move to the University of Manchester, he kindly allowed us to make use of his initial drafting for some entries. We are pleased to acknowledge the unfailingly efficient support provided to us by Wiley- Blackwell, including the editorial and production expertise of Tessa Harvey, Tom Bates, Sarah Dancy, and Janey Fisher. Finally, we owe a debt of gratitude to Dr David Trim for his assistance in compiling the electronic edition of the book.

Michael Biddiss

Frank Tallett

University of Reading

October 2010

Summary Listing of Entries and Principal Cross-Headings

A

Aaland (Åland) Islands

Abdul Hamid II (of Turkey)

Aberdeen, George Hamilton Gordon, Earl of

Abgrenzung

absolutism

Abwehr

Abyssinian War (see ITALO-ETHIOPIAN WAR)

acquis communautaire

Action Française

Adenauer, Konrad

Adrianople, Treaty of

Aehrenthal, Alois Baron Lexa von

Africa, Scramble for (see under IMPERIALISM)

Agadir crisis (see under MOROCCAN CRISES)

agitprop

agriculture (see under RURAL SOCIETY)

Aix-la-Chapelle, Congress of (see under CONGRESS SYSTEM)

Albania

Albert

Alexander I (of Russia)

Alexander I (of Yugoslavia)

Alexander II (of Russia)

Alexander III (of Russia)

Alfonso XII (of Spain)

Alfonso XIII (of Spain

Algeciras Conference (see under MOROCCAN CRISES)

Algerian War

Alsace-Lorraine

Alto Adige (see SOUTH TYROL)

Amendola, Giovanni

Amiens, Treaty of

Amsterdam, Treaty of

anarchism

Ancien Regime

Andorra (see MICRO-STATES[1])

Andrassy, Count Gyula

Andreotti, Giulio

Andropov, Yuri

Anglo-French Union

Anglo-German naval agreement

Anglo-Russian Entente

Anschluss

anticlericalism

Anti-Comintern Pact

antisemitism

Antonescu, Ion

apparatchik

appeasement

aristocracy

Armenian genocide

Arrow Cross

artel

artisans

Aryanism (see under RACISM)

assignats

Attatürk, Kemal

August decrees

Auschwitz camp (see under CONCENTRATION CAMPS)

Ausgleich

Austerlitz, Battle of

Austria

Austrian Netherlands

Austro-Hungarian empire (see under HABSBURG EMPIRE; AUSGLEICH)

Austro-Prussian War

Axis, Rome–Berlin

Azaña, Manuel

B

Baader–Meinhof Group

Babeuf, François-Noël (“Gracchus”)

Bach, Alexander, Baron von

Badoglio, Pietro

Bakunin, Mikhail Aleksandrovich

Balbo, Cesare

Balkan Entente

Balkan Leagues

Balkan Pact

Balkan Wars

Balkans

Ballhausplatz

Baltic States

banking

Barbarossa, Operation

Barrès, Maurice

Basic Treaty

Basle, Treaties of

Basques

Bastille, fall of the

Batavian Republic

Battle of Britain

Bauer, Gustav

Bavaria

Beck, Józef

Beer Hall putsch

Belarus

Belgium

Benelux

Beneš, Edvard

Beria, Lavrenti

Berlin blockade

Berlin Conference

Berlin Congress

Berlin Wall

Berlinguer, Enrico

Berlusconi, Silvio

Bernadotte, Jean-Baptiste

Bernstein, Eduard

Bessarabia (see under MOLDAVIA; MOLDOVA; ROMANIA)

Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald von

Beust, Count Friedrich Ferdinand von

biennio rosso

Bierut, Bolesław

Bismarck, Otto von

Black Hand

Blair, Tony

Blanc, Louis

Blanqui, Louis Auguste

Blitzkrieg

Bloc National

Bloody Sunday (see under RUSSIAN REVOLUTION OF 1905; IRELAND)

Blücher, Gebhardt von

Blum, Léon

Bohemia

Bolsheviks

Bonaparte, Joseph

Bonaparte, Louis Napoleon (see NAPOLEON III)

Bonaparte, Napoleon (see NAPOLEON I)

Bonapartism

Bonomi, Ivanoe

Bormann, Martin

Borodino, Battle of

Bosnia-Herzegovina

Bosnian Civil War (see under BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA)

Bosphorous

Boulanger affair

Bourbon dynasty

bourgeoisie (see under CLASS)

Brandt, Willy

Brest-Litovsk, Treaty of

Bretton Woods agreement

Brezhnev, Leonid

Briand, Aristide

Brissot, Jacques-Pierre

Britain, Battle of (see BATTLE OF BRITAIN)

Britain and Europe

Brousse, Paul

Brumaire, Coup of

Brüning, Heinrich

Brusilov offensive

Brussels, Treaty of

Bucharest, Treaties of (1812, 1913, 1918)

Bukharin, Nikolai Ivanovich

Bukovina

Bulganin, Nikolai

Bulgaria

Bulgarian massacres (see under BULGARIA)

Bulge, Battle of the

Bülow, Bernhard von

Buonarotti, Filippo

bureaucracy

Burgenland (see under TRIANON, TREATY OF)

Burschenschaften

C

Cabet, Étienne

caciquismo

Caetano, Marcello

Cagoulards

Campo Formio, Treaty of

Canning, George

Cánovas del Castillo, Antonio

capital cities

capitalism

Caporetto, Battle of

Caprivi, Leo Graf von

Carbonari

Carlism

Carlsbad Decrees

Carnot, Lazare Nicolas Marguerite

Carol II (of Romania)

Cartel des Gauches

Casablanca Conference

Castlereagh, Robert Stewart, Viscount

Catalonia

Catherine II (of Russia)

Catholicism

Cattaneo, Carlo

Caudillo

Cavaignac, General Louis-Eugène

Cavour, Camillo

Ceauşescu, Nikolae

Center Party (Germany) (see ZENTRUM)

Central Powers

Champ de Mars massacre

Charles I of Austria (see under HABSBURG EMPIRE)

Charles X (of France)

Charles Albert (of Piedmont-Sardinia)

Charles Felix (of Piedmont-Sardinia)

Chateaubriand, François René, Vicomte de

Chaumont, Treaties of

Chechnya

Cheka

Chemin des Dames (see under NIVELLE)

Chernenko, Konstantin

Chernobyl disaster

Chernyshevsky, Nikolai

Chetniks

Chirac, Jacques

Chouans

Christian Democracy

Churchill, Winston

Ciano, Galeazzo

Cisleithania

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

class

Clausewitz, Karl Philipp Gottlieb von

Clemenceau, Georges

Code Civil

Code Napoléon (see CODE CIVIL)

Codreanu, Corneliu Zelea

Cold War

collaboration

collectivization

colonialism (see under IMPERIALISM; DECOLONIZATION)

Comecon

Cominform (see under THE INTERNATIONAL)

Comintern (see under THE INTERNATIONAL)

Committee of Public Safety

Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)

Common Market (see under EUROPEAN INTEGRATION)

Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

communications

communism

Compromise of 1867 (see AUSGLEICH)

Comte, Auguste (see under POSITIVISM)

concentration camps

concordat

Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT)

confederalism (see under FEDERALISM[1])

Confédération Générale du Travail (CGT)

Confederation of the Rhine

Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (see HELSINKI CONFERENCE)

Congress of Europe

Congress System

Consalvi, Ercole

conservatism

Constantinople agreements

Constituent Assembly

constitutionalism (see under LIBERALISM)

Consulate

Continental System

Convention

Copenhagen, Battles of

Cordeliers Club

Corfu incident

corporate state

Council of Europe

Craxi, Bettino

Crimean War

Crispi, Francesco

Crna Gora (see MONTENEGRO)

Croatia

Croix de Feu

Crystal night (see KRISTALLNACHT)

Curzon line

Custozza, Battles of

Cuza, Alexandru

Cyprus

Czartoryski

Czech Republic

Czechoslovakia

D

D'Annunzio, Gabriele

D'Azeglio, Massimo

Daladier, Edouard

Danton, Georges-Jacques

Danube question

Danubian principalities

Danzig corridor

Dardanelles

Darlan, Jean François

Darnand, Joseph

Darwinism (see SOCIAL DARWINISM)

Dawes Plan

Dayton Accord

D-Day (see NORMANDY LANDINGS)

DDR (see GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC)

de Gasperi, Alcide

de Gaulle, Charles

de Valera, Eamon

Deák, Ferenc

Déat, Marcel

Debré, Michel

Decembrist conspiracy

dechristianization

Declaration of the Rights of Man (see RIGHTS OF MAN)

decolonization

Degrelle, Léon Marie Joseph Ignace

Delcassé, Théophile

Delors, Jacques

democracy

demography (see POPULATION)

Denmark

Depressions (see GREAT DEPRESSIONS)

Depretis, Agostino

Déroulède, Paul

détente

Dimitrov, Georgi

Directory

Djilas, Milovan

Dolchstoss

Dollfuss, Engelbert

Doriot, Jacques

Dreikaiserbund (see THREE EMPERORS' LEAGUE)

Dreyfus Affair

Dual Alliance

Dual Entente (see FRANCO-RUSSIAN ALLIANCE)

Dual Monarchy (see under HABSBURG EMPIRE)

dualism (see under HABSBURG EMPIRE)

Dubček, Alexander

Duce (see MUSSOLINI)

Duma

Dunant, Henri (see under RED CROSS, INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE)

Dunkirk, evacuation from

Dunkirk, Treaty of

E

East Germany (see GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC)

Eastern Question

Eastern Rumelia

Ebert, Friedrich

Economic and Monetary Union (EMU)

Eden, Anthony

education

Eichmann, Adolf

Eire (see under IRELAND)

emancipation of the serfs (see under SERFDOM)

emigration (see under MIGRATION)

Ems Telegram

Enabling Act

Engels, Friedrich

ENIGMA (see under ULTRA)

Enlightenment

enosis

Entente Cordiale

environmentalism

Erfurt Union

Erhard, Ludwig

Erlander, Tage

Estado Novo

Estates General

Estonia (see under BALTIC STATES)

Ethiopian War (see ITALO-ETHIOPIAN WAR)

ethnic cleansing

Eupen-Malmédy

Euratom

Eurocommunism

Europe des patries (see under EUROPEAN INTEGRATION; DE GAULLE)

European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)

European Commission (see under EUROPEAN INTEGRATION)

European Community (EC) (see under EUROPEAN INTEGRATION)

European Constitution Treaty (see under EUROPEAN INTEGRATION)

European Convention on Human Rights

European Council (see under EUROPEAN INTEGRATION)

European Court (of Justice; of Human Rights)

European Defence Community (EDC) (see under WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION)

European Economic Area (EEA) (see under EUROPEAN FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION)

European Economic Community (see under EUROPEAN INTEGRATION)

European Free Trade Association (EFTA)

European integration

European Monetary Union (see ECONOMIC AND MONETARY UNION)

European Parliament (see under EUROPEAN INTEGRATION)

European Political Community (see under EUROPEAN INTEGRATION)

European Union (see under EUROPEAN INTEGRATION)

extermination camps (see under CONCENTRATION CAMPS)

F

Fabius, Laurent

Falange Española

Falkenhayn, Erich von

Falloux Law

Fanfani, Amintore

Fascism

Fashoda crisis

February Revolution (see under RUSSIAN REVOLUTIONS OF 1917)

Federal Republic of Germany (FRG)

federalism

feminism

Ferdinand I (of Austria)

Ferry, Jules

Fifth Republic (France)

Final Solution

Finland

First Empire (France) (see under NAPOLEON I)

First International (see under THE INTERNATIONAL)

First Republic (France) (see under FRENCH REVOLUTION OF 1789)

First World War (see WORLD WAR I)

Fiume

Five-Year Plans

Foch, Ferdinand

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (see under MACEDONIA; YUGOSLAVIA)

Fouché, Joseph

Fourier, Charles

Fourteen Points

Fourth Republic (France)

France (see, principally and in broad chronological sequence, FRENCH REVOLUTION OF 1789; FRENCH REVOLUTIONARY WARS; NAPOLEON I; NAPOLEONIC WARS; LOUIS XVIII; CHARLES X; JULY MONARCHY; SECOND REPUBLIC; NAPOLEON III; FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR; PARIS COMMUNE; THIRD REPUBLIC; VICHY REGIME; FOURTH REPUBLIC; FIFTH REPUBLIC)

Francis I (of Austria)

Francis Ferdinand, Archduke

Francis Joseph I (of Austria-Hungary)

Franco, Francisco

Franco-Austrian War

Franco-Prussian War

Franco-Russian alliance

Frankfurt, Treaty of

Frankfurt parliament

Frederick III (of Prussia)

Frederick William III (of Prussia)

Frederick William IV (of Prussia)

Free French

free trade (see LAISSEZ-FAIRE)

Freemasonry

Freikorps

French Revolution of 1789

French Revolutionary Wars

Front National

Führer (see HITLER)

G

Galicia (regions in [1] Habsburg empire and [2] Spain)

Gallipoli campaign

Gambetta, Léon

Gamelin, Maurice

Garibaldi, Giuseppe

Gastein, Convention of

Gaullism (see under DE GAULLE)

gender

Generalgouvernement

Geneva Conventions

German Confederation

German Democratic Republic (GDR)

German empire

German Federal Republic (see FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY)

German reunification

German Revolution of 1918–19

German unification

Germany (see, principally and in broad chronological sequence, HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE; HABSBURG EMPIRE; CONFEDERATION OF THE RHINE; GERMAN CONFEDERATION; BISMARCK; AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN WAR; NORTH GERMAN CONFEDERATION; GERMAN UNIFICATION; GERMAN EMPIRE; WEIMAR REPUBLIC; HITLER; NAZISM; FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY; GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC; GERMAN REUNIFICATION)

Gestapo

Gheorghiu-Dej, Gheorghe

Gibraltar

Gierek, Edward

Gioberti, Vincenzo

Giolitti, Giovanni

Girondins

Giscard d'Estaing, Valéry

glasnost (see under GORBACHEV)

Gleichschaltung

Gneisenau, Count August von

Goebbels, Joseph

Goering, Hermann

gold standard

Gömbös, Gyula

Gomulka, Władisław

González, Felipe

Gorbachev, Mikhail

Gottwald, Klement

Gramsci, Antonio

Great Depressions ([1] 1873–96; [2] 1929–34)

Great Fear

Great Purges

Great War (see WORLD WAR I)

Greece

Greek Civil War

Greek colonels

Greek War of Independence

Greek–Turkish War

Greenland (see under DENMARK; SCANDINAVIA)

Gregory XVI, Pope

Gromyko, Andrei

grossdeutsch/Grossdeutschland (see under GERMAN UNIFICATION).

Guderian, Heinz Wilhelm

Guernica

Guesde, Jules

Guizot, François

Gulag

H

Habsburg empire

Hague Conferences

Hague Tribunals

Hallstein, Walter

Hanover

Hardenberg, Karl August von

Haussmann, Georges Eugène, Baron

Havel, Václav

Heath, Edward

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich

Helsinki Conference

Helvetic Confederation (see SWITZERLAND)

Helvetic Republic (see under SWITZERLAND)

Herriot, Edouard

Herzen, Alexander

Herzl, Theodor

Hess, Rudolf

Himmler, Heinrich

Hindenberg, Paul von

Hitler, Adolf

Hitler Youth

Hoare–Laval Pact

Hohenzollern candidature (see EMS TELEGRAM)

Hohenzollern dynasty

Holocaust (see FINAL SOLUTION)

Holy Alliance

Holy Roman Empire

Honecker, Erich

Horthy de Nagybánya, Miklós

Hossbach meeting

Hoxha, Enver

human rights (see RIGHTS OF MAN; EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS)

Humboldt, Wilhelm von

Hundred Days

Hungarian rising of 1956

Hungary

Husák, Gustáv

I

Iceland

Illyrian movement

immobilisme

imperialism

industrialization

The International

International Brigades (see under SPANISH CIVIL WAR)

International Working Men's Association (see under THE INTERNATIONAL)

Ireland

Iron Curtain (see under COLD WAR)

Iron Guard

irredentism

Islam (see MUSLIMS)

Istria

Italian unification

Italo-Ethiopian War

Italo-Turkish War

Italy

Izvolsky, Alexander Petrovich, Count

J

Jacobins

Jaruzelski, Wojciech

Jaurès, Jean Léon

Jelačić, Josip

Jena-Auerstädt, Battles of

Jenkins, Roy

Jews

Joffre, Joseph

John XXIII, Pope

John Paul II, Pope

Juan Carlos I (of Spain)

July crisis

July Days (see under RUSSIAN REVOLUTIONS OF 1917)

July Monarchy

July plot

July Revolution (see under JULY MONARCHY; REVOLUTIONS OF 1830–2)

June Days

Junkers

Jutland, Battle of

K

Kádár, János

Kadets

Kaliningrad

Kamenev, Lev

Kapp putsch

Karadjordjević dynasty (see under SERBIA)

Karamanlis, Constantine

Károlyi, Mihály

Katyn massacre

Kautsky, Karl

Kekkonen, Urho

Kellogg–Briand Pact

Kerensky, Alexander

Keynes, John Maynard

KGB

Khrushchev, Nikita

Kiesinger, Kurt Georg

Kirov, Sergei

kleindeutsch/Kleindeutschland (see under GERMAN UNIFICATION)

Kohl, Helmut

kolkhoz

Kolowrat, Count Anton

Königgrätz, Battle of (see SADOWA)

Kornilov affair

Kosovo

Kossuth, Louis

Kosygin, Alexei

Kreisky, Bruno

Kristallnacht

Kronstadt uprising

Kropotkin, Peter

Krupps

kulaks

Kulturkampf

Kun, Béla

Kursk, Battle of

L

Lafayette, Gilbert Motier, Marquis de

Laibach, Congress of (see under CONGRESS SYSTEM; TROPPAU, CONGRESS OF)

laissez-faire

Lamartine, Alphonse Marie Louis de

Lamennais, Félicité Robert de

Lassalle, Ferdinand

Lateran Treaties

Latvia (see under BALTIC STATES)

Lausanne, Treaty of

Laval, Pierre

Le Chapelier Law

Le Pen, Jean-Marie

League of Nations

Lebensraum

Ledru-Rollin, Alexandre

legitimism

Leipzig, Battle of

Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich

Leningrad, Siege of

Leninism (see under LENIN; COMMUNISM)

Leo XII, Pope

Leo XIII, Pope

Leopold II (of Belgium)

Lesseps, Ferdinand Marie de

liberalism

Lidice massacre

Liebknecht, Karl

Liechtenstein (see MICRO-STATES[2])

Lisbon, Treaty of, 2007 (see under EUROPEAN INTEGRATION)

List, Friedrich

literacy

Lithuania (see under BALTIC STATES)

Little Entente

Litvinov, Maxim Maximovich

Lloyd George, David

Locarno Treaties

London, Treaties of (1827, 1839, 1852, 1913, 1915)

Louis XVI (of France)

Louis XVIII (of France)

Louis Napoleon (Bonaparte) (see NAPOLEON III)

Louis-Philippe, of France (see JULY MONARCHY)

Ludendorff, Erich

Ludwig II (of Bavaria)

Lueger, Karl

Lunéville, Treaty of

Luxemburg

Luxemburg, Rosa

Luxemburg compromise

M

Maastricht, Treaty of

Macedonia

Macmahon, Marie Edmé Patrice Maurice de

Madrid, Siege of (see under SPANISH CIVIL WAR)

Mafia

Maginot Line

Mahmud II (of Turkey)

Makarios III, Archbishop

Malenkov, Georgi

Malta

mandates

Manin, Daniele

Marat, Jean-Paul

March on Rome

Marchais, Georges

Marengo, Battle of

Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France

Marne, Battles of the

Marshall Plan

Marx, Karl

Marxism (see under MARX; COMMUNISM; SOCIALISM)

Masaryk, Jan

Masaryk, Tomáš

mass society

Matignon agreements

Matteotti affair

Maura, Antonio

Maurras, Charles

Mazzini, Giuseppe

Mediterranean agreements

Medvedev, Dmitri (see under PUTIN)

Memel

Mendès-France, Pierre

Mendizábal, Juan Álvarez

Mensheviks

Merkel, Angela

Mers-el-Kébir

Messina Conference

Metaxas, Ioannis

Metternich, Klemens von

mezzogiorno

Mickiewicz, Adam

micro-states (Andorra, Liechtenstein, Monaco, San Marino, Vatican City)

middle class (see under CLASS)

migration

Millerand, Alexandre Etienne

Milošević, Slobodan

mir

Mitteleuropa

Mitterrand, François

modernism (cultural, religious)

Moldavia

Moldova

Molotov, Vyacheslav

Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact (see NAZI–SOVIET PACT)

Moltke, Helmut Karl Bernhard, Count von, “the Elder”

Monaco (see MICRO-STATES[3])

monarchism

Monnet, Jean

Montenegro

Montreux Convention

Moravia (see under BOHEMIA; CZECH REPUBLIC; CZECHOSLOVAKIA)

Morgenthau plan

Moro, Aldo

Moroccan crises

Moscow, retreat from

Münchengrätz Convention

Munich agreement

Munich putsch (see BEER HALL PUTSCH)

Murat, Joachim

Muslims

Mussolini, Benito

Mustafa Kemal (see ATATÜRK, KEMAL)

N

Nagy, Imre (see under HUNGARIAN RISING OF 1956)

Nansen, Fridtjof

Naples and Sicily, Kingdom of (see TWO SICILIES)

Napoleon I (of France)

Napoleon III (of France)

Napoleonic Wars

Narodniks (see under POPULISM)

nation-state (see under NATIONALISM)

National Guards

National Socialism (see NAZISM)

nationalism

NATO

naturalism

Navarino, Battle of (see under GREEK WAR OF INDEPENDENCE)

Nazi-Soviet Pact

Nazism

Necker, Jacques

Negrin, Juan

Nelson, Vice-Admiral Horatio, Viscount

NEP (see NEW ECONOMIC POLICY)

Nesselrode, Karl Robert, Count

Netherlands

Neuilly, Treaty of

neutrality

New Economic Policy (NEP)

New Order

newspapers

Nice, Treaty of, 2001 (see under EUROPEAN INTEGRATION)

Nicholas I (of Russia)

Nicholas II (of Russia)

Night of the Long Knives

Nightingale, Florence

nihilism

Nivelle, Robert Georges

NKVD

nomenklatura

Nordic Council

Normandy landings

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (see NATO)

North German Confederation

Norway

Novara, Battles of (1821, 1849)

Novi Pazar, Sanjak of

Novotny, Antonín

Nuremberg laws

Nuremberg trials

O

Obrenović dynasty (see under SERBIA)

October days

October manifesto

October Revolution (see under RUSSIAN REVOLUTIONS OF 1917)

Oder–Neisse line

oil crises

Ollivier, Emile

Olmütz agreement

Opus Dei

Oradour massacre

Organization for European Cooperation and Development (OECD)

Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (see under HELSINKI CONFERENCE)

Orlando, Vittorio Emanuele

Orleanism

Orsini plot

Orthodox Christianity

Ostpolitik

Ottoman empire (see under TURKEY AND EUROPE)

P

Palacký, František

Pale of Settlement

Palmerston, Henry John Temple, Viscount

Panama Canal scandal (see under LESSEPS)

Pan-Germanism

Pan-Slavism

papacy (see under CATHOLICISM; PAPAL STATES)

Papadopoulous, Georgios (see under GREEK COLONELS)

Papal States

Papen, Franz von

Paris, Pact of (see KELLOGG-BRIAND PACT)

Paris, Treaties of (1814, 1856, 1947)

Paris Commune

Paris Congress (see under CRIMEAN WAR)

Paris Peace Settlement

parliamentary government (see under DEMOCRACY)

Partitions of Poland (see under POLAND)

Pašić, Nikola

Passchendaele, Battle of

Paul I (of Russia)

Pavelić, Ante

peasantry (see under RURAL SOCIETY)

Peninsular War

perestroika (see under GORBACHEV)

Pétain, Henri Philippe Omer

philhellenism

phoney war

Piedmont-Sardinia

pillarization

Pillnitz, Declaration of

Piłsudski, Józef

Pius VII, Pope

Pius IX, Pope

Pius XI, Pope

Pius XII, Pope

place names

Plekhanov, Georgi

Plombières agreement

Pobedonostsev, Konstantin

pogroms

Poincaré, Raymond

Poland

Polignac, Jules, Prince de

Polish corridor (see DANZIG CORRIDOR)

Polish-Soviet War (see RUSSO-POLISH WAR)

Politburo

Pompidou, Georges

Popular Fronts

population

populism

Porte, the Sublime

Portugal

positivism

Potsdam Conference

Poujade, Pierre

Prague, Treaty of (see under AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN WAR)

Prague Spring

Pressburg, Treaty of

Primo de Rivera, Miguel and José Antonio.

proletariat (see under WORKING CLASS)

Protestantism

Proudhon, Pierre

Prussia

Putin, Vladimir

Q

Quadrilateral, The

Quadruple Alliance

Quai d'Orsay

Quintuple Alliance (see under QUADRUPLE ALLIANCE)

Quisling, Vidkun

R

racism

Radetzsky, Josef Wenzel, Count

Radical Party (France)

railways (see under COMMUNICATIONS)

Rákosi, Mátyás

Ralliement

Rapallo, Treaties of (1920, 1922)

ras

Rasputin, Grigori

Rathenau, Walter

realism (see under NATURALISM)

Realpolitik

Red Army

Red Brigades

Red Cross, International Committee of the (ICRC)

Reichstag Fire

Reinsurance Treaty

reparations

republicanism (see under MONARCHISM)

resistance

Restoration (see under VIENNA CONGRESS; MONARCHISM)

Revolutions of 1830–2

Revolutions of 1848–9

Revolutions of 1989–91

Rexists

Reynaud, Paul

Rhine, Confederation of the (see CONFEDERATION OF THE RHINE)

Rhineland crisis

Ribbentrop, Joachim von

Ricasoli, Bettino

Riga, Treaty of (see under RUSSO-POLISH WAR)

Rights of Man and of the Citizen, Declaration of the

Riom Trials

Risorgimento

Rivoli, Battle of

Robespierre, Maximilien François Marie Isidore de

Röhm, Ernst

Roman question (see under PAPAL STATES)

Romania

Romanov dynasty (see under RUSSIA; and in chronological order CATHERINE II, PAUL I, ALEXANDER I, NICHOLAS I, ALEXANDER II, ALEXANDER III, NICHOLAS II)

romanticism

Rome, Treaties of

Rome Statute

Rommel, Erwin

Roon, Albrecht Theodor Emil, Graf von

Rothschild family (see under BANKING)

Ruhr occupation

rural society

Russia

Russian Civil War

Russian Revolution of 1905

Russian Revolutions of 1917

Russification

Russo-Finnish War

Russo-Japanese War

Russo-Polish War

Russo-Turkish Wars

Ruthenes

S

SA (see STURMABTEILUNG)

Saarland

Sadowa, Battle of

Saint-Just, Louis-Antoine-Léon

Saint-Simon, Claude-Henri de Rouvroy

Salazar, António de Oliveira

Salò Republic

Sammlungspolitik

San Marino (see MICRO-STATES[4])

San Stefano, Treaty of (see under RUSSO-TURKISH WARS; TURKEY AND EUROPE; BERLIN CONGRESS)

Sanjak of Novi Pazar (see NOVI PAZAR)

sans-culottes

Sarajevo assassination, 1914 (see JULY CRISIS)

Sarkozy, Nicolas

Saverne affair (see ZABERN AFFAIR)

Saxony

Scandinavia

Scharnhorst, Gerhardt Johann David, Graf von

Schengen Agreement

Schleswig-Holstein question

Schlieffen Plan

Schmidt, Helmut

Schönbrunn, Treaty of (see VIENNA, TREATIES OF[1])

Schröder, Gerhard

Schuman, Robert

Schuschnigg, Kurt von

Schutzstaffel

Schwarzenberg, Karl Philipp, Count

Scramble for Africa (see under IMPERIALISM)

SD (see SICHERHEITSDIENST)

Second Empire (France) (see under NAPOLEON III)

Second International (see under THE INTERNATIONAL)

Second Reich (see GERMAN EMPIRE)

Second Republic (France)

Second Republic (Spain)

Second World War (see WORLD WAR II)

secret police (see, for different countries, CHEKA; GESTAPO; KGB; NKVD; STASI)

secularization

Sedan, Battle of

separatism

September massacres

Serbia

serfdom

Sevastapol, Siege of (see under CRIMEAN WAR)

Sèvres, Treaty of

sexuality

Shoah (see FINAL SOLUTION)

Sicherheitsdienst

Sicily (see under TWO SICILIES)

Sieyès, Emmanuel-Joseph, Abbé

Sikorski, Władysław Eugeniusz

Silesia

Single European Act (SEA)

The Six

Six Weeks War (see AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN WAR)

Slavophiles

Slovakia

Slovenia

Soares, Mário

social Darwinism

social democracy (see under SOCIALISM)

Social Democratic Party of Germany

socialism

Socialist Revolutionary Party

Solidarity

Solidarność (see SOLIDARITY)

Somme, Battle of the

Sonderbund (see under SWITZERLAND)

Sorbs

Sorel, Georges

South Tyrol

Soviet Union.

Soviets

Spaak, Paul-Henri

Spain

Spanish Civil War

“Spanish” influenza

Spartacist rising

Speer, Albert

Speransky, Mikhail Mikhailovsky, Count

squadristi

Srebrenica massacre

SS (see SCHUTZSTAFFEL)

St Germain, Treaty of

“stab in the back” (see DOLCHSTOSS)

Stalin, Josef

Stalingrad, Battle of

Stalinism (see under STALIN; COMMUNISM)

Stamboliisky, Alexandar

Stambolov, Stefan

Stasi

Stavisky affair

Stein, Karl, Baron vom

Stolypin, Pyotr

Straits question

Stresa Front

Stresemann, Gustav

student revolts of 1968

Sturmabteilung

Suárez González, Adolfo

subsidiarity

succession states

Sudetenland

Suez crisis

Svoboda, Ludvík

Sweden

Switzerland

Sykes-Picot agreement

syndicalism

Szálasi, Ferenc (see under ARROW CROSS)

Széchenyi, Count István,

szlachta

T

Taaffe, Count Eduard

Talleyrand, Charles Maurice

Tannenberg, Battle of

Tehran Conference

Tennis Court Oath

The Terror

terrorism

Teschen dispute

Thatcher, Margaret

Thermidor

Thiers, Louis Adolphe

Third International (see under THE INTERNATIONAL)

Third Reich (see under HITLER; NAZISM)

Third Republic (France)

Thorez, Maurice

Three Emperors' League

Tilsit, Treaties of

Tirpitz, Alfred von

Tiso, Jozef

Tisza, István (see under TISZA, KÁLMÁN)

Tisza, Kálmán

Tito

Tocqueville, Alexis de

totalitarianism

trade unionism

Trafalgar, Battle of

Transleithania (see under CISLEITHANIA)

Transnistria (see under MOLDOVA)

transport (see under COMMUNICATIONS)

Transylvania

trasformismo

Treaty on European Union (see MAASTRICHT TREATY)

trialism (see under HABSBURG EMPIRE)

Trianon, Treaty of

Trieste

Triple Alliance

Triple Entente

Tripolitanian War (see under ITALO-TURKISH WAR)

Troppau, Congress of

Trotsky, Leon

Truman doctrine

Tudjman, Franjo

Tuileries, attack on the (see under FRENCH REVOLUTION OF 1789)

Turkey and Europe

Two Sicilies, Kingdom of the

U

Ukraine

Ulbricht, Walter

Ulm, Battle of

ULTRA

ultramontanism (see under CATHOLICISM)

Ultras

Uniates (see under CATHOLICISM; ORTHODOX CHRISTIANITY)

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (see SOVIET UNION)

United Kingdom (see BRITAIN AND EUROPE)

United Nations

UNRRA (see under UNITED NATIONS)

urbanization

USSR (see SOVIET UNION)

Ustaše (see under PAVELIĆ)

utopian socialism

V

Valmy, Battle of (see under FRENCH REVOLUTIONARY WARS)

Varennes, flight to

Vatican City (see MICRO-STATES[5])

Vatican Councils

Vendée

Vendémiaire, rising of (see under NAPOLEON I)

Venizelos, Eleftherios

Verdun, Battle of

Verona, Congress of (see under CONGRESS SYSTEM)

Versailles, Treaty of

Vichy regime

Victor Emmanuel II (of Italy)

Victor Emmanuel III (of Italy)

Victoria, Queen of Great Britain and Ireland

Vienna Congress

Vienna Treaties (1809, 1815, 1864, 1866)

Villafranca, truce of

Visegrád states

Vojvodina

von Moltke, Helmut Karl Bernhard, Count (see MOLTKE)

von Papen, Franz (see PAPEN)

vozhd

W

Wagram, Battle of

Waldheim, Kurt

Wałesa, Lech

Wall Street Crash (see under GREAT DEPRESSIONS[2])

Wallachia (see under DANUBIAN PRINCIPALITIES; ROMANIA)

Wannsee conference

War Communism

warfare

Warsaw, Grand Duchy of

Warsaw ghetto

Warsaw Pact

Warsaw rising

Waterloo, Battle of

Weimar Republic

welfare state (see under WELFARISM)

welfarism

Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, first Duke of

Weltpolitik

Wends (see SORBS)

West Germany (see FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY)

Western European Union (WEU)

White Terror

Wilhelmine empire (see GERMAN EMPIRE)

Wilhelmstrasse

William I (of Germany)

William II (of Germany)

Wilson, Thomas Woodrow (see under FOURTEEN POINTS; PARIS PEACE SETTLEMENT)

Windischgrätz, Prince Alfred

Windthorst, Ludwig

Winter War (see RUSSO-FINNISH WAR)

Witte, Sergei

Wollstonecraft, Mary

women, emancipation of (see under FEMINISM; GENDER)

working class

World War I

World War II

Württemberg

Y

Yalta Conference

Yeltsin, Boris

Yezhovshchina (see under GREAT PURGES)

Young Czechs

Young Italy (see under MAZZINI)

Young Plan

Young Turks

Ypres, Battles of (1914, 1915, 1917)

Ypsilantis, Alexander

Yugoslavia

Z

Zabern affair

zemstva

Zentrum

Zhdanovshchina

Zhivkov, Todor

Zhukov, Georgi

Zinoviev, Grigori

Zionism

Zog (of Albania)

Zollverein

Maps

Map 1. Europe in the 1780s.

Adapted from: S. Berger (ed.), A Companion to Nineteenth-century Europe (Blackwell, 2006), map 1.

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Map 2. Napoleonic Europe, May 1812.

Adapted from: G. Ellis, Napoleon (Longman, 1997), map 3.

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Map 3. Europe, 1815–48.

Adapted from: S. Berger (ed.), A Companion to Nineteenth-century Europe (Blackwell, 2006), map 2.

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Map 4. Italian Unification, 1859–70.

Adapted from: R. Gildea, Barricades and Borders: Europe, 1800–1914 (2nd edn., Oxford University Press, 1996), map 4.

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Map 5. German Unification, 1866–71.

Adapted from: R. Gildea, Barricades and Borders: Europe, 1800–1914 (2nd edn., Oxford University Press, 1996), map 5.

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Map 6. Austro-Hungarian Empire, 1867–1918.

Adapted from: M. Gilbert, Recent History Atlas (Weidenfeld, 1966), maps 5 and 6.

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Map 7. Balkan Independence, 1822–1913.

Adapted from: M. Gilbert, Recent History Atlas (Weidenfeld, 1966), map 13.

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Map 8. Europe in 1914.

Adapted from: G. Martel (ed.), A Companion to Europe 1900–1945 (Blackwell, 2006), map 1.

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Map 9. Europe after World War I.

Adapted from: N. Atkin and M. Biddiss (eds.), Themes in European History, 1890–1945 (Routledge, 2009), map 3.

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Map 10. Hitler's Europe, 1942.

Adapted from: N. Atkin and M. Biddiss (eds.), Themes in European History, 1890–1945 (Routledge, 2009), map 4.

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Map 11. Cold War Europe, 1945–91.

Adapted from: N. Atkin and M. Biddiss (eds.), Themes in European History, 1890–1945 (Routledge, 2009), map 5.

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Map 12. Europe Today: Membership of NATO and the European Union.

Adapted from: K. Larres (ed.), Companion to Europe Since 1945 (Wiley-Blackwell, 2009), map 2.

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